The United Foundation for Research in Personality

The United Foundation for Personality Research

 

The United Foundation for Personality Research

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NEO Articles Abstracts

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Abrams, R. C. (1996). "Assessing personality in chronic care populations." Journal of Mental Health & Aging 2(3): 231-242.
   Personality assessment in chronic care populations is becoming recognized as an important area of inquiry. This article reviews recent literature on personality changes in dementia; it concludes that in the absence of adequate paradigms, the assessment of personality traits in demented chronic care patients unavoidably requires informant data. At the present time, the NEO-Personality Inventory has the strongest claims to interrater reliability, stability, and convergent validity of informant assessments of personality in dementia and is emerging as the standard instrument of the new field. The article also includes a discussion of methodological issues in the assessment of personality disorders in cognitively intact but persistently depressed elderly patients. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Allik, J. and A. Realo (1997). "Intelligence, academic abilities, and personality." Personality & Individual Differences 23(5): 809-814.
   Investigated how individuals with low and high intellectual abilities use their intellectual resources differently to express their individuality. 405 Estonians and Estonian-speaking Russians (aged 17-39 yrs) applying for admission to University of Tartu completed intelligence, subject, and foreign language tests, wrote an essay, and volunteered to complete the Estonian version of the NEO Personality Inventory. Correlation and joint factor analyses demonstrated that most of the valid variance in academic achievement and intelligence was not related to personality measures in the Estonian population forming a separate dimension of individual differences. The lack of correlation between academic abilities and personality, however, does not exclude that individuals with low or high intellectual abilities might use their intellectual resources differently for the expression of their individuality. It was found that low intelligence persons use their intellectual abilities for seeking excitement and elaborating fantasies while high-intelligence persons use their intellect for regulating and controlling their affective lives. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Alvarez, R. J. (2000). "Personality variables that contribute to occupational burnout in school psychologists: A correlation study." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(9-B): 4941.
   The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality characteristics, and demographic variables, that contribute to burnout among school psychologists. A sample of 71 full time certified school psychologists in the Hillsborough County School District, in west central Florida (12th largest school district in the United States) were surveyed using a demographic questionnaire, the Neo-Five Factor Inventory Form S (a personality inventory that measures five broad dimensions of personality), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. This indicates that although the MBI scales were found be within the average range for burnout, the response to demographic questionnaire question #22 ('How burned out are you'?), fifty-six percent reported themselves as being very burnt out. The MBI does not seem to pick up this perception. Also, as might be expected as the Emotional Exhaustion scale of the MBI elevates the Conscientiousness scale of the NEO-FFI decreases. With regards to personality variables overall scores on the NEO-FFI, while well within the average range, were found to be considerably higher than those reported by Huebner and Mills (1994). In response to the question with reference to leaving the profession within five years, 32% contemplate leaving in the next five years, while 27% report not being satisfied at all with the job. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Amster, R. (1999). "Ethnography at the margins: Vagabonds, transients, and the specter of resistance." Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 25(1): 121-155.
   Presented an ethnographic study sketching transients, vagrants, and vagabonds in a particular southwestern (US) town, and analyzed these subjects against an epistemological framework that includes identity and cultural studies, resistance strategies and forms of living, utopian social movements, and the continued viability of notions of 'public space.' Implicit in the study are methodological questions concerning symbolic interaction, participant observation, interviewing techniques, and dramaturgy, with a focus on both the 'data' obtained and the process(es) by which it was produced and acquired. The study includes accounts of transient life, an analysis of the local 'homeless' scene, and descriptions of neo-hippie cultural identity and the Rainbow Gathering phenomenon. This analysis concludes with the observation that transient life-ways in many respects embody both the conditions of an anti-systemic resistance and the socio-structural qualities of a utopian social (dis)order constructed upon the rejection of hierarchy and domination. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Anderson, M., Ed. (1999). The development of intelligence. Studies in developmental psychology. Hove, England, Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis (UK).
   Deals with issues concerning the measurement of intelligence, the development of intelligence. These include the interaction of genes and environment, the structure of intelligence, and models of change including the relationship between general and specific abilities and how they might change with development, and how a general theory of intelligence might be applied to abnormal cases.:
preface: Presents the student of intelligence and development with many theoretical lines. The contributors present necessary background and leading research for students new to the field. The book provides the necessary information on current methodology, data, and theory and will allow the reader to come to their own considered judgement about the nature and causes of the development of intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Anthony, L. M., M. C. Clarke, et al. (2000). "Technophobia and personality subtypes in a sample of South African university students." Computers in Human Behavior 16(1): 31-44.
   This study examined levels of technophobia in a sample of 176 South African university students (mean age 19.4 yrs) enrolled in first-year computing and psychology courses. Technophobia, which is described as negative psychological reactions towards technology, was assessed using Rosen and Weil's Measuring Technophobia instruments. The levels of technophobia were correlated with each of the five dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness) of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. The results indicate a positive correlation between technophobia and Neuroticism, and an inverse correlation between technophobia and Openness. Technophobia was found to be inversely correlated with computer experience, weakly correlated with age, but not associated with gender. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Ardila, A. (1999). "Spanish applications of Luria's assessment methods." Neuropsychology Review 9(2): 63-69.
   A. R. Luria's neuropsychology has been particularly influential in the Spanish-speaking world. Its impact is observed with regard to not only assessment, but also rehabilitation and, especially, neuropsychological theorization. In this article, Luria's approach to neuropsychological assessment is examined. A distinction between Luria's neuropsychological tests and Luria's neuropsychological approach is introduced. It is pointed out that, according to Luria, the specific tests used in the neuropsychological assessment are secondary; the theory supporting the neuropsychological testing is of primary importance. The development of neuropsychology in the Spanish-speaking world is briefly presented, and the use of Luria's neuropsychological assessment procedures in Latin America and Spain is analyzed. Finally, neo-Lurianism in the Spanish-speaking world is considered. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Asendorpf, J. B. and S. Wilpers (1999). "KIT: Kontrolliertes Interaktions-Tagebuch zur Erfassung sozialer Interaktionen, Beziehungen und Persoenlichkeitseigenschaften. CID: Controlled Interaction Diary for the assessment of social interactions, relationships, and personality traits." Diagnostica 45(2): 82-94.
   Examined the Controlled Interaction Diary (CID). Human Ss: 144 normal male and female German adults (university students) (aged 18-27 yrs) (group 1). 113 normal male and female German adults (university students) (aged 18-27 yrs) (group 2). Ss in group 1 maintained the CID for 3 wks in their first term, and Ss in group 2 maintained the CID into their second term. The quality of specific close relationships and of important relationship types were assessed. Validity of the results was tested via comparison to other instruments. Suggestions for the use of CID were given. Tests used: The Controlled Interaction Diary (J. Asendorpf and S. Wilpers, 1998), the NEO Personality Inventory and the Questionnaire on Social Networks and Social Development (U. Baumann et al, 1987). (English abstract). ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Asendorpf, J. B. (2000). A person-centered approach to personality and social relationships: Findings from the Berlin Relationship Study. Developmental science and the holistic approach. L. R. Bergman, R. B. Cairns and et al. Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 281-298.
   The author examines whether personality is so crystallized at the end of early adolescence that it is immune to future experiences in social relationships with parents and peers, or whether important life transitions change personality through new experiences with peers and decreased contact with family. If social relationships are destabilized during such life transitions, is the reorganization of students' social relationships influenced by their personality? /// The Berlin Relationship Study (J. B. Asendorpf and S. Wilpers, 1998) is said to address such questions empirically through an intensive longitudinal study of both personality and the social relationships of 132 students during their transition to university. The Ss's Big-Five factors of personality (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa and R. R. McRae, 1989) were assessed four times, and their network of social relationships seven times, over the first 18 mo at university. Reciprocal influences between personality traits and relationship quality were studied by path analyses (D. Rogosa, 1980) and by hierarchical linear modeling of individual growth curves (HLM; A. S. Bryk and S. W. Raudenbush, 1992). The present study reanalyzed the data (female sample only) of the Berlin Relationship Study from a holistic, person-centered view. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Atkins, S. J. (1999). "Personal ideology as an organizer of adult identity formation: The impact of Neo-pagan beliefs on generativity, agency, and communion." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(4-A): 1345.
   Two motives, agency and communion, influence the expression of adult generative behavior. Expressions of generativity vary based on self-schemas, ideology, and social demands. The present study investigated generativity in the lives of 46 women, ages 19-60, who identify their spiritual ideology as Neo-pagan. Generativity was measured using scales and coding systems designed by D. P. McAdams and colleagues. The Neo-pagan sample exhibited high levels of generative concern and behavior. Levels of communion were similar, but higher levels of agency were found when the Neo-pagan sample was compared to a sample of highly generative adults identified by E. D. Mansfield and D. P. McAdams. In addition, the Neo-pagan sample differed from known samples in non-endorsement of the subtheme, Status/Victory. Support is demonstrated for continued inquiry into the impact of personal ideology on adult identity development and the expression of generativity. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Atmanspacher, H. (1998). ""Archetypes and memes: Their structure, relationships and behaviour:" Commentary." Journal of Consciousness Studies 5(3): 355-361.
   Comments on the article by C. M. H. Nunn (see record 199-80428-6-005) regarding the relation between Jung's archetypes and R. Dawkins' neo-Darwinistic conception of memes. The author argues that since Nunn states rightly that Jung's own understanding of and emphasis on archetypes changed considerably during his lifetime, the difficulty is not only how to relate memes to archetypes, but also to distinguish that concept of archetypes to which memes relate from those to which they do not. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Attardo, S. (1998). "Are socio-pragmatics and (Neo)-Gricean pragmatics incompatible?" Journal of Pragmatics 30(5): 627-636.
   Among many pragmaticians interested in social-pragmatics, there is a widespread negative attitude towards the kind of research which can perhaps to be loosely characterized as Neo- Gricean. The source of this attitude can be summarized in the following claims: (1) A purely cognitive approach to (conversational) implicature, without reference to the social context of the utterance, is impracticable; (2) In particular, issues of social status, gender, power, and institutional roles are essential to the understanding of implicature; (3) Issues of gender, power, social status, and institutional roles falsify the claims of (Neo)-Gricean pragmatics (particularly in relation to the claim of universality); and (4) Evidence from (constructed) isolated sentences outside of context is not acceptable. In this paper, the author refutes points 3 and 4, advocating an approach to pragmatics which can be labeled as the "live and let live" approach. It is believed that both the Gricean and the social approaches have signigicant contributions to make and that both fields have much to gain from working with one another, rather than arguing against each other. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Auerbach-Barber, S. (1998). "Interpersonal and personality correlates of obese binge eaters and nonbinge eaters." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(3-B): 1357.
   This study examined the interpersonal and personality characteristics that distinguish obese binge eaters from obese nonbinge eaters. The sample included 108 obese women seeking weight-control treatment at a large university center. The participants were classified as binge eaters if they reported symptoms of binge eating disorder (BED) or subthreshold symptomatology (n = 30), or as non-bingers (n = 78). All participants completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-C), The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). T-tests were performed using the scores on these psychological measures to determine differences between the two groups. As predicted, the results indicated that, as compared to obese non-bingers, binge eaters suffer more interpersonal problems, depressive symptoms, and neurotic personality traits. In addition, the binge eaters also had more interpersonal problems of non-assertiveness. Exploratory analyses indicated that obese bingers also scored higher on the IIP-C subscales of Vindictive, Socially Avoidant, Exploitable, and Intrusive. Data further indicated that obese bingers scored lower than the obese non-bingers on the NEO-FFI Extraversion scale. The results of the study are consistent with data indicating that obese bingers and non-bingers differ in their psychological functioning, and, hence provide support for the view that weight control treatment for obese binge eaters should be specialized to meet their unique psychological needs. On the basis of these findings and a review of the literature, lt is further suggested that the efficacy of weight control treatment for obese binge eaters may be enhanced by addressing their interpersonal distress and unique interpersonal difficulties. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Austin, E. J., I. J. Deary, et al. (1997). "Relationships between ability and personality: Three hypotheses tested." Intelligence 25(1): 49-70.
   Tested 3 hypotheses: (1) personality is more highly differentiated at higher levels of ability; (2) the structuring of ability varies with level of neuroticism, with high-neuroticism Ss showing less ability differentiation; and (3) correlations between pairs of personality dimensions, particularly extraversion and conscientiousness, are diminished in high-ability groups. 202 male and 8 female Scottish farmers were given the NEO Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992), Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (J. C. Raven, 1992; J. C. Raven and J. H. Court, 1992), and the National Adult Reading Test (H. E. Nelson and J. Willison, 1991). Results confirmed hypotheses 1 and 2 but not hypothesis 3. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Autrey, P. S. (1999). "The determinants of exercise behavior: An application of the theories of planned behavior and the Five-Factor Model of Personality." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(3-A): 0808.
   Despite the building testimony in favor of exercise benefits on both the quantity and quality of life, most Americans will not exercise, rendering health promotion programs ineffective as far as their ability to alter health related lifestyle behaviors. The Theory of Planned Behavior combined with a second model, the Five-Factor Model of Personality were used to assess the relationships between the model variables, intention, and actual exercise behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine variable relationships in the original Theory of Planned Behavior in order to develop a revised model, to determine the capability of the revised model to accurately predict participation in a supervised cardiovascular and strength training program and to utilize the model to predict group membership into three distinct groups, including those who do not exercise at all, those who start a program but do not finish, and those who completely finish the exercise program. Data collection included self-reports based on a health risk appraisal developed by Emory University, the Neuroticism. Extroversion Openness (NEO) Five-Factor Inventory of Personality, and a survey of questions ascertaining attitude towards exercise, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, habit of exercising, and intention to exercise. Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) was used to determine the structural relationships between the proposed model constructs. Overall, the specified model does a fair job of predicting exercise behavior and intention to exercise. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze group differences between those who do not exercise, the subjects who started but did not finish the program and those respondents who completely finished an 18-week strength training and cardiovascular exercise program. Overall, the greatest differences are found between the respondents who do not exercise and those who completely finish the program. Specifically, the respondents who finished the program completely have a better attitude, greater perceived behavioral control, a higher habit of exercising, and greater intention to exercise than those who do not exercise at all. From the study, it is evident that not all people respond in the same way. Motivational factors remain the key to success yet motivation is different for each segment of the population and should be addressed accordingly. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Avia, M. D., M. L. Sanchez-Bernardos, et al. (1998). "Self-presentation strategies and the five-factor model." Journal of Research in Personality 32(1): 108-114.
   Examined the relations of the 2 self-presentation patterns usually found in the Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS) with the 5 main personality factors and facets tapped by the NEO-PI. In addition, the authors examined the stability of those relations across 2 different Spanish samples (college and noncollege) and explored whether there are cross-cultural convergences with previous American and German studies. 363 undergraduate students (aged 20-45 yrs) and 323 adults (aged 18-75 yrs) from the general population filled out the SMS and the NEO-PI. The results show an acquisitive self-monitoring pattern associated with Extraversion and Openness to Experience, and a defensive self-monitoring pattern associated with Neuroticism. These results support previous research which has identified 2 styles of self-presentation (acquisitive vs defensive) and confirm the usefulness of the NEO-PI as a broad instrument for research in personality. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Axelrod, S. R. (1999). "Understanding sex differences in personality disorders as sex differences in normal personality traits." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(3-B): 1293.
   This dissertation investigated the extent to which sex and gender differences in two DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) could be understood as a result of sex and gender differences associated with normal personality traits. This understanding of sex differences is presented in contrast to past efforts to explain diagnostic sex differences in PDs as a sex bias (e.g., Kaplan, 1983; Pantony & Caplan, 1991), although these different explanations are not necessarily mutually exclusive (Widiger & Spitzer, 1991). The study assessed one PD with greater prevalence in men (antisocial) and one PD with greater prevalence in women (borderline; APA, 1994). PDs were assessed using a semi-structured interview (PDI-IV; Widiger et al., 1995) and a self-report inventory (PDQ-IV; Hyler & Ryder, 1994) in an outpatient psychiatric sample (n = 40). Two models of normal personality traits were used: (a) the five-factor model, as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and (b) Murray's classification of needs assessed by the Personality Research Form-E (Jackson, 1984). In addition to investigating sex as a dichotomous variable (i.e., biologically male or female), gender (i.e., masculinity and femininity) was also investigated using the Extended Personality Attribute Questionnaire (Spence, 1986). As hypothesized, most of the PD variance that could be accounted for by sex or gender was redundant with the variance in the PDs that could be accounted for by personality traits that were understood to underlie the PDs. The findings suggested that sex differences in normal personality traits might explain most of the sex differences in the prevalence of antisocial and borderline PDs. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Baddeley, A. D. and G. J. Hitch (2000). "Development of working memory: Should the Pascual-Leone and the Baddeley and Hitch models be merged?" Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 77(2): 128-137.
   Comments on the article by E. Kemps, S. De Rammelaere, and T. Desmet (see record 2000-00958-001) in which the data appears to have some aspects that fit most readily into the present authors' own model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974), while others appear to support that of J. Pascual-Leone (1970). Baddeley and Hitch accept that their initial model said little about development and was better able to account for relatively simple memory-based tasks than more complex cognitive activities. More recent elaborations of the model are, however, able to throw new light on the processes underlying cognitive development, offering a better account than that provided by existing neo-Piagetian interpretations. Meanwhile, the addition of a 4th component to the model, namely the episodic buffer, offers a way of dealing with more complex cognitive activities. Given the major differences between Baddeley and Hitch's model and that of Pascual-Leone in basic assumptions, and in theoretical style, the authors suggest that any attempt to combine the 2 would be premature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Bagby, R. M., S. H. Kennedy, et al. (1997). "Personality and symptom profiles of the angry hostile depressed patient." Journal of Affective Disorders 45(3): 155-160.
   Assessed if depressed patients categorized as high angry hostile have symptoms and personality profiles distinct from depressed patients categorized as low angry hostile. 125 Ss completed the revised NEO Personality Inventory, the SCL-90--R, and the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (J. B. Williams et al, 1988). 26 Ss were classified as high angry hostile and 25 Ss as low angry hostile. The symptom profiles of these 2 groups were remarkably similar, with the high angry hostile Ss exhibiting more interpersonal sensitivity. The high angry hostile Ss were rated as less interpersonally agreeable and less conscientious than low angry hostile Ss. The results provide only partial support for the angry hostile subtype of depression. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bagby, R. M., K. D. Bindseil, et al. (1997). "Relationship between the five-factor model of personality and unipolar, bipolar and schizophrenic patients." Psychiatry Research 70(2): 83-94.
   Examined personality differences among 3 groups of people with different Axis I disorders: 62 recovered patients with unipolar depression, 34 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, and 41 patients with schizophrenia in the residual phase of their illness. The 5-factor model (FFM) of personality was used. The dimensions of the FFM (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were measured with composite scores derived from the NEO Personality Inventory and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. While no group differences emerged on Neuroticism or Conscientiousness, the bipolar patients scored significantly higher on the Positive Emotion facet (subscale) of Extraversion than did the unipolar patients. The schizophrenic patients scored lower on the Feelings, Values and Actions facets of Openness than did the unipolar and bipolar patients. The unipolar patients scored higher on Agreeableness than did the schizophrenic patients. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bagby, R. M., N. A. Rector, et al. (1998). "Self-report ratings and informants' ratings of personalities of depressed outpatients." American Journal of Psychiatry 155(3): 437-438.
   Examined whether personality traits of depressed patients could be assessed similarly by informants and self-reports of the patients themselves. 46 depressed outpatients (mean age 41.1 yrs) completed the self-report (first-person) version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and nominated informants who knew them well to complete the third-person version of that instrument. Agreement between the self-ratings and informants' ratings on the 5 factors of the inventory (neuroticism, extraversion, openness-to-experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was high. The only significant difference between the self-ratings and informants' ratings was on the extraversion scale, where the patients rated themselves as significantly more introverted than did the informants. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bagby, R. M., R. D. Levitan, et al. (1999). "Selective alteration of personality in response to noradrenergic and serotonergic antidepressant medication in depressed sample: Evidence of non-specificity." Psychiatry Research 86(3): 211-216.
   Investigated whether antidepressants affect basic dimensions of personality in depressed persons, whether certain personality changes are mediated by serotonergic action, and whether personality changes are attributable to a non-specific treatment effect. 76 depressed outpatients (aged 18-65 yrs) were treated with either the noradrenergic antidepressant, desipramine, or a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (paroxetine or sertraline) over a period of 8-14 wks. Personality scores were measured pre- and post-treatment using the revised NEO Personality Inventory. Results show a significant decrease in Neuroticism and Anger-Hostility, and a significant increase in Extraversion and Gregariousness following antidepressant treatment. Although changes in neuroticism and extraversion were significantly correlated with change in depression severity, Anger-Hostility and Gregariousness personality scores were not. Therefore, changes in these personality traits were not attributable to a non-specific effect of medication on changes in depression severity. There were no significant differences in personality change scores between the antidepressant treatment groups. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bagby, R. M., P. T. Costa, Jr., et al. (1999). "Replicating the five factor model of personality in a psychiatric sample." Personality & Individual Differences 27(6): 1135-1139.
   In this study we examined whether the factor structure and traits of the five-factor model of personality (FFM), derived from non-clinical samples, could be replicated in a sample of psychiatric patients. The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) was administered to a study group of psychiatric patients (n = 176). The test scores from these patients were intercorrelated, factor analyzed and the obtained factor structure was then compared to the factor structure of the normative data from the NEO PI-R. The factor structure from the psychiatric study group and that from the normative sample were virtually identical, with all five factors showing significant congruence. These results argue favorably for the clinical applicability of the FFM with psychiatric patients. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Balestri, M. (1999). "Overt and covert narcissism and their relationship to object relations, depression, Machiavellianism, and the five factor model of personality." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(7-B): 3680.
   The DSM-IV provides a set of criteria for the diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Clinical theorists (Glen Gabbard, 1990; James Masterson, 1993) have indicated these criteria are inadequate because they fail to provide a comprehensive picture of narcissistic disturbances. The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria account for only the overt subtype of narcissism (characterized by grandiosity and exhibitionism) but omit a second narcissistic subtype, namely, covert narcissism (characterized by a tendency to be shame sensitive, quietly grandiose, inhibited and depleted). The purpose of this study was to provide empirical support for the distinction between two putative narcissistic subtypes, the overt and the covert. In the first phase of the study, a sample of 149 college students were administered a battery of self-report inventories which included four measures of narcissism: the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder Scale, the Ego-Sensitivity Scale and the Narcissism-Hypersensitivity Scale. To assess the factor structure of these four measures of narcissism, a Principal-Components analysis was performed and as predicted, two orthogonal factors (overt and covert) were extracted, confirming Paul Wink's findings (1991). Overt and covert factor scores were calculated for each subject. The second phase of the research was designed to compare the relationships between the overt and covert factors and subjects' scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), the Machiavellian-IV scale, and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Results indicated that both overt and covert narcissism were positively correlated with Machiavellianism and negatively correlated with the Agreeableness Factor, reflecting the narcissistic proclivity toward manipulation, exploitation and lack of empathy. Covert narcissism was related to object relations deficits, depression and the Neuroticism Factor, reflecting more dysfunction than overt narcissism. Gender differences were found. Overtly narcissistic males showed object relations deficits on BORRTI-Insecure Attachment, while overtly narcissistic females showed fewer deficits in object relations. This study provides further empirical support for the distinction between overt and covert narcissism and suggests additional criteria to better distinguish covert from overt narcissism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Ball, S. A., H. Tennen, et al. (1997). "Personality, temperament, and character dimensions and the DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106(4): 545-553.
   journal abstract: The authors evaluated the relationship between P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae's (1992) NEO 5-factor model, C. R. Cloninger's (1993) 7-factor Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the American Psychiatric Association's (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., personality disorders in 370 inpatient and outpatient alcohol, cocaine, and opiate abusers. NEO Neuroticism was associated with many disorders, and different patterns for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion emerged for the different disorders. Several TCI scales were associated with different personality disorders, although not as strongly as the NEO dimensions. Results did not support most predictions made for the TCI. Normal personality dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of personality disorder severity above and beyond substance abuse and depression symptoms. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Barbaranelli, C., G. V. Caprara, et al. (1997). "Individuation and the Five Factor Model of personality traits." European Journal of Psychological Assessment 13(2): 75-84.
   Describes 2 studies that were conducted respectively to examine the validity of the Italian version of the Individuation Scale ([IS], C. Maslach et al, 1985) and to investigate individuation within the frame of the Five Factor Model of personality. In Exp 1, 887 Ss (aged 18-62 yrs) completed the IS and combined personality questionnaires. In Exp 2, 116 males and 233 females from the original sample and an American sample of 203 17-37 yr olds completed the IS, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI). The Italian version of the IS showed psychometric characteristics fully comparable to those of the American normative sample. Although Italians scored lower, on average, than Americans in their willingness to individuate themselves, this effect was due largely to the lower scores of Italian women, rather than men. Individuation appeared to correlate with Extroversion and Openness to Experience in both the Italian and American samples. The results of the Conjoint Principal Components Analyses of the BFQ and NEO-PI on Italian and American samples are appended. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Beauducel, A., B. Brocke, et al. (1999). "Construct validity of sensation seeking: A psychometric investigation." Zeitschrift fuer Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie 20(3): 155-171.
   Investigates validity and basic psychometric properties of a German version of the Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS V) in a broader context of psychometric traits. The study included 64 males and 56 females aged 18-36 yrs. They completed the SSS V, the Venturesomeness- and Impulsiveness-Scales of the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy Questionnaire, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scales, the Zuckermen-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. The results reveal acceptable psychometric properties for the SSS V but with limitations with regard to factor structure. Indications for criterion validity were obtained by prediction of substance use by the subscales Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. The results of a multi-trait multi-method analysis were satisfactory regarding the convergent validities of the SSS V. On the whole, the results yielded sufficient support for the validity of the Sensation Seeking construct or the instrument respectively. They also point to desirable modifications. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Becker, P. (1999). "Beyond the Big Five." Personality & Individual Differences 26(3): 511-530.
   This article investigated 3 controversial issues about the Big Five: (1) Is the five-factor model comprehensive? (2) How should the amount of variance accounted for by the Big Five be measured? (3) Are the Big Five orthogonal and do they represent the highest hierarchical level of personality description? 115 Ss (aged 20-63 yrs) completed 3 Big Five measures: (1) a German version of the NEO-FFI, (2) 45 bipolar ratings scales, and (3) the Hamburg personality inventory (B. Andresen, 1995), as well as the Trier personality inventory (P. Becker, 1989) and the Trier behavior control inventory (P. Becker, 1995). The results of several factor analyses lead to the following conclusions: (1) The five-factor model is not comprehensive. At least a sixth factor (hedonism/spontaneity) can be replicated. (2) The Big Five and the six first-order factors are not orthogonal but oblique so that two higher-order factors (the Big Two), labelled mental health and behavior control, can be found. The loadings of the 33 basic variables and of the six first-order factors on the Big Two have a circumplex structure. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Benet-Martinez, V. and O. P. John (1998). "Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 75(3): 729-750.
   journal abstract: Spanish-language measures of the Big Five personality dimensions are needed for research on Hispanic minority populations. Three studies were conducted to evaluate a Spanish version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI) (0. R John et al., 1991) and explore the generalizability of the Big Five factor structure in Latin cultural groups. In Study 1, a cross-cultural design was used to compare the Spanish and English BFI in college students from Spain and the United States, to assess factor congruence across languages, and to test convergence with indigenous Spanish Big Five markers. In Study 2, a bilingual design was used to compare the Spanish and English BFI in a college-educated sample of bilingual Hispanics and to test convergent and discriminant validity across the two languages as well as with the NEO Five Factor Inventory in both English and Spanish. Study 3 replicated the BFI findings from Study 2 in a working-class Hispanic bilingual sample. Results show that (a) the Spanish BFI may serve as an efficient, reliable, and factorially valid measure of the Big Five for research on Spanish-speaking individuals and (b) there is little evidence for substantial cultural differences in personality structure at the broad level of abstraction represented by the Big Five dimensions. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bernard, L. (2000). "Variations in subject pool as a function of earlier or later participation." Psychological Reports 86(2): 659-668.
   Examined whether earlier vs later participants in a psychology subject pool would differ significantly. Data were obtained from 44 male and 69 female college students. Without knowing the purpose of the study, Ss self-selected to participate earlier (Weeks 3 and 4) or later (Weeks 15 and 16). Variations in scores on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised NEO PI-R, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, the General Expectancy of Success Scale, the Shipley Institute of Living Scale, self-reported SATs and GPAs, and a measure of academic self-efficacy as a function of earlier or later participation were examined. Multivariate ANOVA indicated that early participants differed significantly from later participants but not in predicted ways. Earlier participants scored higher on NEO PI-R Neuroticism; specifically, men and women scored higher on Hostility, and women scored higher on Depression and Self-Consciousness. An additional significant difference occurred for self-reported SAT Verbal scores for men, which were significantly higher for later participants. These temporal variations may represent confounds in research using university S pools. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Beuzeron-Mangina, J. H. and C. A. Mangina (2000). "Event-related brain potentials to memory workload and "analytical-specific perception" (Mangina-Test) in patients with early Alzheimer's disease and in normal controls." International Journal of Psychophysiology 37(1): 55-69.
   The authors' previous research with intra-cerebral event-related potentials in conjunction with an original Memory Workload Paradigm has shown that significant load effects for the N4 latency were found only for both amygdalae and the left posterior hippocampus as well as for both anterior neo-cortical regions of the temporal gyri. These same structures are also affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, based on their previous intra-cerebral findings, the authors' present research was to use their novel Memory Workload Paradigm in conjunction with surface ERPs as neurophysiological markers to tap cerebral regions and functions involved in memory disorders pertaining to early AD as opposed to normal memory processes in age-matched normal control Ss. A total of 11 AD outpatients (mean age 75.7 yrs) and 11 healthy elderly Ss (mean age 72.6 yrs) participated in the study. The Mangina-Test which measures varying degrees of "Analytical-Specific Visual Perception" was also individually administered to all patients and controls in separate sessions. Results indicate that for the early AD group, a significant main effect for memory load was found for the P400 amplitude which was absent in the normal group. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Beyer, J. M. (1999). "Two approaches to studying charismatic leadership: Competing or complementary?" Leadership Quarterly 10(4): 575-588.
   Replies to commentaries by B. M. Bass (see record 2000-13317-003), B. Shamir (see record 2000-13317-004), and R. J. House (see record 2000-13317-005) on J. Beyer's original article (see record 1999-01086-007) regarding neo-charismatic and transformational leadership paradigms. Beyer clarifies her position on: how different the "new" paradigm is; the necessity of crisis for the emergence of charisma; persistence of charisma in a leader; the issue of authenticity; the question of whether the new paradigm can substitute for M. Weber's original concept of charisma (1947); the addressing by researchers of the question of the content of the vision or mission advanced by the leader, and whether or not the leader is successful in convincing followers of that mission; the question of actual vs attributed traits in a leader; different epistemological approaches; and what constitutes exceptionalness. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bidell, T. R. and K. W. Fischer (2000). The role of cognitive structure in the development of behavioral control: A dynamic skills approach. Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness: Essays in honor of the 60th birthday of August Flammer. W. J. Perrig, A. Grob and et al. Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 183-201.
   Presents a brief critique of static concepts of cognitive structure showing why such concepts limit an understanding of the relations between structure and control in behavioral development. The authors then draw on a dynamic systems approach coupled with neo-Piagetian principles of cognitive structural development, to present an alternative concept of cognitive structure associated with dynamic skills theory (Fischer, 1980; Fischer and Bidell, 1997). Finally, they show how the concept of dynamic skills can provide a theoretical and empirical basis for understanding the links between structure and control in behavioral development. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bierhoff, H. W., C. Schwennen, et al. (1998). "Liebe und Partnerschaft in Ost- und Westdeutschland. Love and relationships in East and West Germany." Gruppendynamik 29(4): 393-402.
   Studied quality and love in relationship in East and West Germany. Human Ss: 90 normal male and female German adults (East Germans) (mean age 34.9 yrs) and 90 normal male and female German adults (West Germans) (mean age 35.7 yrs). Ss were questioned regarding their relationship satisfaction and stability. Ss completed questionnaires on love and personality. Results were compared for the two groups. The results were correlated with socialization experiences in East and West Germany. Tests used: The Love Style Questionnaire (H. Bierhoff et al, 1993) and NEO Personality Inventory. (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bischof, H.-J. and A. Rollenhagen (1999). "Behavioural and neurophysiological aspects of sexual imprinting in zebra finches." Behavioural Brain Research 98(2): 267-276.
   Sexual imprinting, by which young animals learn the characteristics of their future sexual partners, is a 2-stage process which includes an acquisition period where features of the social environment are learned, and a stabilization process by which a preference for a sexual partner is established and stabilized. Because it is short (1 hr), the current authors have experimentally controlled the stabilization process in zebra finches in order to examine underlying physiological events. Four areas of the forebrain have been found to be more activated during stabilization than in any other behavioral context: (1) the hyperstriaturn accessorium/dorsale (HAD), (2) the archi-neostriatum caudale (ANC), (3) the medial neo/hyperstriaturn (MNH) and (4) the lateral neo/hyperstriaturn (LNH). Isolation during development reduces the spine density of neurons in HAD and ANC and enhances it in MNH and LNH. Subsequent exposure to a female for 1 wk leads to an enhancement of spine densities in HAD and ANC, and to a reduction in MNH and LNH. The enhancements are reversible by a second isolation period after the exposure to a female, while the reductions are not. This indicates that the reduction process may be the anatomical manifestation of the imprinting process. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bishop, W. (1998). "Questions as interventions: Big five personality factors and perceptions of socratic, solution-focused, and diagnostic questioning styles." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(1-B): 0410.
   A videotaped psychotherapy analogue was employed to compare psychology trainees' (n = 67) and non-therapist undergraduates' (n = 115) perceptions of three clinical questioning styles: Socratic disputation in RET, solution focused questioning, and diagnostic interviewing. This theory-based comparison contrasts the use of questions as therapeutic interventions (RET, solution focused) vs. as straightforward requests for information (diagnostic interviewing). The Big Five personality factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were studied as possible predictors of subjects' preferences and perceptions. Subjects viewed all three videotaped conditions in a repeated measures design. For all conditions, the actors portraying therapist and client and the presenting problem (fear of asking a woman out) were held constant. After viewing each tape, subjects provided ratings on the Therapeutic Questioning Scale (TQS), which was constructed for the study. After viewing all tapes, subjects provided preference ratings, completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and gave optional written feedback. Openness was found to have a small negative correlation with TQS ratings for the solution focused and diagnostic interviewing styles. Psychology trainees were found to be higher in Openness and Agreeableness than non-therapists, although non-therapists' mean Agreeableness score was below average compared to adult norms. Subjects gave higher ratings on the TQS to the solution focused questioning style than to both other styles. Analysis of written feedback and of individual TQS items suggested that subjects perceived the solution focused questioning style as being more collaborative than other styles and as promoting independent thinking on the part of the client. Non-therapists provided higher TQS ratings to the RET and diagnostic interviewing questioning styles than did psychology trainees. Preference ratings exhibited a small effect for ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Black, J. (2000). "Personality testing and police selection: Utility of the 'Big Five.'." New Zealand Journal of Psychology 29(1): 2-9.
   The recent development of the "big five" personality constructs has shown that the personality tests can be valid predictors of job performance and may add significant increment validity to tests of cognitive ability. The generality of these higher-order traits, however, may limit their usefulness in a selection setting. Correlational data is presented from a sample of 284 police recruits who completed the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised early in the basic training. Both higher- and middle-order traits were found to be linked to both broad and narrow performance outcomes. Conscientiousness added incremental validity to cognitive testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Blackwell, S. E. (2000). "Anaphora interpretations in Spanish utterances and the neo-Gricean pragmatic theory." Journal of Pragmatics 32(4): 389-424.
   S. C. Levinson (1987a,b, 1991) advocates using a set of revised Gricean maxims to account for preferred interpretations of zeros, pronouns, and lexical NPs. This study tests the viability of 1 of Levinson's neo-Gricean principles and predictions arising from this principle with regard to the interpretation of non-clitic reflexives vs pronouns when used in the same linguistic environment in Spanish utterances. Also, following Y. Huang's (1991, 1994) observation that pragmatic inferences must be in keeping with semantic and pragmatic "consistency constraints," it was hypothesized that anaphora interpretations in Spanish would be constrained by antecedent salience, background knowledge, and semantic constraints, as well as grammatical constraints and that these constraints could override implicatures of coreference and disjoint reference predicted by Levinson. An oral comprehension test for anaphora interpretations in Spanish utterances was administered to105 native speakers (18-75 yrs old). Hearers abide by several of Levinson's neo-Gricean sub-maxims. However, Levinson's prediction of a contrast in reference from the use of a pronoun vs a reflexive in the same environment was often overridden by the consistency constraints. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Blickle, G. (1996). "Wen interessieren schon die besseren Argumente? Skalenentwicklung und -validierung zu Durchsetzungs- und Konsensmotiven in Argumentationen. Who really cares for the better arguments? Construction and validation of scales assessing assertive and consensus motives in argumentation." Zeitschrift fuer Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie 17(2): 109-118.
   Assessed whether assertive and consensus motives are interindividually varying personality characteristics. Human Ss: 382 German adults (mean age 26.18 yrs). Ss completed a personality questionnaire and were classified by 3 factors: a person oriented assertive motive, a topic oriented assertive motive, and a person oriented consensus motive. From these factors, 3 scales were constructed and cross-validated in 4 subsamples. The 5 major factors--neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness--were validated concurrently with 4 intraorganizational influence strategies: ingratiation, pressure, appeal to higher authorities and rational persuasion. A varimax rotation and other statistical tests were used. Tests used: NEO Personality Inventory. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Blickle, G. (1997). "Argumentativeness and the facets of the big five." Psychological Reports 81(3, Pt 2): 1379-1385.
   journal abstract: Argumentativeness is conceptualized as a personality trait which predisposes an individual to recognize controversial issues and to advocate or refute positions on them. In a multivariate study with 166 male and 120 female students, the relationships between scores on the Argumentativeness scales and the facet and domain scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Form S) were analyzed. At the facet level, scores on Tendency to Approach arguments and Argumentativeness correlated significantly with scores on Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas, and scores on Tendency to Avoid arguments correlated significantly with scores on Self-consciousness and Assertiveness. At the domain level, scores on Openness to Experience correlated significantly with those on Tendency to Approach arguments and with the Argumentativeness scale and scores on Extraversion correlated significantly with Tendency to Avoid arguments and the Argumentativeness scale. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Blickle, G., A. Habasch, et al. (1998). "Verbal aggressiveness: Conceptualization and measurement a decade later." Psychological Reports 82(1): 287-298.
   Verbally aggressive messages attack an individual's self-concept to inflict psychological pain. D. A. Infante and C. J. Wigley (1986) developed a trait measure of Verbal Aggressiveness; however, the psychometric qualities and validity of the Verbal Aggressiveness scale were not fully explored. It was the purpose of the 3 studies reported here to investigate whether the Verbal Aggressiveness scale assesses a personality trait. In Study I, 119 targets (mean age 46.2 yrs) and 238 observers (mean age 42.9 yrs) participated. In Study II, 112 targets (mean age 39.9 yrs) and 236 observers (mean age 37.7 yrs) participated. In Study III, 153 college students participated. In these studies, temporal stability over 2 mo, criterion-related validity (target-observer agreement), discriminant validity (employing structural equation models), and construct validity (correlations with the facet and domain scales of the NEO-Personality Inventory-R) were investigated. The results justify considering Verbal Aggressiveness as a personality trait and the Verbal Aggressiveness scale as a valid measure. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bloch, J. P. (1997). "'a realer reality': Alternative spiritual ideology, narrative, and self-identity." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 58(3-A): 1098.
   
 Bloch, J. P. (1998). "Individualism and community in alternative spiritual "magic."." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37(2): 286-302.
   journal abstract: "Religion" has been distinguished from "magic" for the solidarity ties allegedly offered by the former, but not the latter, which by contrast is claimed to emphasize individual needs. However, the contemporary "alternative" or "countercultural" spiritual network (e.g., New Age, Neo-Paganism) utilizes beliefs and practices that could be described as magic, while still offering social solidarity. Excerpts from in-depth interviews with 22 alternative spiritualists illustrate how the strain between individuality and community is addressed. Shared ideology across individuals suggests that alternative spirituality is a contemporary social movement, in which protest against social control is voiced more through communication codes than overt political action. Thus, expression of individuality paradoxically becomes a source of solidarity. This movement reflects large-scale tensions in complex societies regarding individuality versus community. Therefore, "magic," when enacted in a complex society, deals with many of the same social strains as religion or other social institutions. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Blue, L. B. (2000). "The relationship between personality traits and influence strategies: A comparison of college business students and business professionals." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(10-A): 3713.
   This dissertation is based on quantitative research conducted to determine the correlation between personality traits and influence strategies. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the match between personality traits and influence strategies was tested using the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality, also known as the Big Five. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Form R, (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) was used to measure the five major domains of FFM: N (for Neuroticism or Negative Emotionality), E (for Extraversion), O (for Openness), A (for Agreeableness), and C (for Conscientiousness). The Influence Survey instrument was used to measure influence strategies. The NEO PI-R was than correlated with the Influence Survey. Second, the study sought to determine whether college business students and business professionals had similar personality trait and influence strategy profiles. The research approach was a field study. A total of 262 NEO PI-R Inventories and Influence Surveys were distributed to college business students and business professionals. Two hundred and one (201) were returned; of these 81 paired NEO PI-R Inventories and Influence Surveys were deemed acceptable for use in the analyses. The return rate, including incomplete instruments, was 77 percent. The first hypothesis was tested by using the Cronbach alpha coefficient measure. To determine validity of the Influence Survey, the correlation between the NEO PI-R and the Influence Survey was calculated. The second hypothesis was tested by using the z-test. The results showed that college business students and business professionals rank similarly on the NEO PI-R. However, scores on the Influence Survey Indicate that while there are a number of similarities in terms of influence strategies, business professionals differ on the Openness domain. The results supported significant findings from the z-test, which measured the differences in the means. Finally, interpretations of the data and recommendations for future research were documented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Bodunov, M. V. e., B. N. Bezdenezhnykh, et al. (1996). "Peculiarities of psychodiagnostic test item responses and the structure of individual experience." Psikhologicheskiy Zhurnal 17(4): 87-96.
   Studied alcohol-induced group changes in the proportion of preferential responses (matrix of responses) for some psychodiagnostic test items. Ss were 44 male and female Russian adults in the experimental group and 42 males and females in the control group. Experimental Ss were given alcohol (1 ml/kg) over a 20-min period before the test battery was administered. Factor analysis was performed. Tests used included Pavlov's Temperament Survey (M. V. Bodunov and E. S. Romanova, 1993), the NEO Personality Inventory [the Five-Factor Inventory], and the Structure of Temperament Inventory (V. M. Rusalov, 1990). (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Boland, A. and P. Cappeliez (1997). "Optimism and neuroticism as predictors of coping and adaptation in older women." Personality & Individual Differences 22(6): 909-919.
   This prospective correlational study looked at the relationship between optimism, perception of stress, coping, and adaptation in 109 women (average age 72.6 yrs). The Ss took 2 interviews, separated by a minimum interval of 3 mo. Other measures included the Provision of Social Relations Scale, Revised Hassles Scale (Adapted), COPE, Life Orientation Test, Optimism/Pessismism Scale, the Neuroticism Scale of the NEO Personality Inventory, and the Health Perceptions Questionnaire: Current Health. Although optimism was found to be correlated with most of the dependent variables (DVs), hierarchical regression analyses revealed that it lost its predictive power when the effects of the covariates, particularly Time 1 measures of the DVs and neuroticism, were statistically removed. The most important predictors of coping, distress, and life satisfaction were initial measures of these variables, followed by neuroticism. The discussion of the findings focuses on the need to clarify the construct of optimism. It supports the idea that optimism may be better conceptualized as a 2-dimensional construct (optimism/pessimism), subsumable under 2 of the "Big Five" personality factors, namely Extraversion and Neuroticism, respectively. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bolchi, G. L., F. Capozzi, et al. (1998). "Profili cognitivi nei bambini con disturbo specifico di apprendimento (D.S.A.): confronto tra due sottotipi clinici. Cognitive profiles in children with developmental dyslexia: Comparison between two clinical subgroups." Psichiatria dell'Infancia e dell'Adolescenza 65(1): 53-66.
   Studied the cognitive profile of two clinical subgroups of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) using a neo-Piagetian model and methodology. Human subjects: 12 Italian school-age children (aged 8-12.4 yrs) (verbal DD) (mean IQ of 103). 12 Italian school-age children (aged 8-12.5 yrs) (practical DD) (mean IQ of 102.5). Ss were administered a series of Piagetian tasks. The classical Piagetian distinction between logical and infralogical operations was followed. Structural and functional differences in the cognitive profile of the 2 subgroups were analyzed. (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Botha, R. P. (1998). "Neo-Darwinian accounts of the evolution of language: 4. Questions about their comparative merit." Language & Communication 18(3): 227-249.
   Comments that in offering a justification for their selectionist account of the evolution of language, S. Pinker and P. Bloom (1990) argue that it compares favorably with certain nonadaptationist alternatives. Botha argues that Pinker and Bloom's selectionist account cannot derive a significant measure of support from the shortcomings of the nonselectionist competitors considered by them. In arguing this point, Botha examines nonselectionist views held by Chomsky (e.g., 1971, 1997), M. Piattelli-Palmarini (1989), and W. Wilkins and J. Wakefield (1995). Botha suggests that the fundamental problem of the scientific respectability of accounts of language evolution and some of the major difficulties encountered by Pinker and Bloom in trying to solve this problem spring from assumptions about scientific rationality and respectability. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bouchard, G., Y. Lussier, et al. (1999). "Personality and marital adjustment: Utility of the five-factor model of personality." Journal of Marriage & the Family 61(3): 651-660.
   Using the five-factor model of personality, this study investigates the contribution of personality to marital adjustment. The sample is composed of 446 couples (aged 17-70 yrs) who completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, which measures the personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, as well as the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that self- and partner-reported personality traits were significant predictors of self-reported marital adjustment for both men and women. Personality traits were found to contribute to the prediction of marital adjustment over and above the effects of neuroticism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bradley, C. L. (1997). "A study of the stability and validity of the generativity status measure in adulthood." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(4-B): 2173.
   The main task of generativity - stagnation, Erik Erikson's seventh stage of normative psychosocial development, is to establish and guide the next generation through one's acts of care. Five statuses, or prototypic styles of resolving the issues of this stage, are defined using combinations of (a) an individual's level of vital involvement, or active concern for the growth of the self and others; and (b) an individual's tolerance of different ideas, traditions, and values, which by extension determines the scope of caregiving concern. The Generative status is characterized by high vital involvement and tolerance, and represents the most positive psychosocial outcome. The Pseudogenerative-Agentic status is high in vital involvement and tolerance for self but not for others, while Pseudogenerative-Communal is high in vital involvement and tolerance for others but not for self. The Conventional status, high in vital involvement for both self and others, is low in tolerance across the board. Stagnant reflects the poorest psychosocial outcome, and is low in vital involvement and tolerance generally. Some evidence for the validity of the new status model in middle-aged adults has been obtained in previous work using a semi-structured interview measure. This study established a stronger psychometric base for the Generativity Status Measure through the use of multiple coders for each interview. The study found moderate to strong stability across a two year period for interview-based generativity status ratings (N = 100 and N = 82 at respective test sessions), as well as for alternate scale measures of generativity. There was little relationship between experience of important life events, changes in general psychosocial adjustment, and shifts in generativity interview ratings across time. This study also replicated relationships between the Generativity Status Measure, alternate scale measures of generativity, and psychosocial adjustment, with Generative scoring significantly higher than Stagnant on each of these scales. Generative and Conventional prototypes were distinguished on NEO overall Openness to Experience at both testing periods, although not with Openness to Values at Time 2. Follow-up participants were administered the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems in cirumplex format as a means of further exploring status characteristics. Analysis supported Communal as experiencing more interpersonal difficulties associated with overly nurturant tendencies and Agentic as experiencing more difficulties associated with cold and dominant tendencies. At Time 2, participants also completed a self-report status measure which obtained low convergence with the interview measure, suggesting that the two tests, in their present form, measure somewhat different constructs and are not interchangeable as operationalizations of the status model. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bradley, C. L. and J. E. Marcia (1998). "Generativity-stagnation: A five-category model." Journal of Personality 66(1): 39-64.
   Established a reliably scorable semistructured interview for generativity statuses, and furnished some evidence for concurrent and predictive validity. The main task of generativity-stagnation, Erik Erikson's 7th stage of normative psychosocial development, is to establish and guide the next generation through one's acts of care. Five statuses, or prototypic styles of resolving the issues of this stage, determined using a new, semistructured interview measure, are defined using combinations of (1) an individual's level of involvement, or active concern for the growth of the self and others; and (2) an individual's inclusivity, or scope of caregiving concern. 100 adults (aged 42-64 yrs) took part in the study. Ss were interviewed for generativity status and completed a brief demographic form. In addition, construct validation efforts sought concurrent validity using 2 different scale measures of generativity, and discrimination between status profiles using the NEO Personality Inventory and the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test of ego development. Results generally support the new status model and point to areas of conceptual convergence and divergence between this approach and other generativity measures. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bradshaw, S. D. (1997). "NEO Five-Factor Inventory; cause for concern." Psychological Reports 80(3, Pt 1): 832-834.
   Examined whether NEO Five-Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1989) profiles might be biased by management of impression in 2 studies. 43 female and 14 male college students completed a measure of the 5 factors of personality under complete anonymity and then completed the NEO 5-Factor Inventory under either complete anonymity or under conditions intended to motivate impression management. No effects were found in Study 1, but slight effects were found in Study 2. Findings suggest conditions which create a strong motivation for impression management could slightly bias the profiles; however, this bias had little effect on the over-all profiles. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Brandt, J., J. R. Campodonico, et al. (1998). "Adjustment to residential placement in Alzheimer disease patients: Does premorbid personality matter?" International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 13(8): 509-515.
   Evaluated the influence of premorbid personality on adaptation to placement in a long-term care facility. Ss were 28 persons (mean age 77.6 yrs) with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) residing in an academically affiliated nursing home for 6-9 mo. Premorbid personality was described retrospectively by 2 informants for each resident using the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Standardized tests and rating scales were used on admission to the facility to assess cognition, mood state, physical dependency and general health. Nurses rated each AD resident's social behavior, participation in activities, and quality of sleep. Poorer adjustment was associated with more severe dementia but better physical health. None of the NEO-PI-R domain scores predicted adjustment. Results suggest that, contrary to popular belief, premorbid personality is relatively inconsequential for an AD patient's adaptation to a long-term care facility. The Nursing Home Adjustment Checklist is appended. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bratko, D. and I. Marusic (1997). "Family study of the big five personality dimensions." Personality & Individual Differences 23(3): 365-369.
   NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) was administered to a sample of 138 adolescents (mean age 18 yrs) and their parents (aged 35-61 yrs). Father-offspring correlations, mother-offspring correlations and regressions of offspring on midparent score were computed for 30 facet scales as well as for the 5 broad domains: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Results show that father-offspring correlations were significant for openness to experience and conscientiousness, while mother-offspring correlations were significant only for neuroticism. The regressions of offspring on midparent score were significant in all of these 3 domains. At the facet level, one-third of the father-offspring and mother-offspring correlations as well as half of the parent-offspring regressions were significant. However, results indicate weak family resemblance for the big 5 personality dimensions. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Brieger, P., S. Sommer, et al. (2000). "The relationship between Five-Factor personality measurements and ICD-10 personality disorder dimensions: Results from a sample of 229 subjects." Journal of Personality Disorders 14(3): 282-290.
   Examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and dimensional ICD-10 personality disorders. In a follow-up study of a child and adolescent psychiatric cohort, former patients and controls were assessed with NEO-FFI and the IPDE interview (ICD-10 personality disorder). Full data were available for 229 Ss (aged 18-32 yrs). Multiple regression analysis showed that the 5 factors of the FFM as independent variables explained between 5% (schizoid personality disorder) and 32% (anxious personality disorder) of the variance of ICD-10 dimensional personality disorder scores. For the 2 types of emotionally unstable personality disorder dimension (impulsive and borderline), for anxious (avoidant) personality disorder dimension and for the total score of any personality disorder dimension, FFM explained between 17% and 32% of the variance with almost identical results for the former patient group and the control group. High neuroticism was a feature of paranoid, emotionally unstable, histrionic, anankastic, anxious (avoidant), and dependent personality disorder dimensions, whereas low agreeableness was found in dissocial, emotionally unstable and histrionic personality disorder dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Buckley, L., S. M. MacHale, et al. (1999). "Personality dimensions in chronic fatigue syndrome and depression." Journal of Psychosomatic Research 46(4): 395-400.
   Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a poorly understood condition. Possible etiological factors include infectious agents, psychiatric disorders, and personality characteristics. The authors examined personality dimensions in 30 nondepressed patients with CFS, 20 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 15 healthy controls (mean age for all Ss was 43.1 yrs). On the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), patients with CFS scored significantly lower than healthy controls on the extraversion subscale. On the neuroticism dimension of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), patients with MDD scored higher than those with CFS, who in turn scored significantly higher than the healthy controls. CFS patients rated themselves as higher on neuroticism and less extroverted when ill than when they were well. Our results suggest that high scores on neuroticism and low scores on extraversion in CFS could be a reaction to chronic illness. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Burger, J. M. and D. F. Caldwell (2000). "Personality, social activities, job-search behavior and interview success: Distinguising between PANAS trait positive affect and NEO extraversion." Motivation & Emotion 24(1): 51-62.
   Past research has found that trait positive affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and extraversion as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) are highly correlated. The authors examined the relation between these two measures within the context of three social behaviors. Approximately 4 months before graduation, college seniors entering the job market completed the PANAS and the NEO-FFI and reported on their social activities during college. Three months later these students were contacted again and described their job search strategies and success at obtaining follow-up job interviews. Trait positive affect scores and extraversion scores were highly correlated and both predicted behavior in each of the three areas investigated. Regression analyses indicated that trait positive affect predicted behavior in all three areas after the effects of extraversion were removed. However, extraversion did not add significantly to predicting behavior in any of the three areas after the effects of trait positive affect were removed. The findings have implications for the conceptual relation between extraversion and trait positive affect. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Burke, C. A. (1998). "Femininity reformulated: The Big Five and gender role." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(12-B): 6857.
   Four hundred-three undergraduate students, 121 men and 253 women, participated in the investigation of the relationship of sex role orientation to the Big Five personality domains. Femininity, as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) (Bem, 1974), was expanded by the addition of eighteen items comprising three dimensions, hypothesized by the authors, to represent dimensions of femininity which are not included on the BSRI, (Bem, 1974) encompassing the notions of empathy and relationship competence. The original sixty BSRI (Bem, 1974) items, and the eighteen experimental items were then subjected to separate exploratory factor analyses in order to examine the relationships of the gender role dimensions to the Big Five personality domains. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation produced a five factor solution on the original BSRI (Bem, 1974) items. Three factors emerged from principal components analysis with oblique rotation of the experimental items. The Big Five Personality domains, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness, were assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) (Costa & McCrae, 1992). An all-possible-subsets multiple regression was used to derive the best predictive model for each gender role factor. The resulting models utilize well established personality domains to untangle the complex relationships between gender role orientation and personality. The results support the addition of items to the BSRI (Bem, 1974) and underscore the more adaptive aspects of Femininity. Agreeableness, or the capacity to be fundamentally altruistic and helpful was most predictive of the factors associated with Femininity. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Burris, B. H. (1998). "Computerization of the workplace." Annual Review of Sociology 24: 141-157.
   journal abstract: Divergent conceptualizations of the recent changes in work organization that have accompanied computerization include neo-Bravermanian analyses, postindustrial analyses, and contingency analyses. To make sense of these differing views, the paper surveys sociological research on computerization and its impact on three analytically separate dimensions of the workplace: organizational restructuring, changes in worker skill, and power and authority relationships. The review reveals that computerized work organizations typically have fewer hierarchical levels, a bifurcated workforce, frequently with race and sex segregation, a less formal structure, and diminished use of internal labor markets and reliance instead on external credentialing. Variable patterns of centralization and decentralization occur, and workplace power relationships interact with technological change to produce variable political outcomes. With regard to worker skills, recent evidence suggests aggregate upskilling with some deskilling and skill bifurcation. Future research should more closely analyze the process of technological design and implementation. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Bushman, B. (1999). "Three-, four-, and five-factor models of personality and their association with dimensions of personality disorder." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(1-B): 0402.
   This study evaluated structural associations between two competing dimensional models of personality, and dimensions of personality disorder. Subjects completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) (Livesley, 1990), the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) (Tellegen, 1982), and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Factor analyses indicated that clear associations exist between dimensions of normal personality and dimensions of personality disorder; that characteristics of personality disorder can be reasonably explained by four of the five higher-order NEO-FFI factors, and to a lesser extent by Tellegen's three- and four-factor models; and that characteristics of personality pathology form five clusters that do not resemble the three personality disorder clusters of the DSM. Findings suggest that dimensional classification of personality pathology, and possibly other psychopathology, may be more appropriate than currently popular quasi-categorical models. Clinical and research implications were discussed, and issues needing further investigation were outlined. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Byravan, A. (1997). "Structure of personality disorders from a five-factor model perspective, and the relative superiority of the mmpi-2 psy-5, neo-pi-r, and the 16 pf fifth edition scales for predicting personality disorders." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering 57(10-B): 6635.
   
 Byravan, A. and N. V. Ramanaiah (1999). "Structure of personality disorders from the perspective of the revised NEO Personality Inventory domain scales and the Psychopathology-5 Scales." Psychological Reports 85(3, Pt 2 [Spec Issue]): 1119-1122.
   Tested the generality and comprehensiveness of the 5-factor model of personality as applied to the Personality Adjective Checklist's personality disorder scales. 258 undergraduates completed the Personality Adjective Checklist, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the Psychopathology-5 Scales for partial course credit. A combined principal axis analysis with varimax rotation was performed for nonoverlaping scales. Results indicate 4 factors that were identified as Neuroticism, Extraversion, Disagreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Openness did not emerge as a separate factor. Results support the comprehensiveness but not the generality of the 5-factor model as applied to personality disorders. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Caldwell-Andrews, A., R. A. Baer, et al. (2000). "Effects of response sets on NEO-PI-R scores and their relations to external criteria." Journal of Personality Assessment 74(3): 472-488.
   The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) is a popular personality assessment tool based on the 5-factor model of personality and is used in a variety of settings. The NEO-PI-R does not include objective validity scales to screen for positive or negative impression management. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of recently proposed validity scales for detecting these response sets on the NEO-PI-R and to examine the effects of positive and negative impression management on correlations between the NEO-PI-R and external criteria (the Interpersonal Adjective Scale-Revised-B5 and the NEO-PI-R Form R). Participants were 150 undergraduates (mean age 18.9 yrs). The validity scales discriminated with reasonable accuracy between standard responding and the 2 response sets. Additionally, most correlations between the NEO-PI-R and external criteria were significantly lower when participants were dissimulating than when responding to standard instructions. It appears that response sets of positive and negative impression management may pose a significant threat to the external validity of the NEO-PI-R and that validity scales for their detection might be a useful addition to the inventory. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Callister, J. D., R. E. King, et al. (1999). "Revised NEO Personality Inventory profiles of male and female U.S. Air Force pilots." Military Medicine 164(12): 885-890.
   Examined normative personality characteristics of US Air Force pilots based on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory profiles of 1,301 US Air Force student pilots. Compared with male adult norms, male student pilots had higher levels of extraversion and lower levels of agreeableness. Compared with female adult norms, female student pilots had higher levels of extraversion and openness and lower levels of agreeableness. Descriptive statistics and percentile tables for the 5 domain scores and 30 facet scores are provided for clinical use, and a case vignette is provided as an example of the clinical utility of these US Air Force norms. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Caprara, G. V., C. Barbaranelli, et al. (2001). "Factor analyses of the NEO-PI-R Inventory and the Comrey Personality Scales in Italy and the United States." Personality & Individual Differences 30(2): 217-228.
   The Costa and McCrae NEO-PI-R Inventory and the short form of the Comrey Personality Scales (CPS) were administered to 1,002 university student samples in Italy and the United States. In each sample, the 30 NEO-PI-R facet scales defining Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were intercorrelated and factor analyzed. In the American sample, all five NEO-PI-R factors were well defined. In the Italian sample, only three of these factors were well defined. The five NEO-PI-R factor scores and the eight CPS scale scores were intercorrelated and factor analyzed in each sample separately to show the overlap between these two instruments. Four factors were found in the American data and five in the Italian data. Good correspondences were shown in both samples between NEO Extraversion and CPS Extraversion, NEO Neuroticism and the reverse of CPS Emotional Stability, as well as NEO Conscientiousness and CPS Orderliness. In both samples, NEO Agreeableness was related to both CPS Trust and CPS Empathy. An additional factor found only in the Italian data was defined by NEO Openness and the reverse of CPS Social Conformity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Caraca, M. d. L., L. Loura, et al. (2000). "Caracteristicas da personalidade em artistas plasticos e investigadores cientificos. Personality characteristics in sculptors and scientific researchers." Analise Psicologica 18(1): 53-58.
   Studied whether creative Ss are more open to new experiences and have higher fantasy scores than noncreative Ss. The personality traits of 18 male and female sculptors aged 20-54 yrs, 19 male and female scientific researchers aged 23-53 yrs, and 30 noncreative male and female Ss aged 18-55 yrs in Portugal were assessed with the Portuguese adaptation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. An ANOVA was performed. The results show that creative Ss were more open to new experiences but did not score higher than noncreative Ss in the Conscientiousness domain (Competence subdomain). The differences between creative and noncreative individuals regarding openness to new experiences seem to be due to significant differences in the Aesthetic and Ideas subdomains (readiness to like new ideas and fondness for solving puzzles). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Caramela-Miller, S. A. (1998). "Exploring the role of personality in selecting a continuing care retirement community." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(8-B): 4488.
   This study explores whether there are personality differences between 547 older adults (mean age = 80.65) in continuing care retirement communities (CCRC's) when compared with 503 older adults (mean age = 73.38) in the community at large. Five personality dimensions (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness) and underlying facets were analyzed. The NEO PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) was administered using a modified version with response indicators following the items and larger font. Demographically, significant group differences (p < .01) emerged between groups on age, education, and annual income. The CCRC group was older, had more years of education, and greater annual income. No significant group differences emerged on self-reported health with both groups reporting good to very good health. The subsequent data analyses controlled for age and education as covariates. Significant group differences (p < .01) emerged on the personality dimensions of extraversion and conscientiousness, with the CCRC group scoring lower than community living. Entering all five personality dimensions into a multiple regression analysis resulted in correct classification of 62% into housing group; entering the 30 underlying facets into a multiple regression analysis resulted in correct classification of 71%. Significant group differences emerged on the facets anxiety, impulsiveness, gregariousness, excitement-seeking, values, trust, compliance, competence, and dutifulness. A unique contribution of this study is the examination of housing choices (features, services) and exploring the influence of personality. Relationships between features and personality are now being explored. This study contributes a baseline of differences in personality and housing preferences comparing CCRC and community living residents. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Carducci, B. J. (1998). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and applications. Pacific Grove, CA, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
   cover: This book introduces the theories posited by many important figures in the field of psychology. This text emphasizes how personality psychology relates to fields such as medicine, politics, forensics, athletics, marketing, consumer behavior, personnel management, and other areas of business. The author examines self-concept, gender identity, gender differences, self monitoring, self consciousness, shyness, aggression, anxiety, and other specific dimensions of personality. /// This book not only covers classic issues and research in personality psychology, but also looks at the biological bases of personality, the evolutionary perspective, the "Big Five" model of personality, cultural influences on personality, and other contemporary issues. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Carich, M. S. and C. Metzger (1999). Hypnotherapy. Interventions and strategies in counseling and psychotherapy. R. E. Watts, J. Carlson and et al. Philadelphia, PA, Accelerated Development: 43-57.
   chapter: Hypnosis has been regarded as a very useful tool in psychotherapy and Adlerian therapy (M. S. Carich, 1990). This chapter presents a neo-Adlerian approach to hypnotherapy. The case study presented involves the use of hypnotic approaches with a sex offender. Even though most sex offenders are very dissociative in nature and can be very good hypnotic Ss, mainstream sex-offender treatment professionals do not recognize the value of hypnosis. Typically, for Adlerians, hypnotherapy consists of techniques integrated into the treatment process. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Carless, S. A. (1999). "Career assessment: Holland's vocational interests, personality characteristics, and abilities." Journal of Career Assessment 7(2): 125-144.
   A 2-study design was used to examine the relationship between Holland's vocational interest types, personality characteristics, and abilities. Study 1 consisted of 139 individuals (48 men and 91 women) who participated in a vocational assessment exercise. They completed the Self-Directed Search, the revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Study 2 consisted of 669 men and 206 women employed in the finance industry who completed the SDS, the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, and a measure of general abilities, the PL-PQ. In both studies conceptually similar vocational interests and personality were found to be empirically related. A weak to moderate relationship was observed between general abilities and investigative interests and between general abilities and the personality characteristics of Openness to Experience and Intuition. It was concluded that assessment of all three domains of interests, abilities, and personality has several advantages for assisting clients seeking vocational counseling. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Carpenter, D., J. F. Clarkin, et al. (1999). "The impact of neuroticism upon married bipolar patients." Journal of Personality Disorders 13(1): 60-66.
   The NEO Personality Inventory was given to 19 male and 14 female married patients (aged 27-69 yrs) with bipolar disorder. Consistent with previous findings, patients with bipolar disorder did not show an abnormal personality profile as a group. Extremely wide variation on all scales indicated that the group profile tells little about individual patients. Trait neuroticism robustly predicted psychiatric symptoms at entry to the study when assessed retrospectively for the two years prior to entry and when averaged over a year of treatment. Neuroticism also negatively predicted the self-confidence of the patients in this sample. The patients identified as outliers on neuroticism form a clinically difficult group for whom the distinction between Axes I and II appears to be less meaningful. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Carr, M. J. (2000). "Birthmothers and subsequent children: The role of personality traits and attachment history." Journal of Social Distress & the Homeless 9(4): 339-348.
   Examined personality traits and attachment history of mothers (aged 40-76 yrs) who surrendered their 1st-born children to adoption, and compared those who had other children subsequently with those who did not. 55 mothers who surrendered their 1st child for adoption and went on to have subsequent children, and 32 women who had surrendered their 1st child for adoption and did not have more children were given the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (P. T. Costa, Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1992) (NEO-PI-R) and the Attachment History Questionnaire (K. Pottharst and R. Kessler, 1986). Results show that Ss who subsequently had more children scored significantly higher on the extroversion scale of the NEO-PI-R. Ss who did not have more children were more apt to never marry and, when there was marriage, more apt to divorce. Women who had more children reported more pressure from family to relinquish their child. Ss who did not have more children reported friends as significant support figures more often than women who did have more children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Carter, P. A. (2000). "Cancer caregiver's depression and sleep disturbances." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3199.
   Cancer patients with increasingly complex needs are cared for at home by family caregivers, but not without a cost to the caregiver. The purpose of this study was to understand how caregiver personality and coping are related to depression and sleep problems. The conceptual framework of Pearlin and Collegues (1990) guided this study. Data were collected from 51 caregivers of persons diagnosed with advanced stage cancers. Instruments utilized included: Life Orientation Test, Mastery Scale, NEO-Personal Inventory (neuroticism factor), Brief COPE, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A one-time interview included structured and open-ended questions and lasted on average 45 minutes. Most caregivers were female (n = 41) spouses (n = 31). Correlation results demonstrated that caregivers who reported the highest levels of depression and sleep problems also reported low levels of optimism or mastery or high levels of emotional response tendencies or more frequent use of less-functional coping. Multiple regression analysis examined the ability of caregiver personality and coping to explain the variance in caregiver levels of depression and sleep problems. Resulting models explained 66.2% of the variance in depression, and 46% of the variance in sleep problems. Qualitative findings indicated that caregivers have a wide range of feelings and experiences (positive and negative) during caregiving. Caregivers spoke of multiple disruptions to their sleep and how this affected them emotionally and physically. This study indicates that cancer caregivers provide care for severely ill relatives and suffer from depression and sleep problems as a result. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Caruso, J. C. and N. Cliff (1997). "An examination of the five-factor model of normal personality variation with reliable component analysis." Personality & Individual Differences 23(2): 317-325.
   Examined the correlations between the facet scales of the 5 domains of the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised Edition (NEO-PI-R) with reliable component analysis, a multivariate method which defines orthogonal composites with maximum reliability. When 5 reliable components were varimax-rotated, the 5-factor model (FFM) of personality was recovered. However, rotating 3 components supported an alternative personality model, that of H. J. Eysenck, despite the fact that the analyses were conducted on measures designed to assess the FFM. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Caruso, J. C. (2000). "Reliability generalization of the NEO Personality Scales." Educational & Psychological Measurement 60(2): 236-254.
   Reliability generalization is a meta-analytic method for examining the variability in the reliability of scores by determining which sample characteristics are related to differences in score reliability. A reliability generalization of 51 samples employing 1 of the NEO personality scales (NEO Personality Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory--Revised, NEO Five-Factory Inventory) was conducted. First, the typical reliability of scores on the NEO personality scales was characterized with respect to central tendency and variability. Second, the sample characteristics that are related to more or less reliable scores were investigated. There was a large amount of variability in the reliability of NEO scores, both between and within personality domains. The sample characteristics that are related to score reliability were dependent on NEO domain. Agreeableness scores appear to be the weakest of the domains assessed by the NEO scales in terms of reliability, particularly in clinical samples, for male-only samples, and when temporal consistency was the criterion for reliability. The reliability of Openness to Experience scores was low when the NEO-Five Factor Inventory was used. The advantages of conceptualizing reliability as a property of scores, and not tests, are discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Carver, C. S. (1997). "Adult attachment and personality: Converging evidence and a new measure." Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 23(8): 865-883.
   Develops a measure of adult attachment qualities (the Measure of Attachment Qualities [MAQ]), and presents data relating the MAQ's self report scores to broader aspects of personality. 628 Ss were used to investigate the MAQ's relationship to extraversion and anxiety (Study 2), its convergence with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Study 3), and its relationship to the 4 category model of attachment (K. Bartholomew and L. M. Horowitz, 1991). Avoidant attachment was shown to be inversely related to extraversion and agreeableness but relatively unrelated to manifest anxiety or neuroticism. Qualities of ambivalence (reflecting both worry and desire for merger) were related to both manifest anxiety and neuroticism but unrelated to extraversion. An affirmatively secure attachment quality that emerged in the MAQ (i.e., as a separate factor, rather than by default as low scores on avoidance or ambivalence factors) was related positively to extraversion and agreeableness but generally unrelated to anxiety or neuroticism. There was also considerable convergence in the comparison of the MAQ to the 4 component model of attachment; however, the data also provided challenges to both models. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Casey, M. M. (1999). "Response latency to computer-administered personality inventory items: A method to control for reading speed and item length." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(8-B): 4530.
   Recent research on personality inventory item response latency has evaluated response latency as a behavioral manifestation of cognitive self-schemas and has reported the validity of personality scale-specific, average response latencies in relationship to total scale scores and other independent measures of personality traits (e.g., Fekken & Holden, 1992; Popham & Holden, 1993). While this research suggests that response latency can be of clinical value to objective personality assessment, methodological problems exist with the reliable and valid measurement of this variable. Prior studies have employed several different methodologies with varying rationales and inconsistent results. Of primary importance in measuring response latency is the method used to control for potentially confounding subject variables (e.g., reading speed) and inventory item variables (e.g., item length). The purpose of the current study was to implement a new Double-Press Method (DPM) for separately measuring reading time and psychological response time by requiring subjects to respond twice to each item: first to indicate that the item has been read and second to choose a response alternative. By measuring and controlling for reading time, this technique has been able to avoid the practical and statistical problems that may have flawed previous methodologies. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1989) and seven scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were computer-administered with subjects' reading times (RT), psychological response times (PRT), and item responses recorded for analysis. The practicality of the DPM has been demonstrated by collecting reliable and valid response latency data associated with answering personality items without requiring administration of an excessive number of extra items, statistical correction for outlying RTs, or the application of statistical adjustments to control for item length and reading speed. Correlational analyses have shown that the DPM measures PRT independently from RT. Acceptable coefficient alpha values for PRTs indicate the reliability of a DPM of measuring response latency. Factor analyses reveal a single factor underlying subject PRTs that has been interpreted as cognitive speed and a single factor underlying RTs that has been interpreted as representing subject reading speed. The DPM has been further validated by demonstrating an inverted-U effect, wherein subjects' response latencies are shorter for extreme response alternatives than for more neutral alternatives. Finally, previous research (e.g., Holden & Fekken, 1991; Popham & Holden, 1990) showing significant relationships between inventory domain scores and average PRTs has been partially replicated. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cattell, H. E. P. (1996). "The original big five: A historical perspective." European Review of Applied Psychology/Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee 46(1): 5-14.
   Compared the performance of 3 sets of male and female American undergraduate students (aged 17-54 yrs) totaling 624 Ss on the NEO Personality Inventory and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Analysis of correlations between all NEO and 16PF scales, regression analyses predicting each scale of each test from the scales of the other test, and factor analyses of both tests at the primary and secondary levels were performed. The alignment between the global scales of the 2 tests was assessed. Results indicate a strong resemblance between the original 2nd-order personality factors of the 16PF (R. B. Cattell, 1946, 1956) and the recent 5-factor conceptualization of personality (L. R. Goldberg, 1990, 1992). ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cattell, H. E. P. (1996). "I Big-Five originali: Una prospettiva storica. The original Big-Five personality factor structure." Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata No 219: 15-29.
   Studied the relationships between the NEO Personality Inventory and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Human Ss: 624 normal male and female American adults (aged 17-54 yrs) (university students). The 16PF global factors were calculated from the equations given in the 16PF 5th Edition Administrator's Manual (M. T. Russell and D. Karol, 1994). The NEO 5 factors were calculated by adding up the 6 facets comprising each domain. Regression analysis and factor analyses with varimax rotation were used to study the relationships between the 16 primary and 5 global scales of the 16PF and the 30 facets and 5 dimensions of the NEO. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Caudill, D. S. (1996). "Law's appropriation of psychoanalysis." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society 1(1): 127-129.
   Reviews the application of psychoanalytic theory in law. The author asserts that while psychoanalysis has become irrelevant in law on the clinical-legal issues in regard to which it has obvious expertise to contribute, psychoanalysis continues to enter the discourse of law through the back door of social theory as a means of revealing and critiquing the foundations of law. The author discusses several contributions to the application of psychoanalysis in law. Neo-Freudianism and Lacanian theory are being employed in practical legal contexts. Caudill's work focuses on the debates over contract interpretation and judicial gap-filling measures, false child-abuse accusations and their roots in social hysteria, the assumed subject of law, and the controversy over religious influences in law and politics, in each case using Lacanian theory to explore the internalization of legal language and images, the mediation by law of our desires and fantasies, and the instability of rational-legal discourse. Although the place of psychoanalysis in law is still marginal, it holds considerable promise both as a social-theoretical description of law's state of affairs and as a source of practical guidance both for well-known and for hidden problems in the operation of legal processes. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cawley, M. J., III, J. E. Martin, et al. (2000). "A virtues approach to personality." Personality & Individual Differences 28(5): 997-1013.
   The structure of virtue was investigated through the development and construct validation of the Virtues Scale (VS), a 140-item self-report measure of virtues. A factor analysis of responses from 390 undergraduates revealed 4 factors: Empathy, Order, Resourcefulness, and Serenity. Four virtue subscales constructed from the highest loading items on each factor were correlated with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory scales in 2 additional samples. One of these samples also completed the DIT measure of Kohlbergian moral development. Meaningful, replicated correlations between the virtue subscales and personality scales and complete lack of relationships between the virtues scales and the DIT indicate that virtue is a function of personality rather than moral reasoning and cognitive development. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cecero, J. J. (1997). "Alexithymia and its relationship to ego pathology among adult male alcoholics." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 57(8-B): 5319.
   This study, entitled 'Alexithymia and its relationship to ego pathology among adult male alcoholics,' examines the hypothesized relationship between alexithymia, or the inability to identify, verbalize, and differentiate among affects, and the severity of certain ego vulnerabilities, identified by psychodynamically-oriented clinicians in their work with alcoholics (Krystal and Raskin, 1970; Wurmser, 1973; Khantzian, 1981, 1990; Mack, 1981). These ego vulnerabilities include: (1) the prevalence of dysphoric affects; (2) impoverished interpersonal relationships; (3) problems with self-esteem; and (4) affect intolerance. In order to assess the relationship between alexithymia and the ego vulnerabilities associated with alcoholism, this study administered a measure of alexithymia (the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, referred to as the TAS-20) and three personality instruments (the NEO-Five Factor Inventory; the Draw-A-Person Questionnaire; and the Karp Objective Word Association Test), designed to measure the presence and severity of the ego vulnerabilities listed above, to a group of 100 males in outpatient alcohol treatment. The specific research questions of this study addressed the relationship between alexithymia and dysphoric affect, difficulties with interpersonal relatedness, low self-esteem, and affect intolerance, among adult male alcoholics. Data were analyzed through Pearson Product Moment Correlations, as well as through partial correlations controlling for alcoholism severity, the latter obtained from scores on the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST). Results from both the general and the partial correlational analyses empirically substantiated significant relationships, in the predicted directions, between alexithymia and the following specific ego vulnerabilities: (1) dysphoric affect (unhappiness, r =.28, p < .01; anger or hostility, r =.24, p < .01); (2) interpersonal difficulties (social extroversion, r = -, p < .01; basic trust, r = -, ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cecero, J. J. and R. W. Holmstrom (1997). "Alexithymia and affect pathology among adult male alcoholics." Journal of Clinical Psychology 53(3): 201-208.
   Examined the relationship between alexithymia and affective disturbances, interpersonal difficulties, and self-esteem among alcoholics. 100 male outpatient alcoholics (aged 18-60 yrs) were given instruments to assess alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and symptoms of affect pathology (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Draw-A-Person Questionnaire, and Karp Objective Work Association Test). Controlling for alcoholism severity, the severity of alexithymia was significantly correlated with dysphoria and affect intolerance, as well as with certain interpersonal difficulties resulting from affective disturbances. The correlation between self-esteem and alexithymia was not significant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Cellar, D. F., Z. C. Nelson, et al. (2000). "The five-factor model and driving behavior: Personality and involvement in vehicular accidents." Psychological Reports 86(2): 454-456.
   Examined the relationships between personality and safety variables with the five-factor model. 134 female and 68 male college students completed both the NEO-Personality Inventory-R and measures of prior involvement in driving accidents. Significant negative correlations were found between the factor of Agreeableness and the total number of driving tickets received as well as the sum of combined at-fault accidents, not-at-fault accidents and driving tickets received by Ss. Implications and potential future directions for research are discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Chan, D. (1997). "Racial subgroup differences in predictive validity perceptions on personality and cognitive ability tests." Journal of Applied Psychology 82(2): 311-320.
   journal abstract: The relationships between examinees' racial subgroup membership and their perceptions of the predictive validity of a widely used personality test (NEO Five Factor Inventory; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and a widely used cognitive ability test (Wonderlic Personnel Test; E. F. Wonderlic, 1984) were examined. Results from 241 undergraduates showed that Black examinees perceived the cognitive ability test as less valid than White examinees, whereas no significant Black-White difference in predictive validity perceptions was observed on the personality test. Results also indicated a significant but small positive association between performance on the cognitive ability test and predictive validity perceptions of the cognitive ability test. Contrary to predictions, there was little evidence that test performance mediated the relationship between race and predictive validity perceptions on the cognitive ability test. Conversely, predictive validity perceptions did not appear to account for any substantial portion of the racial subgroup differences in test performance. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Chiarugi, A. and F. Moroni (1999). "Quinolinic acid formation in immune-activated mice: Studies with ( m -nitrobenzoyl)-alanine ( m NBA) and 3,4-dimethoxy- -N-4-(-3-nitrophenyl)
   thiazol-2yl -benzenesulfonamide (Ro 61-8048), two potent and selective inhibitors of kynurenine hydroxylase." Neuropharmacology 38(8): 1225-1233.
Studied the role of kynurenine hydroxylase activity in the neo-formation of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) in male mice by using (m-nitrobenzoyl)-alanine (mNBA) and 3,4-dimethoxy-[-N-4-(-3-nitrophenyl) thiazol-2yl]-benzenesulfonamide (Ro 61-8048). Immune-stimulation with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) induced a robust increase in kynurenine (KYN) and its metabolites kynurenic acid (KYNA) and QUIN in blood and brain. When incubated with KYN but not tryptophan, spleen, lung and liver (but not brain) slices accumulated a measurable amount of QUIN in the supernatant. Slices from PWM treated animals had a 10-fold increase in QUIN accumulation in spleen, no changes in lung, and a 40% decrease in liver. Large doses of KYN hydroxylase inhibitors increased KYN and KYNA, but did not decrease QUIN content in control blood and brain. When tested in organ slices from either controls or immune-stimulated animals, mNBA and Ro 61-8048 strongly reduced QUIN neo-formation. After repeated doses of mNBA or Ro 61-8048, QUIN content in blood and brain of immune-stimulated animals significantly decreased. Results suggest that sufficient QUIN synthesis may occur through KYN hydroxylase-independent pathways. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Child, D. (1998). Some technical problems in the use of personality measures in occupational settings illustrated using the 'Big Five'. Directions in educational psychology. D. Shorrocks-Taylor and et al. London, England UK, Whurr Publishers: 346-364.
   book: Since personality tests now figure extensively as part of the selection and progression process in many companies and organisations, they clearly affect the career and job prospects for employees. In this chapter, the author highlights some of the current technical problems associated with them. To make his main points, he uses recent material from a highly popular personality test, the 'Big Five.' He argues that the use of this test, and others like it, requires an honest appraisal of its shortcomings along with a realistic notion of the predictive powers of any test. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Church, A. T., J. A. S. Reyes, et al. (1997). "Filipino personality structure and the Big Five model: A lexical approach." Journal of Personality 65(3): 477-528.
   In lexically based studies, the authors derived Filipino personality dimensions and related them to the Big Five model. In Study 1, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 629) rated themselves on a near-comprehensive list of 861 Filipino (Tagalog) trait adjectives. In Study 2, Filipino high-school and college students (N = 1,531) rated 280 markers of dimensions identified in Study 1. Some students (N = 473) also completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Seven comparable Filipino dimensions were identified in factor analyses in the 2 studies. It was concluded that the dimensions labeled Concern for Others (vs. Egotism), Conscientiousness, Gregariousness, and Intellect were quite similar to Big Five Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Intellect, respectively. The Filipino Self-Assurance dimension was most similar to Big Five Neuroticism. The Filipino Temperamentalness dimension was more complex in Big Five terms, overlapping Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. A final Filipino factor resembled a Negative Valence or Infrequency dimension. More than five factors had to be extracted to obtain Philippine dimensions resembling all of the Big Five. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Clark, L. M., W. M. McDonald, et al. (1998). "Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of depression in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease." Biological Psychiatry 44(7): 592-599.
   In a retrospective study of 31 early- vs late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, depression was characterized by clinical diagnosis, a clinician-rated depression scale, and informant ratings of premorbid (before memory disorder) as well as current depression using the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), and related to qualitative and quantitative ratings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hyperintensities. In contrast to reports in nondemented elderly patients, there was no relationship between clinical diagnosis of major depressive episode and hyperintensities; however, clinician-rated depressive symptoms were higher in Ss with large anterior hyperintensities. In the early-onset AD group only, MRI abnormalities were related to greater premorbid depression, and less increase in depression after the onset of dementia, as rated by informants on the NEO-PI. Results highlight the need to consider early and late-onset AD separately when assessing relationships between personality and MRI abnormalities, and to consider premorbid personality style when drawing conclusions about the etiology of depressive features seen in AD. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Coburn, D. (2000). "Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: The role of neo-liberalism." Social Science & Medicine 51(1): 135-146.
   Argues that despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough attention has been paid to the social context of income inequality--health relationships or to the causes of income inequality itself. In this paper the authors contend that there is a particular affinity between neo-liberal (market-oriented) political doctrines, income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Neo-liberalism, it is argued, produces both higher income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Part of the negative effect of neo-liberalism on health status is due to its undermining of the welfare state. The welfare state may have direct effects on health as well as being one of the underlying structural causes of social cohesion. The rise of neo-liberalism and the decline of the welfare state are themselves tied to globalization and the changing class structures of the advanced capitalist societies. More attention should be paid to understanding the causes of income inequalities and not just to its effects because income inequalities are neither necessary nor inevitable. Moreover, understanding the contextual causes of inequality may also influence our notion of the causal pathways involved in inequality-health status relationships (and vice versa). ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cocchi, R. (1996). "Mosaic forms in Down's syndrome: A survey on sixteen cases." Italian Journal of Intellective Impairment 9(1): 45-54, 107-116.
   16 mosaic Downs syndrome (DS) Ss (age at 1st consultation: 11-228 mo) had symptoms analysis to determine if they differ from other DS chromosomal forms. Symptoms or behaviors checked were delivery and its troubles; food habits, in particular for sweet things and broth and refusal to have breakfast before 9-10 AM; sleep habits and strange postures during sleep; toilet habits; heart anomalies and squint; age at autonomous walking, motor skills, hypotonia, tongue protrusion, hyperkinesis; symptoms of stress or compensatory symptoms (e.g., depression or irritability). In this sample it was not possible to find some overall superiority in comparison with other DS forms, but the large extent of peri- and neo-natal troubles could have modified the outcomes. (An Italian version of this article follows the English translation abstracted here.) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Coffey, V. J. (1999). "To cleanse the doors of perception: A dissertation on the subject of openness to experience." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(8-B): 4522.
   This dissertation constitutes an exploratory inquiry into whether several claims made by Carl Rogers concerning alleged advantages accruing to individuals who are open to experience over others less open have any continuing scientific validity. The place of openness to experience in Rogerian thought is delineated. The scales developed and used by McCrae and Costa on one hand and by Coan on the other to assess openness are rejected as instruments to assess openness in the way Rogers formulated it because they have been developed to measure quite different constructs, albeit also called openness to experience. This, it is proposed, inadvertently distorts the meaning of Rogers' own work. A battery of scales developed by ROGERIANS is proposed to measure Rogerian openness indirectly, by means of three instruments which purport to measure concepts closely related to openness itself--fully functioning person, self actualization and personality integration. A correlational study is described which is designed to explore whether more open subjects (as assessed by the openness battery) are less neurotic, anxious, defensive, superego controlled and better problem solvers, as Rogers predicts, using a multiple linear regression analysis of the relation of the battery to five (5) other instruments, each designed to measure each of these claims. The results show, inter alia, that there are substantial negative correlations between openness and neurosis and anxiety, especially when the NEO PI openness scale is added to the openness battery to act as a suppressor variable. These results tend to support Rogers' claims regarding openness in these regards. They arguably tend to rescue this important idea of openness to experience from neglect and from being obscured by later work on much more limited openness constructs, as well as pointing to the need for further work to resurrect Rogers' ideas and subject them to scientific scrutiny. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cohen, P., C. Slomkowski, et al., Eds. (1999). Historical and geographical influences on psychopathology. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
   preface: Historical and geographical perspectives are essential components of a sound understanding of psychopathology and the factors that increase the risk of psychopathology. A great deal can be learned from the study of both the uniformities and variations in the incidence and course of disorder and in the apparent causal connections between risks and disorders over time and place. The studies in this volume investigate these 2 influences when examining specific risk factors for the development of psychopathology, illustrate the methods and methodological difficulties involved in such work, and provide insights into the disorders and dysfunctions that they investigate. An understanding of differentials in the "where" and "when" in distribution of psychopathology over time can lead to the translation of those observations into etiologic hypotheses about disorders in varied populations and periods of history. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cole-Detke, H. (1998). "Depression and eating disorder: A comparison of the roles of attachment organization, personality, field dependence, and coping strategies." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(12-B): 6803.
   The present study examined the role of attachment organization, personality, field dependence, and coping in the development of depressive and eating disordered tendencies in college women. Sixty-six women selected for high or low levels of depressive and/or eating disordered symptoms were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) along with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), and the COPE. AAI transcripts were rated using both the Attachment Interview Q-Sort and Main and Goldwyn's (1994) scoring method. Results indicated that depression was associated with use of an insecure and preoccupied attachment strategy as well as with a neurotic, introverted, disagreeable, and unconscientious personality profile and the use of negative coping methods rather than positive ones. Moreover, regression models revealed that the effects of attachment organization on depression were mediated through personality and coping. In particular, there were several direct correlations between attachment strategies and personality. Eating disorder, however, was not uniquely associated with any particular attachment, personality, or coping profile other than the use of food or exercise to deal with stressors. The EFT did not produce significant results in relation to symptomatology. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Conci, M. (1997). "H. S. Sullivan e le scissioni nella comunita psicoanalitica degli anni '40. H. S. Sullivan and the schisms in the psychoanalytic community of 1940s." Giornale Storico di Psicologia Dinamica 21(42): 47-61.
   Traces the history of the organizational schisms in the US psychoanalytic community of the 1940s. The US psychiatric establishment was very receptive to psychoanalysis from the beginning, but along eclectic and independent lines. It never accepted the notion of "lay" psychoanalysts, who were always expected to have a medical degree. H. S. Sullivan (1892-1949) played a major role in the development of "dynamic psychiatry" in the US. Sullivan's eclectic approach, for example, to schizophrenic and psychotic patients, including the use of psychotherapy, was in contrast to what the author calls the "reductionism" of today's psychiatry. Sullivan extended and transcended orthodox Freudian theories into a "neo-Freudianism," which included the theory of "interpersonal relations." ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
Corballis, M. C. and S. E. G. Lea (1999). Are humans special? A history of psychological perspectives. The descent of mind: Psychological perspectives on hominid evolution. M. C. Corballis, S. E. G. Lea and et al. New York, NY, US, Oxford University Press: 1-15.
   chapter: Notes that until the emergence of evolutionary psychology in the late 1980s (e.g., L. Cosmides and J. Tooby, 1987), the theory of evolution had never been systematically incorporated into psychological theory. Yet, whether one is a behaviorist or a cognitivist, there is one question that is at least implicit in all attempts to develop psychological theory: Are humans special? Is there some special quality of mind or behavior that sets us apart from other creatures, or can the principles of behavior that are derived from animals be safely applied to our own species? This chapter briefly reviews the history of psychological attitudes toward the question on continuity vs discontinuity between ourselves and other species. Although these attitudes are often implicit rather than explicit, the authors contend that the pendulum has tended to swing from one extreme to the other. Topics include intellectual precursors, the dualistic beginnings of psychology, behaviorism, the cognitive revolution, the language wars, beyond the language wars, and neo-associationism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Corbett, K. E. (1999). "Motor development and attentional capacity in the young child: A neo-Piagetian perspective." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(7-A): 2340.
   Neo-Piagetian theorists have documented the development of attentional capacity from early childhood through adolescence. Research has revealed a relation between developing attentional capacity and cognitive abilities, as well as fine motor abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between (1) gross motor development and cognitive development, (2) gross motor development and attentional capacity, and to (3) determine developmental priority between attentional capacity and motor development. Seventy-three kindergarten children from the investigator's own classrooms were the research participants. Children were videotaped during the fall and spring of each year while performing the motor tasks of hopping, skipping, and jumping rope. Conservation of number, length, and substance were used to mark cognitive development, and an age appropriate measure of attentional capacity was given to each child during the two time periods. Factor analysis demonstrated that motor and conservation tasks were separate domains. The two factors were not correlated in the fall but were significantly correlated in the spring. Attentional capacity scores correlated with both conservation and motor scores in the fall and the spring, and the correlation increased with motor skills in the spring. The combined motor and conservation scores were significantly correlated in the spring, but this correlation was substantially reduced when controlling for attentional capacity. Prediction analysis revealed that attentional capacity has developmental priority over the acquisition of motor skills. Attentional capacity is therefore a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for successfully completing coordinated motor skills in young children. Attentional capacity plays a significant role in the relation between the development of gross motor and cognitive abilities. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Costa, P. T., Jr., R. R. McCrae, et al. (1995). "Persons, places and personality: Career assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory." Journal of Career Assessment 3(2): 123-139.
   The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) is a questionnaire measure of 30 traits that define the comprehensive 5-factor model (FFM) of personality. Data from police selection, college student, and Hispanic American samples illustrate the psychometric properties of the instrument. In vocational counseling, the NEO PI-R can supplement measures of vocational interests and abilities, especially by calling attention to the client's strengths and weaknesses in adjustment and motivation. Use of the NEO Job Profiler, a tool designed to help identify the personality requirements of different occupations, is illustrated in a police selection sample. Together, the NEO Job Profiler and NEO PI-R can help determine the optimal match between person and occupation. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Costa, P. T., Jr. and R. R. McCrae (1997). "Stability and change in personality assessment: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory in the Year 2000." Journal of Personality Assessment 68(1): 86-94.
   Describes some potential changes that could expand the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI--R). The NEO-PI--R consists of 30 facet scales that define the broad domains of the Five Factor Model of personality. No major revisions of the basic model are anticipated in the near future. Despite their popularity, social desirability and inconsistency scales will not be added to the NEO PI--R because their validity and utility have not yet been demonstrated. Among possible changes are minor modifications in wording and more extensive adaptations for adolescents and for populations with low reading levels. Contextualized (e.g., work-related) versions of the instrument will be further explored. The authors state that many changes are more easily implemented on the computer than the print version of the instrument. Therefore, customized software versions of the NEO-PI--R are a possibility within the next 5 yrs. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Costa, P. T., Jr. and R. R. McCrae (1998). "Six approaches to the explication of facet-level traits: Examples from conscientiousness." European Journal of Personality 12(2): 117-134.
   Proponents of the Five-Factor Model of personality (R. R. McCrae and O. P. John, 1992) have argued for somewhat different conceptualizations of the factors. Ultimately, the factors are best understood by a specification of the traits (or facets) that define them, and these facets in turn must be clearly conceptualized. Using as examples the Conscientiousness facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. MCCrae, 1992), the authors discuss 6 approaches to understanding facet level traits: (1) rational analysis of item content; (2) characterization of the low pole, the psychological opposite; (3) interpretation of external correlates; (4) examination of secondary and tertiary factor loadings; (5) translation into the specialized languages of applied psychology; and (6) case studies. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Costa, P. T., Jr., J. H. Herbst, et al. (2000). "Personality at midlife: Stability, intrinsic maturation, and response to life events." Assessment 7(4): 365-378.
   Although developmental theories and popular accounts suggest that midlife is a time of turmoil and change, longitudinal studies of personality traits have generally found stability of rank order and little or no change in mean levels. Using data from 2,274 men and women in their 40s retested after 6 to 9 yrs, the present study examined 2 hypotheses: (1) that retest correlations should be no higher than about .60 and (2) that there should be small decreases in Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness, and small increases in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The study also explored the effects of recalled life events on subsequent personality scores. Results did not support the first hypothesis; uncorrected retest correlations uniformly exceeded .60. This was true for all personality traits, including facets of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness not previously included in longitudinal studies. The hypothesized decreases in Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness were found, but Conscientiousness showed a small decrease instead of the predicted increase. Life events in general showed very little influence on the levels of personality traits, although some effects were seen for changes in job and marital status that warrant further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Costa, P. T., Jr., R. R. McCrae, et al. (2000). Personality development from adolescence through adulthood: Further cross-cultural comparisons of age differences. Temperament and
   personality development across the life span. V. J. Molfese, D. L. Molfese and et al. Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 235-252.
chapter: The terms personality and temperament are variously defined, but the former seems more congenial to those who study the social sciences, whereas the latter probably appeals to those with an interest in biology. Cross-cultural research would seem to provide an ideal opportunity to showcase the importance of social factors in determining adult development, but to date the major conclusion from cross-cultural studies has been that personality development proceeds in much the same way in every culture. The more personality development is examined across cultures, the more personality begins to look like temperament. /// Topics include: adult personality development: an overview; age trends in Russia, Japan, and Estonia (analyses of the 5 factors-Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness; analyses of NEO-PI-R facets); and adult development of temperament in context. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Courneya, K. S. and L.-A. M. Hellsten (1998). "Personality correlates of exercise behavior, motives, barriers and preferences: An application of the five-factor model." Personality & Individual Differences 24(5): 625-633
   Examined the relationship between personality and exercise behavior, motives, barriers and preferences. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality was selected to guide this investigation. Ss were 264 undergraduates who completed a battery of self-administered questionnaires including the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (G. Godin and R. J. Shephard, 1985). Extraversion and conscientiousness were positively related, whereas neuroticism was negatively related to exercise behavior. Each "Big Five" dimension correlated with theoretically expected exercise motives. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were the personality dimensions most consistently related to exercise barriers. All "Big Five" personality dimensions were related to some aspect of preferences for exercise context and structure. It was concluded that the FFM may be a useful framework for understanding not only how much exercise people perform, but also their exercise motives, barriers, and preferences. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 .Cowden, J. A. (1999). "Self-effacing and self-defeating leadership: Adlai E. Stevenson." Political Psychology 20(4): 845-874.
   Using neo-Freudian analysis, this essay argues that as a child Adlai Stevenson experienced shame, anxiety, and ambivalence about the value and consequences of his initiative and autonomy. The author maintains that he responded with an imaginative coping mechanism, creating an idealized image in which ambition and autonomy were subordinated to duty and service. It is suggested that after a sequence of searing events during the Eriksonian period of identity versus role confusion, he resolved his identity crisis by becoming, in his mind, his idealized image. The author contends that this conception of Stevenson's character provides an explanation of his behavior in the presidential nomination contests of 1952 and 1960. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cox, B. J., S. C. Borger, et al. (1999). "Anxiety sensitivity and the five-factor model of personality." Behaviour Research & Therapy 37(7): 633-641.
   Relations between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and the higher-order and lower-order dimensions of the "Big Five" model of personality were examined in 317 undergraduates. AS was significantly associated with a number of personality domains and facets of the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992). Regression analyses indicated that only the higher-order domains of neuroticism and extraversion (negatively) and the lower-order N facets of anxiety and self-consciousness significantly predicted AS. Three lower-order factors within AS were identified and were also compared to NEO-PI-R domains and facets. In a hierarchical regression, the 3 AS factors significantly predicted variance in a measure of panic-related anxiety after the effects of the 6 N facets were statistically controlled. Results are discussed in the context of previous work with a Big Three taxonomy of personality, and implications for understanding the nature and possible origins of AS are outlined. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cox, B. J., S. C. Borger, et al. (2000). "Dimensions of hypochondriasis and the five-factor model of personality." Personality & Individual Differences 29(1): 99-108.
   Relations between dimensions of hypochondriasis assessed by the Illness Attitudes Scales (IAS) and the higher-order and lower-order dimensions of the "Big Five" model of personality were examined in 309 university students. Factor analysis revealed 5 IAS dimensions, similar to those identified in previous studies: Fear of Illness and Death, Treatment Experience, Symptom Effects, Disease Phobia and Conviction, and Health Habits. These dimensions in turn loaded on to 2 higher-order factors: Health Anxiety and Health Behaviors. To help clarify the meaning of the dimensions and the 2 higher-order factors, a series of regression analyses were conducted using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory personality domains and facets. Neuroticism, and its facet of anxiety, were significant predictors of several IAS dimensions and the higher-order factor of Health Anxiety. In contrast, Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of one of the IAS dimensions and the 2nd higher-order factor of Health Behaviors. The results suggest that some IAS dimensions are reflective of specific and core features of hypochondriasis while other IAS dimensions are generally nonspecific or too peripheral, and may in fact assess adaptive functioning. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Craig, R. J., R. A. Loheidi, et al. (1998). "Relationship between psychological needs and the Five-Factor model of personality classification." Journal of Research in Personality 32(4): 519-527.
   Examined the relationship between psychological needs, operationalized by the Adjective Check List (ACL) and the Five-Factor model of personality classficiation, operationalized by the NEO-PI-R. Whether the Five-Factor model of personality was present in the Adjective Check List (ACL) was examined among 101 female and 46 male 21-52 yr old graduate students in order to extend this research to populations not previously researched with the ACL and Five-Factor model. The instruments were compared regarding their individual scales. Presence of the Five Factors in the ACL was found in that 30 of 37 ACL scales correlated greater than 40 with at least 1 of the NEOPI-R factors. It is concluded that this replicates and extends previous findings and is further evidence of construct validity of the Five-Factor model, as it pertains to personality classification. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Crandall, B. D. (1998). "Item response latency in computerized personality assessment and the effect of socially desirable responding." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(3-B): 1363.
   This study examined the relationship among item response latency, response and personality scale and the effect of social desirability on this relationship. A computerized version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) was administered to 200 university students. Randomly divided, half the participants were given standard test instructions, while the other half were given instructions to fake good. The relationship among these variables was analyzed using both correlational methods and hierarchical linear modeling procedures. The results indicated that the relationship between item response latency and the respective item response followed an inverted curvilinear pattern. For three of the five NEO PI-R personality domains, the linear relationship between response latency and level of endorsement tended to vary negatively as a function of domain score This relationship was observed only with items keyed within the particular domain. For participants in the fake good instruction group, the results indicated that as these individuals responded in a manner increasingly consistent with socially desirability, the inverted curvilinear relationship between response latency and response tended to become more pronounced and response latency for a neutral response tended to increase. This change in curvilinearity and increase in neutral response latency was not observed for individuals in the standard instruction group. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Creed, A. T. and D. C. Funder (1998). "The two faces of private self-consciousness: Self report, peer-report, and behavioral correlates." European Journal of Personality 12(6): 411-431.
   The positive and negative aspects of private self-consciousness were examined through a variety of methods. Previous analyses have revealed that the private self-consciousness factor of the Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS) consists of 2 factors. A principal-components analysis confirmed the presence of these factors in a new sample of 149 undergraduates (83 females, 66 males), and identified the relevant items. Scores on these factors, named internal state awareness and self-reflectiveness, exhibited a markedly different pattern of personality correlates with both self- and peer-descriptions of personality and scores on 3 of the Big-Five NEO-Personality Intentory Factors. While the content of the interpersonal behavior correlates of internal state awareness is almost universally positive, that of self-reflectiveness is largely negative in both self and peer descriptions of personality. These results suggest that, while a high level of self-reflectiveness may entail a psychologically maladaptive style of private self-consciousness, a high level of internal state awareness may be one manifestation of psychological health. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Crivelli, C., A. Donati, et al. (1998). "Cerebral palsy in Down's syndrome children: Another two cases." Italian Journal of Intellective Impairment 11(1): 31-37, 79-85.
   Describes the addition of 2 new cases (for a total of 5) of cerebral palsy (CP), within an unselected consecutive cohort of 551 home-reared Down's syndrome persons from regions in Italy, as part of an epidemiological survey. In 3 Ss, CP was surely postnatal, in another it was almost surely the same, and in the last case it was undecided. The 2 new cases (males aged 8.8 and 15 yrs with standard trisomy 21) are extensively described. The prevalence of postnatal CP in this cohort is considered to be extraordinary. Although the occurrence of CP following pre-, peri- and neo-natal insults is not denied, the present epidemiological data seem supportive of the hypothesis that Down's syndrome Ss are protected during the fetal stage, at birth and in the 1st days of life from the paralytic outcomes of anoxic-ischemic damages. An Italian version of this article appears on pages 79-85. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Crowe, M. (1997). "An analysis of the sociopolitical context of mental health nursing practice." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Mental Heath Nursing 6(2): 59-65.
   Explores the delivery of mental health nursing care within a neo-liberal model of mental health care delivery in New Zealand. Mental health nursing as a socially constructed activity occurs within a particular sociopolitical context that determines its role and function. This environment determines the nature of the nurse-patient relationship, which is integral to the role of mental health nurses. Critical analysis of the New Zealand Government's neo-liberal health policies is conducted to explore their effects on mental health care delivery and the nurse-patient relationship. Some of the ideologies and values maintained by current dominant discourses within nursing and the State are discussed, in particular, the discourse of caring. To establish therapeutic partnerships with service users, mental health nurses are urged to critically analyze their practice and the context in which it occurs. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Csarny, R. J. (1998). "The incremental validity of religious constructs in predicting quality of life, racism, and sexual attitudes." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(3-B): 1403.
   This study examined the degree to which certain religious/spiritual constructs simply reflect personality variables and to what extent they describe unique components of individual differences. It assessed the incremental validity of several recent or widely used religious measures over personality dimensions in predicting quality of life, racism, and sexual attitudes in a national sample of religiously committed adult Christians (n = 386). Religious measures were chosen to reflect a variety of constructs and included the Faith Maturity Scale, Greeley Grace Scale (a measure of images of God), Religious Problem-Solving Scale, Spiritual Experience Index--Revised (a measure of spiritual maturity), and the Ways of Religious Coping Scale. Personality was measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in order to provide an adequate and universal framework. Criterion variables representing constructs important to both psychology and religion included the Life Satisfaction Domains and the Life-3, Modern Racism, and the Valois Sexual Attitude scales. Step-wise regression analysis indicated that most religious measures contributed significant variance above personality to the prediction of racism (from.8% to 7.6%) and sexual attitudes (from 1.7% to 19.6%), but the contribution to quality of life was notably uneven (from.6% to 1.7%). The Faith Maturity Scale and the Spiritual Experience Index showed the most consistent indications of incremental validity across the chosen outcomes, while the Greeley Grace Scale showed the least. Results suggest that religious and spiritual constructs should be carefully selected because some popular constructs may offer little additional predictive ability apart from personality. Results also suggest that selected religious constructs are important predictors distinct from the current five-factor personality model and may represent unique and potentially interesting descriptors of individual differences useful for both mainstream research and clinical practice. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cullis, J. G. and A. Lewis (1997). "Why people pay taxes: From a conventional economic model to a model of social convention." Journal of Economic Psychology 18(2-3): 305-321.
   journal abstract: This paper compares "chauvinistic" models of tax (non)compliance derived from mainstream neo-classical economics with the "softy" approach of some psychologists, sociologists and other interested parties. A "third way" is developed which takes preferences over conformity to social conventions into account, is more process orientated and less deterministic than traditional economic models yet maintains their characteristic deductive stance. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Curtin, M. (1999). "Feminine desire in the age of satellite television." Journal of Communication 49(2): 55-70.
   journal abstract: Television texts around the world increasingly feature female characters who resist or reformulate conventional gender roles. This trend seems to defy expectations that the concentration of media ownership leads to a conservative, homogeneous flow of popular imagery. Such an apparent contradiction can be explained by close analysis of the strategies, operations, and discourse of culture industries in the neo-network era of satellite and cable media. This era is paradoxically characterized by corporate conglomeration and by strategies of flexibility and decentralization. Consequently, media firms actually benefit from the transnational circulation of multiple and alternative representations of feminine desire. Although this does not necessarily democratize media, in most societies it significantly expands the range of feminine imagery available in popular culture. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Cutchin, G. C. (1999). "Relationships between the big five personality factors and performance criteria for in-service high-school teachers." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(7-A): 2263.
   The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between in-service teacher personality characteristics, as measured within the framework of the five-factor personality model by the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised, and teacher performance criteria, as measured by three methods: student ratings, administrator ratings, and teacher self-ratings. Participants included 138 in-service high-school teachers who took part in this study, together with 26 principals, and 1080 students. Results of the study suggested the existence of low but statistically significant negative relationships between the personality domains of Neuroticism and Agreeableness and teacher performance as measured by administrator and teacher self-ratings. A significant positive relationship was indicated between the personality domain of Extraversion and teacher performance as measured by teacher self-ratings. At the sub-domain (facet) level, Depression, Positive Emotions, Straightforwardness, Altruism, and Tender Mindedness were found to have a significant negative relationship with teacher performance as measured by the teacher self-ratings and the ratings of administrators. The personality facets of Gregariousness, Openness to Ideas, Openness to Values, Trust, Order, and Achievement Striving were significantly positively related to teacher performance as measured by the ratings of students, administrators, or teachers themselves. Based on these analyses, it would appear that teachers who enjoy the company of others, exhibit an open-mindedness toward new ideas, report a willingness to reexamine social values, are trusting and well organized, and strive to achieve their goals may be given higher performance ratings by students, administrators, and/or themselves than they give to teachers who do not exhibit these traits. Conversely, the data suggested that teachers who are depressed, show strong concern for others, and are sympathetic or frank may be given lower ratings by these groups than teachers who do not exhibit these traits. The data suggested that teachers who demonstrate the personality characteristics associated with agreeableness and altruism may receive lower performance ratings by administrators than do teachers who tend toward a willingness to be firm in their dealings with others. Although a number of the correlations were statistically significant at the 0.10 level, most were small in size necessitating the use of caution in their interpretation. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Dalton, S. E. and D. D. Bielby (2000). ""That's our kind of constellation": Lesbian mothers negotiate institutionalized understandings of gender within the family." Gender & Society 14(1): 36-61.
   Discusses a neo-institutionalist approach to sex, gender, and sexual orientation and how they intersect in lesbian headed 2 parent families. Institutionalist theory tends to de-emphasize how actors deliberately construct social arrangements such as parenting roles within the family. The authors' analysis of interviews from 14 lesbian mothers remedies this deficiency by focusing both on how they draw upon and transform institutionalized scripts, practices, and understandings of family roles and relations. The findings reveal how these mothers reinscribed gendered understandings while simultaneously challenging heteronormative ones in their efforts to construct and maintain socially viable 2 parent families. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Danforth, S. (1999). "Pragmatism and the scientific validation of professional practices in American special education." Disability & Society 14(6): 733-751.
   A number of American special educators have recently stated that new professional practices should undergo a process of 'scientific validation' whereby researchers decide the effectiveness or value of the practice. This essay critiques this position by way of the philosophical framework of pragmatism, an American philosophy spanning from the works of C. Peirce, W. James and J. Dewey to the current writings of neo-pragmatists R. Rorty and C. West. Rorty's critique of the representational use of language is explained. Emphasis is placed on the importance of an equal, democratic dialogue in decision-making processes involving professionals, served individuals, and families. The essay concludes with a brief illustration of a pragmatist's approach to inclusive education for students with disability designations. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Das, J. P. (1999). "A neo-Lurian approach to assessment and remediation." Neuropsychology Review 9(2): 107-116.
   The 1st part of this article presents an operational battery of tasks for measuring the 4 cognitive processes of Planning, Arousal-Attention, and Simultaneous and Successive processing (PASS) not only based on the qualitative data provided in A. R. Luria's syndrome analysis, but also taken from tasks in experimental cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. The 2nd part of the article presents a remedial program based on PASS for enhancement of reading. In the 1st study, Ss were 22 children in a remedial reading group and 15 children in a comparison group. Ss in the remedial control group showed significant improvement in word reading and decoding. In the 2nd study, Ss were 78 children either in the remedial reading experimental group or in the control group. Results indicated that pre- and post-test gains for the control and experimental groups were significantly different; that is, the latter had higher scores. Because this part provides in some detail the efficacy of the remedial procedure, it simultaneously validates the PASS constructs as well. In both parts of the article, the author is guided by Luria's views: Tests are approaches to investigating cognitive functions, and the purpose of testing is to guide rehabilitation. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Davidson, W. B. and S. M. Logan (1998). "The development and validation of a brief Q-sort measure of personality, the Angelo Q-Set." Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior 35(2): 18-26.
   Reports the development of a brief, relatively comprehensive measure of personality based on the Q-sort technique, the Angelo Q-Set (AQS). It has 40 traits selected from qualities nested within the structure of the Big Five supertraits. It was administered to 332 undergraduates, aged 18-45 yrs, some of whom also completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Form S (P. T. Costa, Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1992). Others completed the AQS on 2 occasions to examine test-retest reliability. Results showed that AQS scores are reliable and correlate in expected ways with the Big Five supertraits. Factor analysis of the AQS revealed 6 orthogonal factors, 5 of which approximate the Big Five. Some possible applications of the AQS are discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 de Fatima Quintal de Freitas, M. (2000). "Voices from the south: The construction of Brazilian community social psychology." Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 10(4): 315-326.
   This paper focuses on community psychology practices developed in Brazil in the last 4 decades. These practices are situated in different historical periods in order to identify the paradigms and the theoretical and methodological aspects that have guided them. The paper outlines a debate between "old" and "new" community psychological practices and their corresponding philosophical foundations with the objective of establishing the elements that demarcate the Latin American experience in community social psychology. It is argued that there are philosophical and political differences between community social psychology and other psychological practices. The paper also discusses the possibilities and dangers associated with the work of community social psychology as it responds to demands of both civil society and neo-liberal governments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 De Fruyt, F. (1997). "Gender and individual differences in adult crying." Personality & Individual Differences 22(6): 937-940.
   Reports on gender and individual differences in adult crying with 105 Ss (aged 17-62 yrs) who filled out a questionnaire on adult crying (A. Vingerhoets, 1995) and 2 personality inventories: the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (P. Costa and R. McCrae, 1992) and the Five-factor Personality Inventory (J. Hendriks et al, 1995). The results showed that gender and personality substantially and independently contribute to the variance in weeping frequency. Women cry more often and perceive weeping more as a coping style. Neuroticism proved to be considerably correlated with weeping frequency and weeping as a coping style, even after partialling out the effects of gender and age. Extraversion was correlated with relief and positive feelings after crying. These results are discussed in the context of an ongoing international study on adult crying. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 De Fruyt, F. and I. Mervielde (1997). "The five-factor model of personality and Holland's RIASEC interest types." Personality & Individual Differences 23(1): 87-103.
   journal abstract: The relationships between the Big Five and Holland's RIASEC vocational interest model are investigated in a large sample of last-year students (N = 934) enrolled in different educational majors. In addition, the relationships between traits and Holland's concepts of congruency, consistency and differentiation are investigated, as well as the relations between traits and response sets to interest inventories. The five factors are assessed with a Dutch/Flemish adaptation of the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the RIASEC types are assessed with the Self-Directed Search (Holland, 1977, 1979). The correspondence between both models is investigated using correlational and exploratory factor analysis. The results show that all Big Five domain factors are significantly related to at least one or more RIASEC types, but not all RIASEC scales are correlated with the Big Five. Especially the Realistic scale and to a lesser extent the Investigative scale are not represented in the Big Five. The findings of this study replicate and extend former findings by Costa, McCrae and Holland (1984) and Gottfredson, Jones and Holland (1993). The results suggest that there is considerable overlap between both models, but that they also account for unique variance. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 De Fruyt, F. and I. Mervielde (1998). "The assessment of the Big Five in the Dutch language domain." Psychologica Belgica 38(1): 1-22.
   Provides an overview of the inventories and methods available to assess the Big Five personality factors in the Dutch language domain. The review covers both instruments relevant to research and/or clinical practice and includes a discussion of their background, applications, and current status. Special consideration is given to new developments regarding the personality assessment of children. The article provides empirical data on the concurrent validity of the Big 5 Bipolaire Beoordelingsschalen, the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised, and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 De Fruyt, F. and I. Mervielde (1999). "RIASEC types and big five traits as predictors of employment status and nature of employment." Personnel Psychology 52(3): 701-727.
   This prospective study investigated the validity of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality and J.L. Holland's RLASEC vocational interest typology in predicting employment status and the nature of employment in a sample of graduating college seniors as they entered the job market. A sample of 934 senior college graduates enrolled in various academic subjects filled in The NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised and Holland's Self-Directed Search (1979). One year after graduation, they were requested to describe their labor market positions and jobs, using the Position Classification Inventory. The results show that Extraversion and Conscientiousness were the only valid predictors of employment status and that vocational interests did not show incremental validity over and above these factors. The findings are discussed in the framework of B. Schneider's Attraction-Selection-Attrition theory (see record 1988-09366-001), concluding that Holland's RIASEC model is more employee-driven, being better at predicting the nature of employment, whereas the FFM is more employer-oriented, with greater validity in evaluating the employability and employment status of applicants. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 De Fruyt, F., I. Mervielde, et al. (2000). "Assessing adolescents' personality with the NEO PI-R." Assessment 7(4): 329-345.
   The suitability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) to assess adolescents' personality traits was investigated in an unselected heterogeneous sample of 469 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. They were further administered the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) to allow an examination of convergent and discriminant validity. The adult NEO PI-R factor structure proved to be highly replicable in the sample of adolescents, with all facet scales primarily loading on the expected factors, independent of the age group. Domain and facet internal consistency coefficients were comparable to those obtained in adult samples, with less than 12% of the items showing corrected item-facet correlations below verticalintersecup arrow\.20verticalintersecup arrow\. Although, in general, adolescents reported few difficulties with the comprehensibility of the items, they tend to report more problems with the Openness to Ideas and Openness to Values items. Correlations between NEO PI-R and HiPIC scales underscored the convergent and discriminant validity of the NEO facets and HiPIC scales. It was concluded that the NEO PI-R in its present form is useful for assessing adolescents' traits at the primary level, but additional research is necessary to infer the most appropriate facet level structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 De Fruyt, F., L. V. De Wiele, et al. (2000). "Cloninger's psychobiological model of temperament and character and the Five-Factor Model of personality." Personality & Individual Differences 29(3): 441-452.
   Cloninger's psychobiological model identifies 4 dimensions of temperament and 3 dimension of character. The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality proposes the domains of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness as the basic dimensions underlying individual differences. Five-factor scores are obtained with the NEO-PI-R. Cloninger's personality dimensions are assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). This study describes the relationships between Cloninger's 7-dimensional model and the FFM of personality at the phenotypic domain and fact level. A random sample of 130 15-78 yr old patients admitted for observation and diagnosis to the psychiatric unit of a large university hospital participated in the study. Ss were administered Dutch translations of the NEO-PI-R and the TCI. Considerable overlap with the FFM dimensions is demonstrated and the results show that each TCI factor is substantially covered by the FFM. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 de Lint, W. (1998). "Regulation autonomy: Police discretion as a problem for training." Canadian Journal of Criminology 40(3): 277-304.
   Analyzes 2 recent examples of police training as illustrations of a new approach to the governance or regulation of police through their discretion. While previous to the 1960's, training left police discretion under the purview of the occupational culture and common sense approaches, subsequently attention has been paid to structuring discretionary decision-making through training. This training has taken 2 general policy approaches. The 1st has been to try to require a more educated police candidate, and thereby to compel decision-making towards liberal values. The 2nd has been to use technical training devices in the aim of blending these values into practical training. It is argued that technical training under the auspices of new managerial regulatory agendas is winning out. This technical training tends to celebrate the police officer as a chooser, and is in this way consistent with neo-liberal policy direction. Implications of the police officer as a chooser are discussed. (French abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Demause, L. (1999). "Childhood and cultural evolution." Journal of Psychohistory 26(3): 643-723.
   Since nearly all of the cultural evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens has taken place during the past 100,000 years and since this time span is too short to allow the human gene pool to mutate very much, epigenetic evolution of the psyche--the evolution of the architecture of the brain occurring during development in the womb and during early childhood--must be the central source of cultural change, rather than genetic evolution. Since environmental selection of random genetic variations is not the central mechanism for evolution in modern human neuronal networks, the question is what non-Darwinian processes have been responsible for the enormous evolution of brain networks and cultures in modern humans? Psychogenesis is the key to cultural evolution, since the range of evolution of childrearing in every society puts inevitable limits upon what it can accomplish--politically, economically and socially. Topics discussed include: differences between historical and neo-Darwinian evolution; the "hopeful daughter" and the psychogenic cul-de-sac; love and freedom--not complexity--the measure of evolutionary progress; the evolution of parenting; the six childrearing modes; the psychogenic pump; psychogenic devolution; and childrearing and cultural evolution in New Guinea. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Dempster, F. N. and A. J. Corkill (1999). Neo-interference research and the development of intelligence. The development of intelligence. M. Anderson. Hove, England, Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis (UK): 215-243.
   chapter: Describes neo-interference research on cognition, which has its roots in classical inference theory. The authors review traditional explanations of developmental and individual differences, including knowledge-based theories, activation resource theories, and strategy theories. Shortcomings of these theories which helped to stimulate interest in the interference concept, are discussed. The authors attempt to show how these traditional approaches differ from neo-interference research. Three neo-interference theories are focused on: resistance to interference theory, inefficient inhibition theory, and fuzzy-trace theory. Each of these theories uses interference concepts to explain aspects of the development of intelligence. Specific phenomena within several domains are used to illustrate the wide scope of neo-interference research. These interference domains are search, selective attention, recall, comprehension, and reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Dhokalia, A., D. J. Parsons, et al. (1998). "Resting end-tidal CO-sub-2 association with age, gender, and personality." Psychosomatic Medicine 60(1): 33-37.
   D. E. Anderson et al (1996) found that individuals with blood pressure sensitivity to high sodium intake tend to have a high resting partial pressure of end-tidal CO-sub-2 (PetCO-sub-2). The present study analyzed the test-retest reliability of individual PetCO-sub-2 over 6 mo, and the association of individual PetCO-sub-2 with age, gender, and personality characteristics. PetCO-sub-2 of 44 men and 60 women (30 yrs old and younger to 60 yrs old and older) was monitored via a respiratory gas monitor for 25 min during each of 3 sessions over an 11-day interval, and 59 Ss also participated in a 25-min follow-up session 261 +- 10 days later. Each S completed the NEO Personality Inventory. PetCO-sub-2 remained stable within and between monitoring sessions over a 6-mo period. PetCO-sub-2 was higher in men than in women, and decreased progressively over the life span. PetCO-sub-2 was not correlated with the Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, or Conscientiousness scales of the NEO Personality Inventory, but was highly positively associated with the Neuroticism scale of the NEO Personality Inventory, and with its subscales. Results indicate that high resting end-tidal CO-sub-2 tends to be a stable individual characteristic that is accompanied by a tendency to worry and experience negative emotions. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Di Biase, M. (1999). "Perfectionism in relation to irrational beliefs and neuroticism in community college students." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(11-A): 4053.
   This study examined the construct of perfectionism and how it is related to irrational beliefs and neuroticism. A sample of 198 community college students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Hewitt & Flett, 1991b), the Survey of Personal Beliefs (SPB; Demaria, Kassinove, & Dill, 1989; Kassinove, 1986), and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory neuroticism scale (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1989). The MPS measures self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. The SPB measures five primary forms of irrational thinking espoused by Ellis' Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) model: (a) awfulizing beliefs, (b) self-directed shoulds, (c) other-directed shoulds, (d) low frustration tolerance, and (e) self-worth beliefs. The SPB also provides a total irrationality score. The NEO-FFI neuroticism scale measures general emotional instability. The following hypotheses were tested: (a) Perfectionism would be associated with irrational beliefs, (b) Perfectionism would be associated with neuroticism, and (c) Irrationality would mediate the relationship between perfectionism and neuroticism. Data analyses revealed that all three perfectionism dimensions were weakly associated with irrational beliefs for both males and females. Socially prescribed perfectionism was correlated with neuroticism for males, and both other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were associated with neuroticism for females. Total irrationality was found to be significant in mediating the relationship between perfectionism and neuroticism. The obtained results may have implications for the cognitive-behavioral understanding and treatment of individuals presenting with underlying perfectionistic traits. The limitations of this study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Diehl, M., R. Ziegler, et al. (1998). "Persoenlichkeit und Persuasion: Die Ueberpruefung der Validitaet einer Konsumententypologie. Personality and persuasion: An empirical test of a consumer typology's validity." Zeitschrift fuer Sozialpsychologie 29(2): 134-146.
   Tested the validity of a lay psychological consumer typology. Human Ss: 60 male and female normal German adults (university students) (mean age 25.2 yrs). Ss viewed 1 of 3 versions of a sales presentation for a financial services product. Each presentation matched a specific type: (1) the egotistical-narcissistic type; (2) the friendly-open type; or (3) the no-nonsense-authoritative type. Ss completed questionnaires relating to type-specific attributes of the different persuasive communications. The effectiveness of persuasion was related to the personality type of the subject and the persuasive communication used. Personality-based differences in motives while processing persuasive messages were discussed. Test used: NEO Personality Inventory. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 DiPardo, A. (2000). "What a little hate literature will do: "Cultural issues" and the emotional aspect of school change." Anthropology & Education Quarterly 31(3): 306-332.
   Describing a class entitled "Cultural Issues," this article is drawn from an ethnographic study of an affluent, predominantly White high school responding to recent neo-Nazi incidents. The study was drawn from a larger ethnographic exploration of teacher collaboration at 5 Midwestern public schools. The author argues that in focusing on cultural issues around the world rather than those close at hand, the course depoliticized ethnic difference and left unchallenged White privileging at the levels of classroom, school, and community. This neutralizing urge is traced to collective emotions of shame and guilt, which prompted well-intentioned efforts to bolster the school's reputation but prohibited critical exploration of inequity and conflict. Teachers would need to begin such a journey well in advance of leading students--requiring a substantial investment in terms of reflecting, talking, and exploring emotionally charged issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Dollinger, S. J. and A. K. LaMartina (1998). "A note on moral reasoning and the five-factor model." Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 13(2): 349-358.
   In a sample of 122 adults (aged 18-46 yrs), the five-factor model was used to predict moral reasoning (using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Defining Issues Test, respectively). It was predicted, and found, that principled moral reasoning would relate to markers of intellectual-academic ability (GPA, vocabulary, reading as a leisure choice) and to the big-five factor of openness to experience, but not to the factors of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, or conscientiousness. The relation of openness and moral reasoning remained significant, albeit lower in magnitude, when intellectual measures were partialled out. It is concluded that openness to experience is the big-five factor that best predicts moral reasoning. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Domitrovic, L. A. (1998). "Rorschach responses in older adults differing in residential status: Resource and trait theory perspectives." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(9-B): 5112.
   Rorschach responses are the product of cognitive processes influenced by the underlying personality dynamics of the individual. Age-related changes in Rorschach responding have been well-documented, as have performance declines on numerous cognitive tasks. Resource theory posits that age-associated decrements in information processing may account for these cognitive differences. This study examined Rorschach responses in older adults differing in residential status in light of both Resource theory and the five-factor model of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Forty community-dwellers and forty care facility residents who had sufficient sensory and motor abilities to complete all tasks independently, and who passed mental status criteria, participated. The Digit Symbol Substitution subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised served as the measure of information processing; personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI. Each participant was administered the Rorschach and selected measures of general cognition and depression. Differences in personality attributes as a function of residential status were not expected, but it was predicted that community-dwellers would process information more rapidly. It was also hypothesized that faster information processing rates, higher scores on the personality domains of Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Extraversion, and lower scores on Neuroticism, would be associated with more productive and higher quality Rorschach protocols. Residents of care facilities were slower information processors than community-dwellers, as predicted. Rorschach performance did not differ as a result of residential status, when age and health status were controlled. Information processing rate and Openness, both together (r =.58) and independently (sr =.42 and.26, respectively), accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in a General Response Process factor variable primarily composed of R, P, and M. Agreeableness was found to be a significant predictor of scores on a Perceptual Accuracy Factor (r =.29) principally defined by F+%, X+%, and X-%. Openness was significantly associated with a factor variable representing Holistic Integration (r =.28) characterized principally by W and Zf. The results suggest that information processing rate and certain personality factors influence at least some aspects of Rorschach response formation in older adults. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Doster, J. A., S. E. Wilcox, et al. (2000). "Stability and factor structure of the Jackson Personality Inventory--Revised." Psychological Reports 86(2): 421-428.
   The Jackson Personality Inventory--Revised comprises 15 bipolar scales and 5 cluster scores concerning an individual's interpersonal patterns of interaction, cognitive styles, and value orientation. Recent reviews of this revised version raise questions about test-retest stability as well as the factor structure on which cluster scores are based. 74 men and 33 women (aged 29-63 yrs) completed the inventory while participating in a continuing education program. Of these 45 participated in a second session 13 wks later. Test-retest correlations are significant, with 12 of the 15 scales having correlations >=.75. A Principal Components Analysis with a varimax rotation yielded 3 factors that parallel the NEO big 5; i.e., Openness, Neuroticism, and Extroversion and replicated previous factor structure found for both versions of the Jackson inventory. The 4th and 5th factors here were labeled Trustworthy and Organization; however, the composition of these factors across several studies appears to be unstable, suggesting optimal certainty when interpreting the clusters of subscales associated only with Openness, Neuroticism, and Extroversion. Further research may help clarify the instability associated with the other factors of this inventory. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Dowlatshahi, D., G. MacQueen, et al. (2000). "Increased hippocampal supragranular Timm staining in subjects with bipolar disorder." Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research 11(17): 3775-3778.
   Examined the organization of mossy fibers in the anterior hippocampus of postmortem Ss obtained from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. Frozen hippocampal sections from 40 25-68 yr old Ss who had major depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, and 15 non-psychiatric controls were stained using the Neo-Timm procedure, which selectively stains mossy fibers. Increased Timm staining in the supragranular layer was found in Ss with bipolar disorder, relative to control Ss. These results are suggestive of neuronal sprouting in the hippocampus of Ss with bipolar disorder. There were no significant associations between supragranular Timm staining and suicide, length of illness or antidepressant drug treatment at the time of death. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Doxsee, D. J. (1999). "Hindering events in group counseling and psychotherapy." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(7-B): 3687.
   This study replicated, in part, and extend the results of Doxsee and Kivlighans' (1994) effort to delineate a taxonomy of client-identified factors that are reported to exert a negative, non-helpful or hindering impact on the group therapy process. Data was collected from therapy groups on a university campus, outpatient groups at a VA hospital, and at a community mental health facility; as well as from health-related support groups that use health care professionals as group leaders. The critical incident method was used to collect descriptions of group-member identified hindering events. Cluster analysis was applied to the data to identify the categories of hindering events reported, and multidimensional scaling was used to assess the dimensions underlying the categories identified. In order to aid in the assessment of the presence of confounds and thus aid in evaluating the generalizability of the clusters identified, individual differences in personality and psychological distress were measured by the use of the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF). Analysis of variance was used to analyze the relationship between the clusters of hindering events and individual differences as reflected by selected scales of the NEO-FFI, POMS-SF and other demographic factors. Ultimately, five categories of hindering events were identified: (1) negative participation (subcategories: excessive participation and ineffective participation); (2) unmet expectations (subcategories: impaired trust and unmet expectations); (3) alienation/overstimulation; (4) shallow session; and (5) negative leader actions/interventions. Three underlying dimensions were identified for these five categories of events: feelings v. behaviors; passive/indirect impact v. active/direct impact; and group attribute v. individual member attribute. Generally, the characteristics of group participants did not vary across categories of events. However, members who identified events characterized as 'alienation/overstimulation' also endorsed higher levels of overall psychological distress as indicated by the Total Mood Disturbance Score of the POMS-SF. And, it appears that events included in the second and third categories of events ('unmet expectations' and 'alienation/overstimulation') were generated exclusively by women; while events included in the first category (negative participation) were disproportionately generated by men. These categories roughly align along the underlying dimensions such that the women in the sample appear to have identified events characterizing the pole labeled 'feelings' and the men in this study appear to have identified events characterizing the pole labeled 'behaviors.' These findings suggest that further exploration of gender differences in the identification of hindering events in group psychotherapy is clearly warranted. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Drossman, D. A., J. Leserman, et al. (2000). "Effects of coping on health outcome among women with gastrointestinal disorders." Psychosomatic Medicine 62(3): 309-317.
   Examined the effect of different coping strategies on the health outcome of women with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and how these coping strategies may modify the effects of education, GI disease type, neuroticism, and abuse severity on health outcome. 174 18-70 yr old patients from a referral GI clinic were followed for 12 mo to assess their health status as a derived variable of daily pain, bed disability days, psychological distress, daily dysfunction, number of visits to physicians, and number of surgeries and procedures. GI diagnosis (functional vs. organic), neuroticism score (NEO Personality Inventory), sexual and/or physical abuse history, and scores on 2 coping questionnaires were obtained at baseline. Results show that a higher score on the Catastrophizing scale and a lower score on the Self-Perceived Ability to Decrease Symptoms scale predicted poor health outcome. Less education, a functional GI diagnosis, a higher neuroticism score, and greater abuse severity also contributed to poor health status. The effect of GI disease type and neuroticism on health outcome was significantly reduced by the coping measures. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Druschel, B. A. and M. F. Sherman (1999). "Disgust sensitivity as a function of the Big Five and gender." Personality & Individual Differences 26(4): 739-748.
   Explored relationships among disgust sensitivity, the Big Five personality structure, and gender among 83 female and 49 male undergraduates. Ss completed the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised and the Disgust Scale. Disgust sensitivity varied according to gender, which is consistent with previous research. Women reported greater sensitivity to disgust stimuli than did men. Data also supported the hypothesized positive relationship between neuroticism and disgust sensitivity as well as a negative relationship between openness to experience and disgust sensitivity. In addition, positive relationship were found between Agreeableness and Conscientiousness and disgust sensitivity. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Dufour, D.-R. (2000). "Modernity, postmodernity, and adolescence." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society 5(2): 319-324.
   Reflects upon the neo-liberalistic mutation of modernity, examining, in terms of a social clinical approach, the extent to which the loss of the Other inflicts new suffering on the subjects of postmodernity, particularly adolescents. Modernity is stated as being the collective space where the subject is subjected to the Other in its mutable forms as God, gods, the king, the Republic, the People, etc., thus explaining why modernity is the choice environment for neurosis. The author then examines our current postmodernity, where the social subject is no longer defined by some aspect of the Other, but by itself, giving the speaking subject a self-referential definition formerly used for the Other. The author opines that it is naturally for adolescents that this absence of the Other is most harmful, because adolescence is exactly the age of the search for an Other to which one's life will be devoted. He examines the 3 possibilities seemingly used by teens of postmodern societies to deal with this loss: two, relating to the choice of an ersatz supposed to compensate for the deficiency of the Other, and the third, corresponding to an attempt to do without the Other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Dumaret, A. C., M. Duyme, et al. (1997). "Foster children: Risk factors and development at a preschool age." Early Child Development & Care 134: 23-42.
   Examined the family backgrounds, health, and developmental characteristics of 127 children (mean age 4 yrs 10 mo) from disadvantaged and deprived environments who were adopted after the age of 4. Ss had below-average IQ scores. A second aim was to analyze the origins of IQ variations and the effects of peri- and post-natal variables on behavior problems. Parental psychosocial antecedents, medical and health problems, and difficulties in infancy were more frequent in this group than in the general population. 48% of Ss had emotional and/or behavioral problems. Some risk factors were greater for maltreated children: including maternal alcoholism, mental retardation, and family problems. Peri- and neo-natal risk factors were accompanied by significant decreases in IQ scores for the whole cohort. Cumulative health problems were also correlated with low IQs. After adjustment to account for confounding factors, results show that late age of placement, neglect, and abuse increased emotional and/or behavioral problems in a statistically significant way. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Dunkley, D. M., K. R. Blankstein, et al. (1997). "Specific cognitive-personality vulnerability styles in depression and the five-factor model of personality." Personality & Individual Differences 23(6): 1041-1053.
   This study located the specific cognitive-personality vulnerability measures proposed by S. J. Blatt (see record 55-12367), i.e., dependency and self-criticism, and by A. T. Beck (1983), i.e. sociotropy and autonomy, within a comprehensive measure of personality, the NEO-PI-R developed by P. T. Costa, Jr. & R. R. McCrae (1992). University students (102 men, 131 women) completed the NEO-PI-R, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, the Revised Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale, and CES-D depression. Results indicated that: (1) the 30 NEO-PI-R facets illuminate the similarities and differences between dependency, sociotropy, self-criticism, and autonomy; (2) the different forms of interpersonal content reflected by the specific vulnerability constructs descriptively distinguish them from the neuroticism domain and its facets; and (3) the main effects of dependency, sociotropy, self-criticism, and autonomy in predicting depression are explained by shared variance with neuroticism. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Dyce, J. A. (1998). "Structure and correlates of personality disorders." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(10-B): 5686.
   The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the structure and correlates of personality disorders (PDs). To accomplish this objective, 659 undergraduate students provided self-reports to the MCMI-III (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition, Millon, 1994a), the Interpersonal Adjective Scales Revised (IASR; Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988), and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PIR; Costa & McCrae, 1992a). To provide an alternative source of measurement, 231 peer-reports were provided by friends of the undergraduate students. Principal components analyses indicated that the structure of the MCMI-III consists of three factors, and these three factors appear to be similar for normal and abnormal samples. A number of MCMI-III PDs were clearly correlated with the IASR, thus providing some support for Wiggins's (1982) theory of PDs. Four of the five factors from the NEO-PIR (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) were clearly related to MCMI-III PDs, thus providing some support for Widiger's (1993) theory of PDs. Of these factors, the facets from Neuroticism (depression) and Agreeableness ('straightforwardness') appear to be important in the prediction of PDs. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Egan, V., J. Auty, et al. (1999). "Sensational interests and general personality traits." Journal of Forensic Psychiatry 10(3): 567-582.
   A Sensational Interests Questionnaire (SIQ) was developed to measure violent and unusual interests in a sample of 301 individuals, over 100 of whom were mentally disordered offenders. Ss completed the SIQ, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and the short form of the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale.The SIQ had high internal reliability and measured 5 dimensions: militarism; the violent-occult; intellectual interests; paranormal credulousness; and wholesome activities. Despite face-validity, some ostensibly sensational interests (for example, serial killers, true crime, and Hitler and Fascism) did not load significantly on the main factors of the SIQ. These items have high base-rates of interest in the general population, and thus lack discriminatory value. SIQ scores were correlated with the Big Five personality traits (Openness; Conscientiousness; Extroversion; Agreeableness; and Neuroticism) as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and an estimate of verbal IQ. Hyper-masculine interests were independently associated with higher Extroversion and lower verbal IQ, while violent-occult interests were independently associated with lower Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness; both factors were associated with younger age. The SIQ is appended. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Egan, V., M. McMurran, et al. (2000). "Criminal cognitions and personality: What does the PICTS really measure?" Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health 10(3): 170-184.
   Examined Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) scores in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. The original PICTS data-matrix (G. D. Walters, 1995) was re-analyzed using principal components analysis with rotation of the factors. The PICTS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders (mean age 30.83 yrs) along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results indicate that the PICTS comprised 2 factors: a lack of thoughtfulness, and willful hostility. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. It is argued that interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behavior may be effected by increasing thinking skills, breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Egan, V., I. Deary, et al. (2000). "The NEO-FFI: Emerging British norms and an item-level analysis suggest N, A and C are more reliable than O and E." Personality & Individual Differences 29(5): 907-920.
   journal abstract: The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was given to 1,025 British subjects as part of three independent research studies. Data from these studies were pooled and subjected to item-level analyses. Using standard scoring criteria from the measure provisional British norms were produced which were broadly equivalent to those obtained in the US. The individual subscales showed good internal consistency. However, the item-level principal components analysis using varimax and oblique rotation and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that only the Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness traits were coherently represented in the main factors derived by the analysis. Openness and Extraversion factors did not show such stability or consistency. It is argued that as a result of these difficulties, thoughtlessly embracing the NEO-FFI as a quick and efficient instrument for measuring the 'Big Five' personality traits is perhaps premature, as the instrument requires modification and improvement before it can truly be regarded as measuring five independent personality traits. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 El-Ansarey, B. M. (1997). "The psychometric properties of NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-S) based on the Kuwaiti society." Derasat Nafseyah 7(2): 277-310.
   Samples of 200 university students, 1,005 university students, and 2,584 university employees and students were studied on the 5 model factors of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) was used with the aim of comparing a 5-factor solution to the Big Five Personality factors and testing its psychometric properties in Kuwaiti socio-cultural settings. Correlations were computed between items. Data analysis revealed that the NEO Five Factor Inventory is not a valid nor reliable inventory to assess the 5-factor model of personality in Kuwait society. It is concluded that the Big Five Factors are useful tools to describe the variations in the development of personality. A sharp distinction between the 5-factor solution to the Big Five Personality factor and the trait approach of Kuwaiti personality structure is recommended. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Endler, N. S., A. Rutherford, et al. (1997). "Neuroticism: How does one slice the PI(e)?" European Journal of Personality 11(2): 133-145.
   Using confirmatory and exploratory factor-analytic techniques, this study examines and tests the structure of the Neuroticism domain scale of P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae's (1992) operationalization of the Five-Factor Model, the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI--R). 593 university students completed a questionnaire package which, among other scales, included the Neuroticism domain scale of the NEO-PI--R. Confirmatory factor analysis indicates poor replication of the structure of the Neuroticism scale. Results of the exploratory factor analysis indicate that while 3 of the facets replicated quite well, the other 3 factors did not correspond to Costa and McCrae's formulation. Future research should elaborate on the factorial structure and construct validity of the Neuroticism facet scales, especially if they are to be used and interpreted in personality and clinical assessment. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Endler, N. S., E. Denisoff, et al. (1998). "Anxiety and depression: Evidence for the differentiation of commonly coocurring constructs." Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment 20(2): 149-171.
   Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur diagnostically. This observation has led researchers to investigate whether anxiety and depression can be meaningfully distinguished as unique theoretical constructs or whether they are better conceptualized as features of a general psychological distress. The present study attempted to differentiate self-reported state and trait anxiety from depression in 593 university students (mean age 22.4 yrs) using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales (EMAS). The study also examined the relationship among self-reported anxiety, depression, and neuroticism to determine the extent to which the Anxiety and Depression facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised represent distinct and mutually exclusive measures of anxiety and depression. Principal-components analyses and a series of multiple regression models were used to conduct this investigation. Results indicate that both state and trait anxiety and depression can be reliably differentiated with the BDI and the EMAS. Results also suggest that invoking a single "general distress" factor to explain the strong interrelationships between anxiety and depression in nonclinical samples is premature. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Enns, M. W. (1999). "Perfectionism and depression symptom severity in major depressive disorder." Behaviour Research & Therapy 37(8): 783-794.
   Evaluated the association between 10 dimensions of perfectionism and self and observer rated depression symptoms in 145 patients (aged 19-81 yrs) with major depressive disorder. The following self-report instruments were completed by all Ss: the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale ([MPS] P. L. Hewitt and G. L. Flett, 1991), the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the MPS (R. O. Frost et al, 1991), the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory. The 10 perfectionism dimensions measured by the MPSs and DEQ were: socially prescribed, self-oriented and other oriented perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, parental criticism, parental expectations, personal standards, organization, and self-criticism. Only 3 of 10 perfectionism dimensions (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, and self-criticism) displayed medium to large correlations with depression symptoms, especially self-report symptoms reflecting depressive cognitive distortions. The results are discussed in relation to the specificity of perfectionism dimensions to depression, adaptive vs maladaptive aspects of perfectionism, and in the context of previous research, much of which has relied on college student samples. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Enns, M. W., D. K. Larsen, et al. (2000). "Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables." Journal of Affective Disorders 60(1): 33-41.
   Examined the relationship between demographic, clinical and personality factors with discrepancies between self report (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]; A. T. Beck et al, 1961, 1978) and clinician rated (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HamD]; M. Hamilton, 1960) measures of depression. The study group consisted of 94 Structured Clincial Interview for Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV)-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder (mean age 43.68 yrs). Ss were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results show that younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. It is contended that, in general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. It is concluded that depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Enriquez, V. G. (1997). Filipino psychology: Concepts and methods. Asian perspectives on psychology. H. S. R. Kao, D. Sinha and et al. New Delhi, India, Sage Publications. 19: 40-53.
   chapter: Years of Filipino-oriented research and investigation in psychology, history, anthropology, sociology and other social sciences have provided the basic materials and concepts which have been used to develop theories explaining the indigenous Filipino, counter-colonial, colonial and neo-colonial characteristics. Theoretical developments presented here cover: (a) levels of interaction in an individualist vs collectivist culture; stages of cultural domination, and (b) philosophy of science (levels of scientific validation). /// Themes included in this chapter are: kapwa and the levels of social interaction (reclaiming Filipino concepts and models, Filipino indigenous methods, research as consciousness raising vs data gathering, research as facilitation, research as encounter); and relevance to Philippine realities (developing and strengthening the Filipino language, deconstructing Western concepts and models). ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Etter, G. W., Sr. (1999). "Skinheads: Manifestations of the warrior culture of the new urban tribes." Journal of Gang Research 6(3): 9-21.
   Discusses the history and manifestations of the skinhead movement, a group of White, usually racist and neo-Nazi, street gangs that follow a warrior culture. Aspects discussed include the skinhead movement in Britain, Oi! (hate music of the skinhead movement), religion, ritualist affiliation (totemism, graffiti, tattoos), crimes, and communication through pamphlets, newsletters and the Internet (sites listed). Among the new urban tribes that make up the gang problem in the US, the skinheads cause fear in amounts far greater than the author believes their actual numbers should justify. However, their adoption of a political agenda and racist policies make this group a threat to society, as skinheads mix religious, political and racist ideas into a volatile mix that can become violent. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Faderman, A. I. (1998). "Thinking, meaning, and speaking: Conceptual role semantics reconsidered." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(6-A): 2055.
   The orthodox view of content and reference used to be the one originated by Frege and developed (and changed) by Russell and Searle: The content of a name, kind term, indexical, or demonstrative is not its referent but a mode of presentation: an abstract entity that picks out a referent. Most successors of Frege (though not Frege himself) believed that these contents were determined, in some way, by the beliefs people associated with the terms. This view was challenged by the New Theoretic Revolution, an extremely influential cluster of ideas that surfaced in the 1970s. The New Theoretic Revolution had two main theses, the baptismal picture of naming and the theory of direct reference. According to the baptismal picture of naming, which was most famously presented by Kripke and Putnam, there need be no mode of presentation determined by beliefs people associate with names and kind terms (at least those for natural kinds) that determine their referents. The baptismal picture states that the referent of such a term is simply its baptismal source, the object or kind that the term for which the term was originally introduced. According to the theory of direct reference, which was most famously presented by Kaplan, not only names and natural kind terms but even such terms as indexicals and demonstratives, which clearly are associated with modes of presentation that pick out their referents, do not have these modes of presentation as their contents. The content of these terms, on the direct referentialist account, is their referent. We argue that the claims of the New Theoretic Revolution were accepted in haste. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the refutation of the baptismal picture of naming and the introduction and defense of a neo-Fregean, conceptual-role theory of reference fixing. The second part of the thesis examines the theory of direct reference. We do not attempt to refute the theory, but we argue that neo-Fregean theories of content are still viable alternatives. We extend the theory of reference fixing developed in part one to a theory of content. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Falkenhain, M. A. (1998). "Child sexual abusers among roman catholic priests and brothers: A cluster analytic study." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(8-B): 4444.
   The MMPI-2 profiles of 97 Roman Catholic priests and religious brothers were cluster analyzed in an attempt to identify meaningful subgroups within the population, and in an attempt to replicate the methodologies of previous MMPI-2 studies which used a general population of child sexual abusers. Ward's and average-link methods and a squared Euclidean distance measure were utilized. A four-cluster solution using the Ward's method was determined to be the most meaningfully useful. The four cluster solution was found to have adequate internal validity using split-half replication and discriminant function analysis techniques. Derived clusters included a sexually and emotionally underdeveloped cluster, a significantly psychiatrically disturbed cluster, a defended characterological cluster, and an undefended characterological cluster. Clusters were subsequently described and compared on the basis of MCMI-II, NEO-PI-R, offense-related, and demographic data available. The hypothesis that three broad clusters including a significantly disturbed, a characterologically disturbed and a non-elevated cluster would be identified received some support. The hypothesis that a significantly disturbed cluster would be small among a group of religious professionals was also supported. The findings of the current study are similar to previous cluster analyses of child sexual offenders in the general population in the identification of a severely disturbed cluster and characterologically disturbed clusters. While the current study, similar to previous studies, identified clusters with no clinical elevations, these clusters were labelled characterological and emotionally and sexually underdeveloped, instead of 'normal' or 'average,' in light of MMPI-2 scale patterns and additional-descriptive data. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed, as well as directions for future research in the area of identifying meaningful subgroups of child sexual offenders. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Falkenhain, M. A., P. N. Duckro, et al. (1999). "Cluster analysis of child sexual offenders: A validation with Roman Catholic priests and brothers." Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 6(4): 317-336.
   This study was designed to replicate cluster analytic techniques previously used to identify subgroups among child sexual offenders with a more restricted population of Roman Catholic priests and brothers. Two hierarchical agglomerative methods were used to cluster analyze Ss on the three validity scales and ten clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Ss were 97 Roman Catholic priests and brothers (aged 31-75 yrs) who were child sex offenders. Four clusters were identified and found to be valid and interpretively useful. These empirically derived subgroups included: "Sexually and Emotionally Underdeveloped". "Significantly Psychiatrically Disturbed"; "Undefended Characterological"; and "Defended Characterological'." Clusters were validated and further described using additional Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, Second Edition; NEO Personality Inventory, Revised; demographic; and offense-related data. Clusters were also compared to subgroups previously identified in cluster analytic studies of child sexual offenders in the general population. Conclusions about the stability of child sexual offender subgroups are drawn based on the ability to replicate previously identified clusters, and on the ability to predict distribution of membership. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Fauerbach, J. A., J. W. Lawrence, et al. (2000). "Personality predictors of injury-related posttraumatic stress disorder." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 188(8): 510-517.
   This longitudinal, cohort study examined the effect of personality traits on the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a recently traumatized, civilian, mixed-gender sample of 70 burn survivors (mean age 33.42 yrs) with significant injuries. Ss were administered the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID) at hospital discharge and readministered the SCID 4 and 12 months later. Overall, the sample of burn survivors scored significantly higher on neuroticism and extraversion and lower on openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness relative to a normative national sample. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance revealed that PTSD symptom severity groups (i.e., single symptom, multiple symptoms, subthreshold PTSD, PTSD) were differentially related to neuroticism and extraversion. Planned comparisons indicated that neuroticism was higher and extraversion was lower in those who developed PTSD compared with those who did not develop PTSD. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Felker, C. S. (2000). "CASPER as a typological classification system for college student problems: Verification and validation with the Five-Factor and Millon theoretical models. (Millon's personology)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3561.
   The first part of this study replicated Heppner et al.'s (1994) research using the Computerized Assessment System for Psychotherapy Evaluation and Research (CASPER) as a typology of college students' problems and extended the approach to the general student population. A sample of 277 undergraduate volunteers participated by completing CASPER along with two measures assessing personality and psychopathology variables. Participants' responses on CASPER problem area and global distress scales were cluster analyzed. Five distinctive student groups emerged: Problem Free, High Chemical Use, Severe Problems and Distress, Moderate Distress and Interpersonal Problems, and Moderate to High Problems and Distress. A multivariant analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant group differences on the CASPER scales. Each general student group corresponded to one or more student client groups in the original research, indicating that CASPER classified problems in both samples in a similar manner. The second portion of the study examined links between the CASPER-based student subgroups and two theoretical models of personality and psychopathology, the Five Factor Model (FFM) and Millon's Personology approach. MANOVAs indicated the clusters to differ significantly on NEO-FFI personality dimensions and MCMI-III personality syndromes and clinical syndromes. A discriminant analysis yielded one significant NEO-FFI function, Positive Adaptivity, which was associated with fewer problems and was composed of higher Conscientiousness, Extroversion, and Agreeableness, and lower Neuroticism. One significant MCMI-III personality style function, Social Stability, also separated the clusters according to problem and distress levels. Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Compulsive styles were associated with fewer problems and lower distress. Three significant MCMI-III clinical syndrome functions were obtained: Ruminative Depression, Restless Energy, and Substance Abuse. These functions differentiated clusters according to problem severity, level of agitation, and substance abuse, respectively. Relations between cluster membership and individual variables within each model were in predicted directions overall, and in accord with research findings and theoretical positions. Finally, greater-than-chance classification hit rates were obtained in separate predictions of actual group membership based on participants scores on the NEO-FFI and MCMI-III functions. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Ferguson, E. and F. Patterson (1998). "The five factor model of personality: Openness a distinct but related construct." Personality & Individual Differences 24(6): 789-796.
   It has been argued that the Openness (OP) dimension from the five factor model (FFM) of personality may in fact be an associate of the ability domain more than the personality domain. This paper explores this hypothesis using a sample of 101 retail managers (aged 28-46 yrs). Ss completed the NEO-FFI and a measure of ability assessing the construct as typical performance. This measure was an occupational-specific measure of typical intellectual engagement, termed the "problem solving through challenge" (PSC) scale. A combination of LISREL confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical multiple linear regression indicated that OP was a distinct but related construct to the other 4 dimensions of the FFM (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) but that OP was more strongly correlated with PSC than the other dimensions. These results are taken to indicate that OP, while associated with personality, assesses something to do with problem solving as a personality trait. Results also suggest that Extraversion linked OP to the other personality scales. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Fickova, E. (1999). "Personality dimensions and self-esteem indicators relationships." Studia Psychologica 41(4): 323-328.
   Analyzes the relationships between personality dimensions (NEO-FFI, STAI) and self-esteem indicators (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale; Self-Concept Clarity Scale, [J. D. Campbell et al, 1996]; State Self-Esteem Scale, [T. F. Heatherton and J. P. Polivy, 1991]) in 242 14-17 yr old high school students. In adolescents with high scores in self-esteem indicators under study, the author found significantly higher extroversion and conscientiousness. Low self-esteem correlated significantly with high neuroticism, high state and high trait anxiety. A comparison of the relationships between agreeableness and openness personality dimensions and self-esteem indicators in girls and boys indicated significant variability and intersexual differences. Results indicate that neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, state and trait anxiety are reliable predictors of self-esteem. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Finch, J. F., A. T. Patner, et al. (1999). "Two approaches for identifying shared personality dimensions across methods." Journal of Personality 67(3): 407-438.
   Illustrates 2 approaches, 1 exploratory and 1 confirmatory, for determining the extent to which personality dimensions are invariant across different measures of measurement. Using the interbattery factor model in Study 1, the authors explored the links between the Five-Factor Model of Personality, as assessed by the NEO-PO, and the Needs system, as assessed by the Personality Research Form. Ss were 296 respondents from an earlier study by P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae (1988). Study 2, with 751 undergraduates, used an interbattery approach to examine the common structure underlying 2 widely used coping measures: the revised Ways of Coping Checklist and the COPE Inventory. The studies illustrate the use of interbattery factor analysis as a means of separating battery-specific (method) factors from interbattery (trait) factors, in contrast to traditional factor analysis. By maintaining the distinction between variability that is method-specific and variability that is common across methods, the interbattery factor model allows the common trait structure underlying multiple measures to be described more accurately. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Finn, S. (1997). "Origins of media exposure: Linking personality traits to TV, radio, print, and film use." Communication Research 24(5): 507-529.
   journal abstract: This investigation of the 5-factor model of personality as a correlate of mass media use was designed to validate key links in a basic model of the uses and gratifications paradigm. Survey data collected from 219 university students who kept diaries of time spent using the mass media and participating in nonmediated communication activities were submitted to canonical correlation analysis. Minutes devoted to TV viewing, radio listening, pleasure reading, and movie attendance were correlated with the 5 personality traits of the NEO-PI--neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The strongest relationships for mass media use were between openness and pleasure reading, extroversion and negative pleasure reading, and openness and negative TV viewing. Individuals who scored higher on extroversion and agreeableness exhibited a preference for nonmediated activities, especially conversation. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Fischer, H., G. Wik, et al. (1997). "Extraversion, neuroticism and brain function: A PET study of personality." Personality & Individual Differences 23(2): 345-352.
   Utilized positron emission tomographic measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to investigate central neural differences in extraversion and neuroticism, as determined by the Swedish version of the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised Edition. Ss were 30 22-42-yr-old females. A median-split defined extraverts from introverts and relatively more and less neurotic Ss. The relative rCBF in the caudate nucleus and the putamen was higher in introverts than extraverts. In introverts, activity in the putamen was left-lateralized. These areas have high concentrations of dopamine terminals, implicating a dopaminergic basis for individual differences in extraversion. As a function of Extraversion, rCBF did not differ in the prefrontal, orbitofrontal, temporopolar, cingulate, primary visual cortex, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. Thus, individual differences in extraversion correlated to subcortical rather than cortical brain regions. Because introverted Ss displayed an increased neuronal activity in brain regions previously associated with learning and motor and vigilance control, a subcortical neostriatal and possibly dopaminergic, rather than a solely cortical correlate of the personality dimension extraversion was supported. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Fleeson, W. and J. Heckhausen (1997). "More or less "me" in past, present, and future: Perceived lifetime personality during adulthood." Psychology & Aging 12(1): 125-136.
   journal abstract: This article examines whether adults perceive different levels of their own personality traits at different target ages, and what the differences are. Using abbreviated versions of assessments of the 5-factor model of personality (NEO-FFI, P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1989) and of well-being (C. D. Ryff, 1989), 398 heterogeneous participants (age 26-64) described their own personality (a) in the present, (b) when they were 20-25 years old, (c) when they will be 65-70 years old, and (d) in the ideal. Participants' responses across the 3 target ages indicated moderate change across adulthood and more variability than is typically observed in longitudinal studies of adult personality development. Anticipated late adulthood personality contained more losses than gains, although all target ages showed some gains. Participants' perceptions were characterized by early adulthood exploration, middle adulthood productivity, and later adulthood comfortableness. Additionally, older adults reported slightly lower ideals but in other ways responded very similarly to younger and middle-aged adults. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Fleeson, W. and P. B. Baltes (1998). "Beyond present-day personality assessment: An encouraging exploration of the measurement properties and predictive power of subjective lifetime personality." Journal of Research in Personality 32(4): 411-430.
   Adding to previous research demonstrating mean-level differences in responses to instructional lifetime variations, the present study explored 2 psychometric properties (measurement structure and predictive power) of such instructional variations. Using abbreviated versions of a standard assessment of the five-factor model of personality (NEO, P. T. Costa, Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1989) and of a personality instrument sensitive to adult-developmental change (C. D. Ryff, 1989), 398 26-64 yr old women and men described their personality or psychological well-being under 3 conditions: standard (present reports of present-day personality), retrospective (present reports of personality when 20-25 yrs old), and anticipative (present reports of personality when 65-70 yrs old). Results show that measurement properties of personality scales were only minimally affected by instructional variation. Present retrospections of past lifetime personality and anticipations of future lifetime personality predicted unique variance in a variety of current-day outcomes beyond that predicted by standard self-reports of presnt-day personality. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Foltz, C., J. Q. Morse, et al. (1997). "Self- and observer ratings on the NEO-FFI in couples: Initial evidence of the psychometric properties of an observer form." Assessment 4(3): 287-295.
   journal abstract: The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Observer form of the five-factor model of personality by examining agreement between self- and observer ratings. Both partners of 49 young, adult couples rated themselves and their partners on the NEO-FFI. The results provide preliminary evidence of the measurement utility of the NEO-FFI Observer form. Specifically, (a) each personality scale possessed acceptable levels of internal reliability, (b) five factors consistent with the five-factor model of personality emerged in both ratings forms, and (c) there was significant self-observer agreement for all five personality scales. Self-observer agreement was assessed by correlations as well as analyses that test a more stringent definition of agreement. Overall, there is consensus across analyses that points to a substantial amount of concordance between partners' self- and observer ratings. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Foxall, G. R. (2000). Consumer situation: An operant interpretation. Experimental and applied analysis of human behavior. J. C. Leslie and D. Blackman. Reno, NV, US, Context Press: 293-312.
   chapter: Notes that the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM) is a neo-Skinnerian model of situational influence on consumer behavior in which the responses of consumers are held to be determined by the contingencies of reinforcement under which they are emitted. This chapter develops the model through 3 stages of interpretive detail which successively elaborate the basic model and locate consumer response with increasing specificity. The 1st is operant classification of consumer behavior which explores the role of different sources of reinforcement in establishing the equifinality class to which an operant consumption response belongs. The 2nd is the allocation of a consumer response to a particular contingency category; this means extending the idea that consumer behavior is located at the intersection of a learning history and a behavior setting by showing (1) how these combine to determine the scope of the setting, and (2) how consumer behavior setting scope and operant classification are used to locate consumer choice. The 3rd further elaborates this interaction and shows how the process of consumer decision making is a function of the spatial/regulatory and historical components of consumer behavior setting scope. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Freeman, R., A. Barabasz, et al. (2000). "Hypnosis and distraction differ in their effects on cold pressor pain." American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 43(2): 137-148.
   This study sought to determine whether highly hypnotizable Ss differ from low hypnotizables in perceived pain and neocortical electrical activity in 3 conditions. On the bases of E. R. Hilgard's neo-dissociation theory (1977) and N. P. Spano's (1982) sociocognitive theory, Ss selected for high and low hypnotizability (10 in each group) were exposed to a cold pressor pain test during counterbalanced conditions of waking relaxation, distraction, and hypnosis. To better discriminate between hypnosis and distraction conditions, a new distraction procedure was developed involving the memorization of a sequence of colored lights. High hypnotizables showed significantly greater pain relief for hypnosis vs distraction or waking relaxation conditions. They also demonstrated significantly greater pain relief than low hypnotizables in response to hypnosis. Electroencephalographic findings showed significantly greater high theta (5.5-7.5 Hz) activity for highs as compared to lows at parietal (P3) and occipital (01) sites during both hypnosis and waking relaxation conditions. The findings fail to support the sociocognitive conceptualization of hypnotic behavior but provide evidence supporting the neo-dissociation theory and state based theories of hypnosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Frink, D. D. and G. R. Ferris (1999). "The moderating effects of accountability on the Conscientiousness-performance relationship." Journal of Business & Psychology 13(4): 515-524.
   Personality theory, particularly the Big Five personality theory, suggests a positive relationship between Conscientiousness and job performance. This study investigated the interaction of Conscientiousness and accountability in the context of performance outcomes using a cognitive performance task. 95 Ss (business students; mean age 20.7 yrs) participated in 2 group sessions held over a 2-wk period during which they completed a combination math-verbal skills task under conditions of different accountability. Conscientiousness was measuring using the self- report Conscientiousness scale from the NEO-PI Personality Inventory. Results show that, under conditions of accountability, more conscientious Ss performed at higher levels than less conscientious Ss. Under conditions of no external accountability, the relationship between Conscientiousness and performance was not significant. No main effects were found. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Fulford, K. W. M. (2000). "Teleology without tears: Naturalism, neo-naturalism, and evaluationism in the analysis of function statements in biology (and a bet on the twenty-first century)." Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology 7(1): 77-94.
   Responds to the proposal, made by T. Thornton (see record 2000-12132-004) elsewhere in this special issue of PPP, that the "space of reasons" (as defined by the work particularly of Sellars and McDowell) might contain the conceptual resources for naturalizing biological function statements without reducing their ostensibly teleological meanings to the "space of causes." I agree with Thornton, (1) that ordinary reductive naturalism (as in Wakefield's work) is unable to mark the key distinction between a functional system's function(s) and its other properties, and (2) that his proposed nonreductive naturalism (or neonaturalism) is able to mark this distinction. I disagree with him, though, that neonaturalism is value-free. The space of reasons certainly contains much that is important for psychopathology (meanings, notably). I argue, though, against Thornton, that neo-naturalism is able to define functions only because the "space of reasons" smuggles into the language of biology an evaluative element of meaning, deeply hidden but still logically operative, in the teleological sense in which biological functions are explanatory. In the final section of the paper, I set Thornton's proposal in a wider historical perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):
 Fuller, B. E., J. L. Holland, et al. (1999). "The relation of profile elevation in the Self-Directed Search to personality variables." Journal of Career Assessment 7(2): 111-123.
   The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Personal Styles Inventory (PSI) were used to determine if personality differences existed between people with different levels of profile elevation on the Self-Directed Search (SDS). Ss were 139 women and 180 men attending career workshops for dislocated workers. Profile elevation was defined as the total score of the six scales on the SDS. Results indicated that higher profile elevation was associated with higher Openness to Experience, higher Extraversion, and lower Depressive personality traits. These results were used to construct a series of norms that may be useful in helping practitioners understand what a high or low profile means on the SDS. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Funder, D. C. and D. J. Ozer, Eds. (1997). Pieces of the personality puzzle: Readings in theory and research. New York, NY, W. W. Norton & Co Inc.
   cover: This collection of 54 articles offers students a first-hand look at the current research and classic theory that shape today's introductory course in personality psychology. Presented within a familiar theories-based organization, this reader is a natural supplement to any textbook in the psychology of personality. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Funk, R. L. (1999). "The Revised NEO Personality Inventory and eating disorders: A conceptualization of personality disorders associated with anorexia, bulimia, and mixed anorexia and bulimia." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(8-B): 4461.
   A review of the literature on the comorbidity of personality disorders and eating disorders suggested that there are unique DSM-IV Axis II diagnoses differentially associated with anorexia and bulimia. Moreover, other literature indicated that each personality disorder has a unique personality profile on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). Therefore, it was hypothesized that women with anorexia would have personality profiles on the NEO PI-R that correlate with patterns of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while women with bulimia would have similar patterns of personality to borderline and histrionic personality disorder. A combination of these personality disorders would characterize participants with symptoms of both anorexia and bulimia. More specifically, on the NEO PI-R, anorexic women would have lower scores on the Extraversion scale than bulimic women. Anorexic women would have higher scores on the Conscientiousness scale than bulimic women. Participants with symptoms from both diagnostic categories would receive scores somewhere between the two groups on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Fifty-three female participants over age 18 with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or mixed type of anorexia and bulimia were obtained from local eating disorder ANAD Support Groups, psychotherapists, and a recruitment flyer. Each subject was administered the NEO PI-R and completed an eating disorder and demographic survey. Analysis of the data indicated that specific profile patterns for each of the three diagnoses do exist in the direction hypothesized. This suggests that individuals may be more prone to anorexia or bulimia depending on the premorbid personality constellations. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Furnham, A. F. (1997). "Knowing and faking one's Five-Factor personality score." Journal of Personality Assessment 69(1): 229-243.
   Reports on 2 studies, both concerned with the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The first study, replicated over 3 samples of undergraduates (mean ages 21.9, 23.9, and 23.11 yrs) concerned the validity of the measure as determined by self-ratings. Results indicate that participants were able to predict their extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism scores with reasonable accuracy, but agreeableness and openness-to-experience less so. Ss were not very reliable in predicting others' test scores, although they believed themselves to have scores moderately similar to the other, self-nominated person. Exp 2 with 70 18-31 yr old college students showed that the NEO-FFI was highly susceptible to faking, although the fake good versus control comparisons were significant only for agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. The implications of these studies for applied personality measurement are considered. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Furnham, A. and H. Cheng (1997). "Personality and happiness." Psychological Reports 80(3, Pt 1): 761-762.
   Scores for 83 participants (mean age 23.2 yrs) on the Oxford Happiness Inventory and the NEO Five Factor Inventory were correlated (.26 to -.44), suggesting that if stability is an insulator against unhappiness, then extraversion is a positive factor. Results also show the possible role that conscientiousness plays, suggesting that dutifulness, achievement, striving, self- discipline, and deliberation play an important role in self- reported happiness. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Furnham, A., J. Crump, et al. (1997). "Validating the NEO Personality Inventory using assessor's ratings." Personality & Individual Differences 22(5): 669-675.
   The 5 factors and the sub-scales of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) were correlated with assessments of 10 dimensions of management capability (e.g., drive to achieve, conceptual ability, and interpersonal sensitivity) of 160 managers taking part in personal profiling exercise. 10 consultants used the data from 2 in-depth interviews and a battery of personality and ability tests to rate each individual manager. A clear pattern emerged with conscientiousness and extraversion having strongest and most frequent correlations with high ratings on the 10 dimensions. Agreeableness correlated only with 2 ratings: negatively with drive to achieve and positively with interpersonal sensitivity. The personality factors correlated strongly and consistently with some ratings (e.g. drive to achieve, intuition, resilience) but less clearly with others (e.g. conceptual ability, interest in business). Overall the results provide good concurrent validity evidence for the NEO-PI. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Furnham, A. (1999). "Personality and creativity." Perceptual & Motor Skills 88(2): 407-408.
   78 students completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Form S), the 1975 Barron-Welsh Art Scale, and 3 estimates of their own creativity. Multiple regressions showed openness-to-experience predicted all 3 self-estimates of creativity but not the actual creativity score. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Furukawa, T., A. Yamada, et al. (1998). "Typus melancholicus i nlight of the five-factor model of personality." European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience 248(2): 64-69.
   Investigated Typus melancholicus (TM), which is widely accepted as premorbid personality of depression in Germany and Japan, from the viewpoint of the five-factor model of personality, which has recently been gaining international popularity as the comprehensive model of personality traits. Two measures of TM, D. von Zerssen's F-list and Y. Kasahara's scale, as well as the personality questionnaire for the five-factor model, NEO Five Factor Inventory, were completed for 140 consecutive psychiatric outpatients (mean age 49.1 yrs) by their close relatives. It was found that (1) the 2 measures of TM had good internal consistency reliability, (2) they had reasonable concurrent validity, and (3) TM was characterized by high Conscientiousness, high Agreeableness and, to a lesser degree, high Extraversion. The results were largely in agreement with theoretical prediction and provide further support to the construct validity of the TM measures. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Galati, D., F. Massimini, et al. (1998). "Il lessico delle emozioni nelle lingue neolatine: Confronto tra l'italiano e il francese. Emotional lexicon in neo-Latin languages: A comparison between Italian and French." Ricerche di Psicologia 22(3): 57-82.
   Studied the semantic structure of Italian and French emotional terms. Human Ss: 30 normal male and female Italian adults (aged 20-50 yrs) (middle-superior educational level). 30 normal male and female French adults (aged 20-50 yrs) (middle-superior educational level) (Exp 1). 30 normal male and female Italian adults (aged 20-50 yrs) (middle-superior educational level). 30 normal male and female French adults (aged 20-50 yrs) (middle-superior educational level) (Exp 2). In Exp 1, 83 Italian and 108 French emotional terms were selected from dictionaries and compared to 3 reference terms by Italian- and French-speaking Ss. In Exp 2, similarity judgments were made from 32 terms selected in Exp 2. The results were evaluated according to reciprocal similarity among terms, emotional dimensions, and word categories. Multidimensional scaling procedures were used. (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):
 Gallagher, S. M. (2000). "Intimacy, marital adjustment, and well-being in long-term survivors of childhood cancer." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(9-B): 4886.
   The present study examined well-being and the contribution of intimacy and marital satisfaction to well-being in long-term survivors of childhood cancer (LTSCC). In addition, self-esteem, warmth and gregariousness were included to test for mediating effects. 207 adult LTSCC were assessed using the Rand Well-Being measure, Miller's Social Intimacy Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Survey, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the NEO-PI Warmth and Gregariousness subscales, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C) each of these is a well established and well validated self-report measure. Survivors scores on each of these measures were contrasted with those of a control group of adults who did not have a cancer history (N = 169). Each of the variables, as well as several sociodemographic and medical variables, were utilized in regression and path analyses to determine their ability to predict well-being. LTSCC reported significantly less overall well-being (F = 78.9, p < .000), significantly more anxiety (F = 194.2, p < .000) and depression (F = 1262.3, p < .000), and significantly less positive well-being (F = 18.6, p < .000), health (F = 137.0, p < .000), and self-control (F = 88.3, p < .000) than controls. Survivors reported significantly more intimacy (F = 5.1, p < .01), marital adjustment (F = 5.3, p < .01), self-esteem (F = 216.8, p < .001), warmth (F = 65.2, p < .001) and gregariousness (F = 113.3, p < .001) than controls. LTSCC also had higher scores on the M-C (F = 26.7, p < .001). An omnibus stepwise multiple regression analysis accounting for 27% of the variance, revealed that self-esteem and the interaction of warmth and intimacy were the best predictors of well-being. Group membership was a nonsignificant predictor of well-being. Finally, path analysis was employed and different models 'fit' the LTSCC and the controls. The best path model (NET = .94) for the LTSCC indicates that well-being predicts intimacy. The best path model (NET = .98) for the controls, on the other hand, indicates that intimacy predicts well-being. These results are discussed in terms of developmental and social support theories. Interpretations of these results, strengths and weaknesses of the study, and implications for theory, application, and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Gallimore, R. and R. Tharp (1999). Teaching mind in society: Teaching, schooling, and literate discourse. Lev Vygotsky: Critical assessments: The zone of proximal development. P. Llyod, C. Fernyhough and et al. New York, NY, Routledge. III: 296-330.
Reprinted from L. C. Moll's (Ed.) et al, Vygotsky and Education: Instructional Implications and Applications of Sociohistorical Psychology, New York, US: Cambridge University Press, 1992, 175-205. (The following abstract of the original chapter appeared in record 1991-97794-007.) presents a "neo-Vygotskian" interpretation and extension of the well-known Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP) /propose no less than a theory-driven system for the redesign and reformulation of schools /central to this reformulation is the Vygotskian concept of assisted performance, prominent in his notion of the zone of proximal development, as well as other related ideas such as the development of activity settings, internalization, and the role of speech in thinking /// also borrow from other psychological concepts, such as feedback and contingency management, to propose an expanded model of progression through the zone of proximal development as constituted by stages ranging from assisted performance, to self-assisted behavior, to internalization and automatization, and a final recursiveness through previous stages when needed to enhance performance / their model of schooling would incorporate these mechanisms for learning at all levels of the system provide multiple examples of the application of their far-reaching ideas in developing instruction and, in particular, in developing a social environment for the support and enhancement of teaching in schools. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gan, Y. (1999). "Healthy personality traits and unique pathways to psychological adjustment: Cultural and gender perspectives. (Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(11-B): 6106.
Just like many aspects of research in psychology, there is a cross-cultural challenge in the area of personality-coping-mental health. In past research there is not enough data to demonstrate the cultural relevance of the adaptive values of personality and coping strategy. 616 university students (318 from Hong Kong and 298 from Hawaii) were invited to complete a series of questionnaires including 19 Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) personality and clinical scales, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Self-Construal scale, and NEO-FFI. Meantime, two scenarios were presented to the participants and they were required to fill in the C-H Way of Coping Inventory. Multivariate comparisons were conducted among the 2 x 2 cultural by gender groups. Constructs in the domain of personality, coping, and mental health were compared in their strength as well as the associations among constructs. A Relationship Concern factor in the CPAI was extracted in both cultural groups. Results indicated that the personality factor of Relationship Concern has different association with mental health in the Chinese and the American culture via the paths of coping styles. Moreover, the combination of Relationship Concern and high Social Potency leads to a healthy personality profile. On the other hand, the combination of Relationship Concern with low Social Potency is related to Somatization. The present study improves our understanding in the criterion to define adaptive personality traits and coping styles in a collectivist culture, as compared to those in individualistic culture. The results have implications to the practice of education and counseling in Asian countries. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gelade, G. A. (1997). "Creativity in conflict: The personality of the commercial creative." Journal of Genetic Psychology 158(1): 67-78.
Administered the Revised NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO PI--R) to 58 advertising and design creatives and to a comparable group of 70 professionals and managers in occupations that were not evidently creative. The creatives were substantially more neurotic and more open to experience than the noncreatives, somewhat more extroverted, and less conscientious. Personality profiles suggesting low levels of ego control were more prevalent in the creatives group, but the difference was not significant. These findings are discussed in light of O. Rank's (1945) theory of creative development and in the context of commercial activity. It is suggested that advertising and design creatives can be characterized as individuals in the intermediate stage of Rankian creative development. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Genereux, R. L. (1999). "Transformations in narrative thought during late childhood and adolescence." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(9-B): 5135.
Narrative understanding has recently been identified as a primary mode of human thought. Bruner (1990) proposed that narrative thought is one of two basic modes of cognitive processing, the other being logico-mathematical processing. Narratives and narrative thought inform us about the nature, causes, and consequences of human actions and interactions, and as such may well underlie social knowledge (Case & McKeough, 1990; McKeough, 1992a; 1992b). Understanding narrative thought and its development is thus an important undertaking. What is the path of narrative development in late childhood and adolescence? This question was addressed by having 151 students aged 9 to 18 years complete narrative interpretation and narrative composition tasks. Consistent with Case's (1992) neo-Piagetian theory of cognitive development, there was a clear developmental progression observed in the structural complexity of participants' interpretations of stories and in the complexity of the stories they wrote. A clear developmental trend in social-psychological understanding was also observed, from an intentional understanding of human behavior in terms of immediate feelings, thoughts, and goals to an interpretive understanding of human behavior in terms of personal history, long-standing psychological traits, and broader contextual and cultural factors. Furthermore, within-age differences in narrative thought were observed with exceptional story-writers (as identified by classroom teachers) and females outperforming average story-writers and males respectively on some of the narrative measures. Theoretical, methodological and practical implications of the findings are discussed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gergen, K. J. (1995). "Metaphor and monophony in the 20th-century psychology of emotions." History of the Human Sciences 8(2): 1-23.
Discusses the role of emotions in the 20th-century history of psychology in the US. At the dawn of the century, the field strove to both distinguish itself from older disciplines and become entrenched within the academy. The ascendence of behaviorist psychology in the 1930s occurred simultaneously with founding a unified science, threatening the status of emotions as objects of study within a framework of valuing observable behavior. The rise of neo-behaviorism allowed for the interior to be readmitted into the science of psychology. Clear separation of biology and psychology allowed the role of emotion to be appropriated within the cognitive movement, as set out in S. Schachter's 2-factor theory of emotion (1962, 1964). Social constructivism's lack of emotional reality independent of the community conflicted with previous biological, sensory, and energic metaphors of emotion. Constructivists have abandoned both single and multi-faceted metaphors of explanation, relying on a family of textually related metaphors. At the end of century, a new set of tensions hold sway. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gilbert, D. G., J. P. Sharpe, et al. (2000). "Development of a Situation * Trait Adaptive Response (STAR) model-based smoking motivation questionnaire." Personality & Individual Differences 29(1): 65-84.
The Situation * Trait Adaptive Response Smoking Motivation Questionnaire (STAR-SMOQ) was developed to assess dimensions of conscious motivation to smoke, as well as desire to smoke, and probability of smoking across a number of situations, using a theoretical scale construction strategy based on the STAR model of smoking motivation proposed by D. G. Gilbert (see record 1995-97637-000). Item analysis of a 97-item version of the STAR-SMOQ using a sample of 215 undergraduate smokers yielded 55 items covering 4 dimensions. Preliminary validation of STAR-SMOQ scales was conducted using a sample of 155 student and adult smokers. As predicted, the STAR-SMOQ scales showed modest correlations with theoretically related scales of the Russell Smoking Motivation Questionnaire (RSMQ) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory Neuroticism Scale (NEO-PI-R). For example, the Depression facet of the NEO-PI-R correlated more highly with the STAR-SMOQ Desire When Depressed subscale than with any RSMQ scales. Validity of the Appetite/Weight control scale was supported by the finding that females scored higher than males on this measure. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Goldhaber, D. E. (2000). Theories of human development: Intergrative perspectives. Mountain View, CA, US, Mayfield Publishing Co.
cover: This book is an introduction to the currently viable classic and contemporary theories of human development: what they are, how they are developed, and how they are validated. The following features are included: (1) An integrative organization that helps students understand and identify the common factors among theories by examining them as families of theories from 3 integrative world view orientations: the mechanistic, the organismic, and the contextualist; (2) an integration of methodology whereby the methods used to study human development are examined in relationship to each of the theories presented in the text; (3) coverage of classic theories, including the work of J. Watson, B. F. Skinner, A. Bandura, J. Piaget, and E. Erikson; and (4) coverage of contemporary theories, including those of R. Siegler, L. Nelson, K. Fischer, B. Rogoff, and others. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Goldman, I. (1999). "Q methodology as process and context in interpretivism, communication, and psychoanlytic psychotherapy research." Psychological Record 49(4): 589-604.
Analyzes the underlying epistemological foundations of Q methodology as a science of subjectivity. Methodological issues are interrogated in the context of the linguistic and interpretive turns in the human sciences. The sociocultural inflections of Q as process are examined and contextualized in terms of its critique of objectivism and dualism. Distinctions are also drawn between Q and other interpretive perspectives. Q methodology as a cultural science is discussed in relation to neo-psychoanalytic perspectives and its effectivity as a psychotherapeutic research framework is demonstrated through a case study. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Goldthorpe, J. H. (2000). "Rent, class conflict, and class structure: A commentary on Sorensen." American Journal of Sociology 105(6): 1572-1582.
Comments on the article by A. B. Sorensen (see record 2000-05422-001), which proposed 2 main concepts of class based on personal wealth. The current author states that he is entirely in sympathy with Sorensen's argument that, following on the effective collapse of the Marxist tradition, class analysis needs to be informed by better theory. It is also agreed that attempts to develop theory on supposedly "Weberian" or "neo-Weberian" lines have not been impressive. Two main reservations on the adequacy of Sorensen's proposals to serve as the basis of class theory are outlined. The 1st reservation concerns the conceptual viability, from the standpoint of a comprehensive class theory, of taking what Sorensen calls the "rent distribution" within a society as being the source of opposing class interests and in turn of the formation of antagonistic classes--exploitation classes--that engage in collective action directed toward the creation and preservation or the destruction of rents. The 2nd reservation, on Sorensen's proposed "sounder basis for class analysis," concerns the reluctance he shows--along with most neo-classical economists--to accepting the distinctiveness of the labor market and, more specifically, of the employment contract. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gomez, L. O. (1999). "Cognitive rigidities, character, and affect in obsessive-compulsive behavior." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(10-B): 5576.
The present study explored a model of obsessional behavior that proposses a cognitive dysfunction as a part of the pathological processes underlying Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD). The study sought to pin-point or rule out the specific dimension of cognitive style commonly termed 'cognitive rigidity' in the literature on OCD. This presumed trait of 'obsessives' is often believed to be related to character traits such as excessive conscientiousness and lack of openness. OCD was defined according to DSM-III-R criteria, but OCD related symptoms were also measured with the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). 'Cognitive rigidity' was operationalized according to a model of 'multiple rigidities' proposed by Gilbert Tourrette (1989). The presumed character traits were operationalized using Costa and McRae's NEO-FFI (NEO-Five Factor Inventory, 1992). Three groups were compared using the four dimensions defined by Tourrette--perseveration, mental flexibility-inflexibility, sensitivity-insensitivity to stimulus variation, and field independence-dependence--and the five factors of the NEO-FFI. The experimental group consisted of 27 subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of OCD. A comparison group of 33 subjects with a variety of other Anxiety Disorders (OAD) comprised the comparison group; 43 subjects with no history of DSM-III-R symptoms formed the control group. It was hypothesized that OCD subjects as compared to OAD and Controls should show greater perseveration and field dependence, less cognitive flexibility-fluidity and sensitivity to stimulus variation. It was also expected that, if the traditional model was true, OCD subjects would show less openness and greater conscientiousness than subjects in the other groups. Results contradicted these predictions. The OCD group did not differ significantly from the control group in any of these measures. However, higher checking scores on the MOCI were significantly related to flexibility scores. This suggests that in the area of cognitive rigidity OCD may be a localized or a domain-specific disorder, and not a generalized cognitive or character style. Additionally, it was found that greater field dependence characterized the OAD group in contrast to both OCD and control subjects. This finding is consistent with other studies that have shown a connection between the OAD's and field dependence. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gordon, T., J. Keel, et al. (1999). "Seasonal mood changes and neuroticism: The same construct?" Comprehensive Psychiatry 40(6): 415-417.
The personality trait of neuroticism has been found to be associated with a polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR). This same genetic polymorphism has also been associated with seasonal changes in mood and behavior, or seasonality. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether seasonality and neuroticism are actually the same construct given that they are both associated with the same genetic polymorphism. The authors administered the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (N. E. Rosenthal et al, 1987), which measures the severity of seasonality, and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures the severity of neuroticism, to 45 Ss (mean age 45 yrs) diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). SAD is a clinical expression of seasonality in which patients develop a major depressive disorder in the winter that remits in the summer and can be treated with light therapy. No significant correlation was found between neuroticism and seasonality. It was concluded that seasonality and neuroticism are not the same construct, even though the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for each. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Goswami, A. and D. Todd (1997). "Is there conscious choice in directed mutation, phenocopies, and related phenomena? An answer based on quantum measurement." Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science 32(2): 132-142.
journal abstract: In a previous article (Goswami, 1997), it was suggested that an application of quantum measurement theory under the auspices of a monistic idealist ontology (that consciousness is the ground of being) can solve many different problems of neo-Darwinism, e.g., alternating rapid creativity and homeostasis observed in evolution and the directionality, origin, and nature of life. In this article, we proposed an epigenetic quantum mechanism to explain the connection of developmental processes and evolution, as has been evidenced in such controversial phenomena as directed mutation and phenocopies. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Grand, S. (1997). "The paradox of innocence: Dissociative "adhesive" states in perpetrators of incest." Psychoanalytic Dialogues 7(4): 465-490.
Develops a phenomenology of the incest perpetrator's conviction of innocence in a condition of actual guilt. This phenomenology is developed through the investigation of dissociative states in a certain type of incestuous perpetrator: one who is herself a survivor of sexual abuse, physical abuse, or both. Clinical material of an adult male and a female in her 50s suggests that certain types of schizoid perpetrators can genuinely experience the incestuous act as not really real, not really sex, not really mine. This clinical phenomenon is examined from the perspective of 2 contemporary theoretical trends: the new view of the self as multiple and the neo-Kleinian formulation of "adhesive" or "autistic-contiguous" modes of pseudo-object relatedness. Incestuous acts are conceived as occurring within a prelinguistic modality, and are therefore not encoded in discursive, autobiographical memory. The coexistence of dissociated, multiple self states, and modalities accounts for the contradictory levels of object relatedness, memory, and concern frequently encountered in perpetrators of incest. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Grandy, J. (2000). "Response to adversity and personality structure: A model-generating study of college students. (construct validity)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3608.
This dissertation addressed four broad questions: (1) What is response to adversity, and why is it important? (2) According to prior research, what traits are related to response to adversity ? (3) How can we measure response to adversity? (4) How does response to adversity relate to personality structure in college students? The Adversity Response Profile (ARP), developed by Paul Stoltz (1997) for use in a business setting, was revised for use among college students and referred to as the ARP-ED. It was administered to a large undergraduate class at Northern Arizona University. A personality inventory (the NEO PI-R), based on the five-factor model of Costa and McCrae, was administered to the same class. Psychometric characteristics of the ARP-ED were evaluated. The ARP-ED was construct validated against the NEO PI-R using confirmatory factor analysis. Latent variables underlying the ARP-ED correlated to a small-to-moderate degree with six latent variables (Trust, Angry Hostility, Dutifulness, Self-Discipline, Vulnerability, and Openness to Actions) underlying the NEO PI-R. The observed pattern of correlations was different for males and females. Limitations in the sample precluded testing the model across racial/ethnic groups. Recommendations were made for continued research and further development of the ARP-ED to determine the extent to which its scales predict success in college, and to research the extent to which students can improve the ways they respond to adversity so that they may have more successful and less stressful lives. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Greenwald, D. F. (1999). "Relationships between the Rorschach and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory." Psychological Reports 85(2): 519-527.
journal abstract: This study tested hypothesized associations between selected Rorschach variables and the five personality domains measured by the Five-Factor Personality Model from 45 college participants (23 men and 22 women). It was predicted that scores on NEO Neuroticism would correlate positively with those for m, the sum of Y, V, T, and C', MOR, D, and Adj D; that Extraversion scores would correlate with Sum C, Aft, active movement, and the Isolation Index (inversely); that scores on Openness would correlate with low Lambda and low Isolation Index; that scores on Agreeableness would correlate with COP, and inversely with the Isolation Index, S, and AG; and, also, that scores on Conscientiousness would correlate with low Lambda and high Zd. None of the expected associations was observed, and only one of the predicted relationships, that between Lambda and Conscientiousness, appeared (p < .10). Exploration of data indicated that Neuroticism scores related significantly to the sum of V, T, and Y (particularly to Y and Vista) and, unexpectedly, to Aft. Less unexpectedly, scores on Extraversion and Agreeableness related positively to T. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Griffin, M. and M. R. McDermott (1998). "Exploring a tripartite relationship between rebelliousness, openness to experience and creativity." Social Behavior & Personality 26(4): 347-356.
67 undergraduates completed the NEO-Personality Inventory, the Rebelliousness Questionnaire, and an author-devised creativity checklist. Reactive rebelliousness correlated positively with NEO-neurotic hostility and negatively with NEO-openness to experience subscales, but not with frequency of self-reported creative interests and activities. A disaggregated measure of creative activities however, demonstrated a positive association between number of creative literary acts and proactive rebelliousness scores. All 6 NEO-openness subscales correlated positively with self-reported creative activities; 5 did so with creative interests. Specifically, openness to fantasy and openness to aesthetic experience correlated notably with creative activities and interests. Thus, openness to experience, as R. R. McCrae and P. T. Costa (1985) hypothesize, was highly predictive of self-reported creative acts and interests. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gripshover, D. L. (1998). "Personality factors and self-report of cognitive functioning in a neurologically intact population." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(8-B): 4448.
An individual's self-report of their cognitive functioning may play an important role in a neuropsychological assessment and may significantly influence the impressions and diagnoses of clinicians. Several factors may potentially influence an individual's self-reported cognitive functioning including depression, anxiety, and personality factors, especially neuroticism. However, a relative paucity of research has directly examined the relationship between personality factors and self-reported cognitive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of depression, anxiety, and personality factors, as defined by the Five Factor Model of Personality, to self-report of cognitive functioning in a neurologically intact population. Participants included 96 undergraduate college students who completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist (PCSC), and the Multi-Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ). Only participants with no self-reported history of neurological impairment were included in the study. Results indicated that depression and anxiety, as well as a personality factor, neuroticism, were significantly positively correlated with both PCSC and MASQ scores. In addition, the extraversion personality factor was significantly negatively correlated with PCSC scores and the openness to experience and conscientiousness personality factors were significantly negatively correlated with MASQ scores. When the effects of depression and anxiety were statistically controlled, only neuroticism remained significantly correlated with the PCSC while the neuroticism, openness to experience, and conscientiousness personality factors continued to be significantly correlated with the MASQ. The results of this study provided empirical evidence that an important relationship exists between personality factors, emotional states, and self-report of cognitive symptoms. Because emotional states and personality factors may lead to over- or underreporting of cognitive symptoms, the results also underscore the need for evaluating these variables during neuropsychological evaluations. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Groth, K. E. (1998). "Impact of stimulus strength on the memory search performance of young and older adults." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(12-B): 6835.
The impact of stimulus strength on memory search performance was assessed in two experiments by manipulating the contrast of the letter stimuli. Experiment 1 assessed whether the contrast manipulation impacted the memory search performance of young adults using both the fixed-set and the varied-set procedures. A main effect for contrast demonstrated that the reduction in contrast did slow the overall memory search performance of the young adults. The reduction in contrast had more of an impact on the subjects in the fixed-set condition than it did on the subjects in the varied-set condition as seen in the steeper slope of the fixed-set positive reaction time function relative to that of the varied-set, due to the quicker responses at set size one. This finding supports the notion that there may be artifacts within the fixed-set procedure that may contribute to the set size effect without assuming a comparison process. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of contrast on the memory search performance of both young and older adults using the fixed-set procedure. The young and older adults did not differ in memory search performance at high contrast. At low contrast, however, the older adults evidenced a reaction time function with a steeper slope than that of the young. This finding supports the notion that reduced stimulus strength can impact information processing beyond the initial encoding of the letter stimuli, particularly for a group of individuals with known ocular and contrast sensitivity deficits. Implications of these findings for those interested in localizing age effects within the information processing system are discussed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Guareschi, N. M. D. F. (1999). "The Favela and the school: Contradictions and resistance in students' construction of identities." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(1-A): 0095.
This dissertation has the goal of understanding how students from an inner-city school in a poor community&mdash;a <italic>favela</italic>&mdash;construct, transform, and engage in their identity politics. It focuses on the economic, cultural, and political conditions of their lives. It analyzes students' identity politics as they constantly interact with gender, race, and class relations. It deals with students' lives in multiple sites: the school, home, and the community. This study examines the historical, cultural, and ideological contents of the formation of students' identities. This research is based on a qualitative study in a municipal school in the city of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil, with one eighth grade class and one fifth grade class. Although the students are between 15 and 18 years of age, they have continued to stay in a primary/middle school. The findings of this study suggest that students actively construct identities that have contradictory class, gender, sexual, and racial effects and understandings. Students' social and cultural relations of reproduction as well as their acts of resistance indicate that students' different subject positions have to be understood first based on the material aspects of students' reality, articulating the discursive and material boundaries that circumscribe and influence the students' lives. The analytical tools of this work are drawn from critical education studies including social, cultural, and resistance theories, neo-Marxist conceptions of ideology, poststructuralist approaches to discourse, and cultural and feminist understandings of identity politics. This research has major implications for how the concept of resistance is used. It shows that critical research must go beyond structuralist conceptions of social and cultural reproduction to connect with more nuanced models of identity politics, new social movements, and poststructuralist theories. Using these new approaches enable us to see students' potential for social mobilization and the possibilities of the transformation of their reality. This can only be accomplished by combining research on the social interactions in school, the social relations at home, in the paid and unpaid workplace, and in the community. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gubbins, J. P. (1998). "Our grief: A venture in phenomenology and ethics." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(4-A): 1218.
This study is a phenomenological description and analysis of grief and its constituent emotions, perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and desires. Using personal experiences of grief as a starting point, the study explores how the emotions of grief are moral in that they are responses to good and evil and develop the griever's moral knowledge and character. I identify nine component emotions in grief--anger, debasement, despair, desperation, disappointment, disbelief, distractedness, guilt, and tears and yearning. My discussion focuses on grief anger and the twelve themes that compose that emotion. Each theme is a characteristic pattern in thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and behaviors. The themes are found in, and forged by, the grief emotions. Most of the themes are directly related to good and evil. This is especially apparent in themes having to do with the uniqueness of persons, human vulnerability, radical bonds between persons, the promissory quality of experience, the prevalence of suffering, and spontaneous responses to the needs of others. The names of the twelve themes (which I have devised) are clustering, failure of the promissory, globalization, hyperbolization, the inquisitive, periodization and smearing, read/write, responsive wanting, uniqueness, vulnerability, we, and the world of pain. This study maps how the grief emotions develop in tandem with the themes, and how this development or venture is itself an advance in moral knowledge and character. This study employs a novel synthesis of hermeneutical phenomenology and neo-Aristotelian and neo-pragmatic epistemology. In addition, the study sustains a critical dialogue with various figures and movements in psychology--ranging from philosophical, moral, and religious psychology to social, clinical, experimental, and theoretical psychology. This study breaks new ground in proposing answers to two key moral questions regarding grief: What is good in grief? and What form of grief results in a full life? The results of this study have implications for a variety of topics beyond grief, including adult moral development, the psychology of compassion, limits of moral theory, use of personal experience in ethical discussion, religious reflection in times of crisis, and the nature of personal identity. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gullone, E. and S. Moore (2000). "Adolescent risk-taking and the five-factor model of personality." Journal of Adolescence 23(4): 393-407.
Investigated links between adolescent risk-taking and personality. Risk-taking was measured with the Adolescent Risk Questionnaire (ARQ) which assesses risk judgments and behaviors in 4 areas: thrill-seeking, reckless, rebellious and antisocial risks. Personality was conceptualized using the Five-factor Model of personality. The ARQ and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory were administered to 459 11-18 yr olds. Younger adolescents and girls generally reported engaging in risk behaviors less frequently than older adolescents and boys. Younger adolescents and girls generally rated the ARQ behaviors as more risky than older males. This was in line with the significant negative correlations found between risk judgments and behaviors of all types. Consistent with past research, few age differences were found for personality traits. Female adolescents scored higher on neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness than male adolescents. Risk judgments, personality factors, age and sex were found to be significant predictors of risk behaviors, depending on the risk type. These factors were most successful in predicting rebellious risk-taking and least successful in predicting thrill-seeking. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Gurrera, R. J., P. G. Nestor, et al. (2000). "Personality traits in schizophrenia: Comparison with a community sample." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 188(1): 31-35.
The objective of this study was to compare personality trait profiles in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Male outpatients with schizophrenia (N = 24) and a male nonpsychiatric community sample (N = 46) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1992) personality questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were used to compare mean scale scores and scale profiles for each group. The overall personality profile of clinically stable patients with schizophrenia differed significantly from that of a community sample. On individual scales, patients scored significantly higher on neuroticism and significantly lower on conscientiousness. These results confirm and extend those of previous studies that used normative data for comparison and a much longer version of the same personality questionnaire. Prospective studies of populations at risk are needed to determine whether group differences reflect a premorbid diathesis for schizophrenia or a secondary effect of serious mental illness. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hagglund, K. J., A. Z. Vieth, et al. (2000). "Caregiver personality characteristics and adaptation to juvenile rheumatic disease." Rehabilitation Psychology 45(3): 242-259.
journal abstract: Objective: To assess the impact of caregiver personality characteristics on the adaptation of children with juvenile rheumatic diseases (JRDs). Method: This study examined the relationships between caregivers' personality characteristics and adaptation among 59 children with JRDs. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory was administered to caregivers, and scores on each scale served as predictor variables. Criterion variables included child emotional and behavior problems, depression, self-esteem, and pain. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that caregivers' personality scores were related to indexes of emotional functioning, depression, self-esteem, and pain. Conclusion: Identification of specific caregiver personality characteristics that enhance or detract from children's adaptation may facilitate early identification of risk and protective factors and the development of interventions. DOI: 10.1037//0090-5550.45.3.242 ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Haigler, E. D. I. (1998). "Representation of maladaptive personality traits in the NEO-PI-R." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(11-B): 6235.
Previous research using the NEO-PI has provided evidence for the ability of the Five Factor Model (FFM), a dimensional model of personality, to account for a substantial proportion of the variance in the personality disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This body of research has also supported the majority of the conceptually predicted relationships between the FFM dimensions and the personality disorders. However, three predicted relationships have not been consistently supported (i.e., high FFM Agreeableness and the dependent personality disorder, high FFM Conscientiousness and the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and high FFM Openness and the schizotypal personality disorder). The primary hypothesis of this dissertation was that the inconsistent empirical evidence for these relationships is due in part to maladaptive variants of some aspects of the FFM traits being minimally represented on the NEO-PI and its revision, the NEO-PI-R. To investigate this hypothesis, an experimental revision of the NEO-PI-R items was undertaken to increase the representation of these maladaptive variants. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hakstian, A. R. and S. Farrell (2001). "An Openness scale for the California Psychological Inventory." Journal of Personality Assessment 76(1): 107-134.
Developed a 36-item scale to measure Openness, using items on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), Form 434. Items were initially chosen on the basis of content validity. Five samples (N = 2,375) were used to establish reliability, validity, and norms; 4 samples consisted of undergraduates, and 1 comprised adult applicants for nonmanagement call center jobs. Internal consistency estimates obtained in each sample averaged approximately .75, and test-retest stability, assessed in 1 sample, was estimated at .84. Cross-correlations with related scales, for example, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised Openness scale and other CPI-based scales, provided evidence of construct validity. Statistically significant predictive validities were obtained in 2 call center job-incumbent samples, with range-corrected true validities of .20 to .36 for a number of job performance criteria. Construct and predictive validity were found to be higher than for other scales consisting of CPI items designed to measure Openness or a related construct. The results of sex-differences analyses suggest no evidence of a sex difference on the CPI-Openness scale. Finally, norms were prepared for 1,847 undergraduates and 528 nonmanagement service-sector job applicants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Hamer, D. H., B. D. Greenberg, et al. (1999). "Role of the serotonin transporter gene in temperament and character." Journal of Personality Disorders 13(4): 312-328.
Analyzed the association between temperament and character traits, and the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), an inherited variation that modulates serotonin transporter gene expression, in 634 Ss (aged 18-76 yrs). Ss were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R). Three predictions of the biosocial model were tested: (1) the 5-HTTLPR would be associated with temperament rather than character; (2) the association would be specific for harm avoidance; and (3) the biosocial model would provide a more parsimonious description of the 5-factor model of the role of 5-HTTLPR in personality. Findings indicated that 5-HTTLPR was most strongly associated with the character traits of cooperativeness and self-directedness. Associations with the temperament traits of reward dependence and harm avoidance were weaker and could be attributable largely to cross-correlations with the character traits and demographic variables. Psychometric analysis indicated that the serotonin transporter influences negative affect and social disaffiliation, that are consistent across inventories but are more concisely described by the 5-factor model of personality than by the biosocial model. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hammond, K. R. (1999). Mats Bjoerkman and Swedish studies of judgment and decision making. Judgment and decision making: Neo-Brunswikian and process-tracing approaches. P. Juslin, H. Montgomery and et al. Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 305-320.
introduction: This chapter presents comments that serve to place the research presented in the volume into the greater picture of current trends in international judgment and decision making (JDM) research. The author provides a penetrating discussion and criticism of the neo-Brunswikian research performed in Sweden, from the perspective of more traditional Brunswikian theory. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hannah-Moffat, K. (2000). "Prisons that empower: Neo-liberal governance in Canadian women's prisons." British Journal of Criminology 40(3): 510-531.
This paper uses recent policy changes in Canadian women's imprisonment to examine the emergence of neo-liberal strategies of penal governing. The 1st section critically assesses the claim that new strategies of crime control involve a reconfiguration of the responsibilities of state and civil society. In the 2nd section, the logic and interpretive politics of empowerment strategies are evaluated. An emphasis is placed on how empowerment, a term previously associated with radical activists and social movements, is now as easily used by the Correctional Service of Canada to legitimate and justify the construction of a regime at 5 new regional prisons for women. This article reflexively examines the feminist and Aboriginal knowledges that contributed to the construction of empowerment as a legitimate and viable penal reform strategy; and it shows how feminist and Aboriginal reformers' notions of empowerment can be aligned with very different political rationalities and used as a strategy of responsibilization by policy makers and correctional officials. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Haraburda, E. M. (1999). "The relationship of indecisiveness to the Five Factor Personality Model and psychological symptomology." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(8-B): 4464.
The results of the current research supported the existence of a significant negative relationship between decisiveness and psychological symptomatology. Decisiveness was studied within the domains of conflict resolution and social relationship selection using the Multi-Domain Decisiveness Scale, a measure developed by the author. Questionnaires for this study were completed by 280 undergraduate students enrolled in an undergraduate psychology course at a large midwestern university. The constructs of the five factor personality model, psychological symptomatology, unconditional self-regard and impression management were assessed in the main data collection during autumn quarter 1997 using the following measures respectively: the NEO Five Factor Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory, Unconditional Self-Regard Scale, and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding. A factor analysis of the Multi-Domain Decisiveness Scale suggested the following four factors as the optimal solution given the data: overall impression of decisiveness, multidomain decision-making anxiety, social relationship selection self-efficacy, and conflict resolution self-efficacy. In order to comment on the practical significance of the relationships observed while testing the main hypotheses, t-tests were performed to compare participants scoring high (top quartile) and low (bottom quartile) in decisiveness. Participants scoring high in decisiveness had lower levels of psychological symptomatology and neuroticism than participants scoring low in decisiveness. The 'low' decisive participants were less extraverted, less open to new experiences, less agreeable, and less conscientious than the 'high' decisive participants. They ('low' decisive) also had less unconditional self-regard. After controlling for social desirability, the personality factors of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to new experiences did not appear to account for much additional variance between decisiveness and psychological symptomatology. With regard to response styles, the more participants appeared to be trying to present themselves in a positive fashion, the more likely they were to (1) be high in decisiveness, self-esteem, and conscientiousness, and (2) be low in neuroticism and psychological symptomatology. Some interesting findings involving comparisons between participants high and low in response inconsistency, were observed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Harcourt, L., K. Kirkby, et al. (1998). "The differential effect of personality on computer-based treatment of agoraphobia." Comprehensive Psychiatry 39(5): 303-307.
Examined the differential effects of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI--R) personality factors and intelligence on response to a computerized vicarious exposure treatment for agoraphobia. The Fear Questionnaire (FQ; I. M. Marks and A. M. Matthews, see record 1980-26848-001), the Agoraphobia Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ; D. L. Chambless et al, see record 1985-13540-001), and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ; see Chambless et al) were used to assess agoraphobic symptomatology. 14 females and 4 males (mean age 27.4 yrs) with agoraphobia diagnoses completed 3 45-min weekly treatment sessions. There was a significant decrease in scores on all 3 measures following treatment. Compared with published population norms, the agoraphobic Ss showed very high neuroticism, low extroversion, and high openness. Lower agreeableness factor scores predicted good treatment outcome. The NEO PI--R openness factor was negatively correlated with proficiency on the computer program; however, proficiency on the computer program did not correlate with symptom improvement. Overall, these results suggest that personality interacts with treatment at different stages of the therapeutic process. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Harder, D. W. and D. F. Greenwald (1999). "Further validation of the shame and guilt scales of the Harder Personal Feelings Questionnaire--2." Psychological Reports 85(1): 271-281.
Previous research using the Harder Personal Feelings Questionnaire--2 has generally supported the validity of its subscales for the measurement of the traits of proneness to shame and guilt. This study extended the construct validity by investigating hypothesized relationships between scores on the questionnaire and several personality constructs not previously examined, including attachment style, the five personality factors assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Sensation Seeking and Positive Affect (both from the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised). Shame and guilt scales were each expected to correlate inversely with secure attachment, Extraversion, Openness, Sensation Seeking (uninhibitedness), and Positive Affect, while they were predicted to correlate positively with Neuroticism from the NEO measure. Shame was expected to show stronger relationships than guilt with Extraversion, Openness, and Sensation Seeking. For the 41 college students examined, results were mostly as predicted, even after shame and guilt scores were partialled for each other, thereby providing further evidence for the construct validity of the Personal Feelings Questionnaire--2 scales. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Harrington, A. (2000). "In defence of Verstehen and Erklaeren: Wilhelm Dilthey's Ideas Concerning a Descriptive and Analytical Psychology." Theory & Psychology 10(4): 435-451.
Wilhelm Dilthey's essay of 1894, Ideas Concerning a Descriptive and Analytical Psychology, is the locus classicus of the distinction between "understanding" and "explanation", or Verstehen and Erklaeren, in the 19th-century German tradition of hermeneutics and the Geisteswissenschaften. This article discusses the distinction Dilthey draws there between "explanatory" psychology, based on subsumption of the behavior of individuals under general laws, and "interpretive", or "descriptive and analytical", psychology, based on disclosure of the uniqueness of individual case-histories. It defends his conception against the objections of the Neo-Kantian philosophers Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert and the experimental psychologists Hermann Ebbinghaus, as well as neo-positivist writers such as Theodore Abel. The article also argues more generally that Dilthey's dichotomy of "spirit" and "nature" still articulates a fundamental methodological difference between the sciences, despite our contemporary recognition of the importance of interpretation in both the natural and human sciences. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Harvey, O. J. (1997). Beliefs, knowledge, and meaning from the perspective of the perceiver: Need for structure-order. The message of social psychology: Perspectives on mind in society. C. McGarty, S. A. Haslam and et al. Oxford, England UK, Blackwell Publishers: 146-165.
chapter: the focus of this chapter will be on personal beliefs, knowledge, and meaning as a product of the human need to structure, explain, control, and find meaning in the world, including one's relationship to and place in it / beliefs will be defined . . . as personal hypotheses, or assumptions of what an outcome or state of affairs will be proven to be when tested by whatever test the particular believer accepts as valid / knowledge will be defined as a validated or confirmed personal belief, without regard to whether the belief or its proof is valid or "true" according to the criteria of any other person or source / meaning is the import, the implications of a belief or personal knowledge for feeling and/or action /// following descriptions of some of the psychological processes supporting the tendency toward structure and patterning that result in beliefs, personal knowledge, and meaning--processes of particular concern to Gestalt and neo-Gestalt psychologists--beliefs, belief systems and personal knowledge will be characterized in greater detail / individual differences in belief systems will then be described and the effect of these differences on such psychological products as open- and closed-mindedness, speed of closure, use of information, conservatism, authoritarianism, dogmatism, punitiveness, perspective taking, creativity, locus of control, and self-esteem will be presented ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hasselbladh, H. and J. Kallinikos (2000). "The project of rationalization: A critique and reappraisal of neo-institutionalism in organization studies." Organization Studies 21(4): 697-720.
This article critically approaches various neo-institutional accounts of the process of formal organizing. While acknowledging the importance of the overall orientation marked by neo-institutional studies, the article identifies several crucial aspects that have escaped the attention of neo-institutional research. In particular, it criticizes the inability of neo-institutionalism to provide an account of the means linking situated forms of organizing with wider instrumental beliefs and practices, in terms other than adaptivist, diffusionist. Such a limitation is partly a consequence of unwillingness of neo-institutionalism to focus on and analyze the very architecture of the rationalized patterns and relationships which neo-institutionalists claim to be diffusing across organizational populations and fields. Drawing on several sources, the article develops a framework that seeks to outline the conceptual means for decomposing the carriers of rationalized patterns, models and techniques and showing the distinctive ways in which they implicate the building blocks of formal organizing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Hassett, A. (1999). "A descriptive study of first presentation psychosis in old age." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 33(6): 814-824.
Describes the characteristics of a sample of elderly subjects presenting with their first episode of psychosis in old age. 46 (38 females, mean age 79.6; 8 males, mean age 78.3) patients were assessed on a variety of cognitive (Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination, Cognitive Examination), psychopathological, and personality measures (NEO Personality Inventory). Psychiatric assessment included the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination, Beck Depression Inventory, Bech-Raphaelson Manic Scale, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Female preponderance, social isolation and early cognitive deficits were findings of this study which have been replicated by other studies of late-onset psychosis. In contrast, hearing loss was not overly represented in this sample. Personality style differed significantly from accepted norms of adult personality traits, with lower scores for dimensional ratings of neuroticism, extraversion and openness to change. The descriptive findings in this study suggest that psychosocial factors require further investigation in patients presenting with late-onset psychosis. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hayes, S. and D. Toarmino (1999). "The rise of clinical behaviour analysis." Psychologist 12(10): 505-509.
The authors show how a behavioral framework is leading to new verbal psychotherapies. They state that behavior therapy has always had within it 2 traditions: 1 from stimulus-response learning theory and neo-behaviorism that was predominantly associationistic; the second, an applied behavior analysis, which sprang from operant psychology and was predominantly functional, developmental and contextualistic. What did not occur until recently, say the authors, was the development of innovative verbal psychotherapies entirely based on a behavior-analytic framework. The present article explains why this transition has occurred and gives a brief example of this type of clinical behavior analysis. The authors discuss the modern approach, private events, the new behavioral thinking, irony, and acceptance and commitment therapy (which includes the subtopics: creative hopelessness, control is the problem, you are not your thoughts and feelings, let go of the struggle, values, commitment and behavior change). ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Heckert, T. M., M. A. Mueller, et al. (1999). "Personality similarity and conflict among female college roommates." Journal of College Student Development 40(1): 79-81.
84 female roommate pairs completed the NEO-FFI and the Needs Assessment Questionnaire (T. M. Heckert, et al, in press). Frequency of conflict was measures using a 4-item scale developed for this study. It was predicted that roommates who were more similar would report less conflict and higher levels of liking. The authors found very limited support for their prediction. None of the 10 predictors were significantly related to frequency of conflict. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Heidal-Schiltz, S. N. (1998). "A repertory grid assessment of traitedness and its relation to the validity of the NEO PI-R Conscientiousness scale." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(10-B): 5694.
Since Allport (1937) first introduced the idea that traits may vary in their relevance for particular individuals, several investigators have explored ways to operationalize the construct of traitedness in order to improve the criterion-related validity of a trait-based approach to personality assessment. Specifically, these investigators have examined the utility of traitedness indicators as moderators of trait-criterion correlations, seeking to separate those individuals who are predictable on a given trait dimension from those who are not. This study attempted to determine whether the criterion-related validity of the Conscientiousness scale from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) varies as a function of traitedness, i.e., the relevance of the trait of conscientiousness for particular individuals. In order to operationalize traitedness, a modified version of Kelly's (1955) Role Construct Repertory Test (Reptest) was administered to 72 undergraduate students to assess both the organization and meaningfulness of the trait of conscientiousness within their personal construct systems. Participants also completed the NEO PI-R and some alternative measures of traitedness used in previous research. It was hypothesized that the traitedness index derived from the Reptest would significantly moderate the relation between participants' scores on the NEO PI-R Conscientiousness scale and 4 objective behavioral measures. Although results failed to support the use of the traitedness index as a moderator of trait-criterion correlations, some interesting findings were obtained for the use of the Reptest measures as direct predictors of behavior. Among the other traitedness indicators examined, only the nonipsatized variance index displayed a significant moderator effect consistent with expectations. It is concluded that the acceptable test-retest reliability coefficients and significant direct effects obtained for the Reptest measures suggest that these personal construct-based indices reflect meaningful individual differences worthy of further investigation. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hellstroem-Lindahl, E. and J. A. Court (2000). "Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors during prenatal development and brain pathology in human aging." Behavioural Brain Research 113(1-2): 159-168.
There are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) proteins and gene transcripts in human prenatal brain (PB) and spinal cord (SpC) at 4-6 wks gestation, and an age-related increase in nAChRs numbers is apparent during 1st trimester. In pons, there is a parallel increase in alpha7 mRNA level with age. The highest specific receptor binding (RB) of [-sup-3H]epibatidine and [-sup-3H]cytisine was detected in SpC, pons and medulla oblongata (MO), and RB of [-sup-1-sup-2-sup-5I]alpha-bungarotoxin was highest in SpC, MO and mesencephalon. Late PB nAChRs have been shown to fall with increasing age. During aging high affinity nicotine RB in the frontal cortex decreases in parallel with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) RB. In the hippocampal formation and entorhinal cortex (EC) nicotine RB also declines with age, in common with [-sup-1-sup-2-sup-5I]alpha-bungarotoxin in the EC, but NMDA RB remains unchanged. These reductions in nicotine RB with age may predispose the neo- and archicortex to the loss of nAChRs observed in age-associated neurodegenerative conditions. No loss in nAChR RB with aging is observed in the thalamus and only after the 7th decade in the striatum, although in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia there are nAChR deficits in these areas and may be associated with specific disease-related processes. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hemenover, S. H. (1999). "The effects of personality and mood states on stress appraisals." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(7-B): 3753.
This study investigated the influence of neuroticism, extraversion, cognitive processing, and experimentally induced mood states on stress appraisals made for five hypothetical stressors. Each of the five stressors was described by a written vignette, and contained an equal number of positive and negative elements. The cognitive processing bias was measured by having participants rate the extent to which, when making appraisals, they attended to the positive or negative elements present in the stressors. Participants first responded to the NEO-PI-R, a personality questionnaire measuring neuroticism and extraversion. Next, participants were randomly assigned to a negative, neutral, or positive mood condition, and watched a short video designed to induce the assigned mood. Following the video participants completed a mood-adjective checklist, made appraisals for the five hypothetical stressors, and completed a four-item questionnaire asking about their use, when making appraisals, of the positive and negative features of the stressors. It was predicted that experimentally induced mood would lead to mood-congruent attention and appraisal patterns, and also that mood and the cognitive processing bias would act as mediators between personality and appraisals. Consistent with predictions, positive mood-condition participants reported paying less attention to the negative elements of the hypothetical stressors, and made more positive appraisals than did negative or neutral mood-condition participants. Multiple regression and structural equation modeling techniques showed that, as predicted, neuroticism had indirect effects on appraisal patterns that were mediated by negative mood and by a cognitive bias which led neurotics to pay more attention to the negative, and less attention to the positive, stressor elements. Extraversion predicted positive mood and positive cognitive processing, but had only direct effects on appraisal patterns. Overall the results of this study support mood and cognitive processing as significant mediators between personality and appraisal processes. These findings suggest that both affective and cognitive components of personality are useful in understanding the association between stable dimensions of personality and stress appraisals. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hendrickx, M. (1999). What can management researchers learn from Donald T. Campbell, the philosopher? An exercise in hermeneutics. Variations in organization science: In honor of Donald T Campbell. J. A. C. Baum, B. McKelvey and et al. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications: 339-382.
chapter: Investigated the hermeneutical dimension in D. Campbell's work and shows how Campbell's own work, read from a hermeneutically informed approach, takes on a richer meaning: Campbell was attempting to make sense of the moral implications of neo-Darwinism. The author analyzes a paper that Campbell presented at the 1992 New York conference on organizational evolution to illustrate the need to pay more attention to philosophical hermeneutics and to argued that it should be added to the "tool kit" of management researchers. Campbell believed that researchers need a better understanding of how individuals treated to one another and not so much "real" groups. After discussing Campbell's philosophical hermeneutics in detail, the author provides an exercise in hermeneutics, by applying the principle of charity to a situation. The author also describes the application of these concepts of groups, neo-Darwinism and inherent selfishness, and interpersonal interaction, in organizations. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Heppner, M. J., B. E. Fuller, et al. (1998). "Adults in involuntary career transition: An analysis of the relationship between the psychological and career domains." Journal of Career Assessment 6(3): 329-346.
Examined the relationship between psychological and career domains in a sample of 371 involuntarily laid off workers in the midwestern US. The psychological domain was operationalized using the NEO Five Factor Inventory. The Career Transitions Inventory was used to examine internal psychological resources which adults may assess when making a career transition. A latent variable model was developed between the two sets of constructs to explore possible direct relationships between these sets. Results indicate that neuroticism and openness to experience explained a significant amount of variance in the career transition variables. Self-efficacy was predicted by four of the five personality factors. Implications concerning the importance of assessing underlying personality traits and more specific career constructs are discussed. Implications of the data for the greater integration of the psychological and career domains within the authors' training programs are highlighted. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Herbst, J. H., R. R. McCrae, et al. (2000). "Self-perceptions of stability and change in personality at midlife: The UNC Alumni Heart Study." Assessment 7(4): 379-388.
The finding of personality stability in adulthood may be counterintuitive to people who perceive a great deal of change in their own personality. This study examined whether self-reported perceived changes in personality are associated with actual changes based on a 6- to 9-yr follow-up of 2,242 middle-aged male and female participants (aged 39-45 yrs) of the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study. Respondents completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory on two occasions and were asked to reflect back over a 6-year period and assess changes in their personality. The majority of respondents (n = 1,177; 52.5%) reported they had "stayed the same," while 863 (38.5%) reported they had "changed a little" and 202 (9%) reported they had "changed a good deal." Coefficients of personality profile agreement computed to evaluate global personality change for the 3 perceived change groups were essentially equivalent. Further, directional analyses of domain-specific changes in personality showed that perceived changes were weak predictors of residual gain scores. In an absolute sense, perceptions of stability or change were discordant in 8 of 15 (53%) comparisons. Self-perceptions of change are not an adequate substitute for objective assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Herringer, L. G. (1998). "Facets of extraversion related to life satisfaction." Personality & Individual Differences 24(5): 731-733.
Studied the relationship between 6 facets of extraversion (activity, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, gregariousness, positive emotion, and warmth) and life satisfaction in a sample of 162 18-49 yr old university students. Ss completed the NEO Personality Inventory and the Satisfaction with Life (E. Diener et al, 1985) scales. Positive emotion and assertiveness showed the strongest relationships, followed by gregariousness and warmth. Separating the data by gender indicated that life satisfaction for women was primarily related to levels of positive emotion and warmth, while for men the most important facets were assertiveness and gregariousness. Regression analyses indicated that the only significant predictor of life satisfaction for males was assertiveness, and the only such predictor for females was positive emotion. The results underscore the importance of gender as a context for trait expression, and the consequences of this for life satisfaction. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hickie, I., P. Ward, et al. (1999). "Neo-striatal rCBF correlates of psychomotor slowing in patients with major depression." Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 92(2-3): 75-81.
Psychomotor slowing is a fundamental clinical feature of severe depression and is thought to reflect dysfunction within prefrontal-subcortical circuits. This study utilized a split-dose single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scanning technique in association with a two-stage test of psychomotor speed. 25 patients with primary depressive disorders (aged 26-79 yrs) were injected with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (-super(99m)Tc-HMPAO) whilst performing each component of a two-stage psychomotor task. The first stage, "simple reaction time" (RT) and the second stage, "choice reaction time" (CRT), were each followed by 30-min SPECT scans. Regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to the left and right neo-striatum (caudate-putamen) were drawn, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were calculated. Importantly, the change in rCBF measure in the left neo-striatum was inversely correlated with RT. That is, the patients with the greatest psychomotor slowing initially showed the least increase in rCBF during the CRT condition. This effect was independent of age. The study demonstrates that a simple two-stage motor paradigm can be used to elicit rCBF correlates of psychomotor slowing in patients with primary depression. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hodson, G. and R. M. Sorrentino (1999). "Uncertainty orientation and the Big Five personality structure." Journal of Research in Personality 33(2): 253-261.
Investigated the relationship between the uncertainty orientation construct (R. M. Sorrentino and J. C. Short, 1986) and the Big Five personality structure, using 188 undergraduates. As predicted, uncertainty orientation was related to only the Openness to Experience factor and not to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, or Neuroticism. Discriminant and convergent validity for the construct using the Six-Factor Personality Questionnaire (6FPQ; D. N. Jackson and S. V. Paunonen, in press) was demonstrated. Uncertainty orientation was also positively correlated with the NEO-Personality Inventory-R Openness measure (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992). As predicted, both components of uncertainty orientation (need to master uncertainty and Authoritarianism) tapped distinct aspects of personality and provided unique variance in predicting Openness as measured by the 6FPQ. The implications for the nature of the uncertainty orientation construct are discussed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hojat, M., T. J. Nasca, et al. (1999). "A comparison of the personality profiles of internal medicine residents, physician role models, and the general population." Academic Medicine 74(12): 1327-1333.
Compared the personality profiles of internal medicine residents (IMRs) with those of the general population and positive role models in medicine. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) was completed by 104 IMRs and by a nationwide sample of 188 physicians selected as positive role models in medicine. Data from the 2 physician groups were also compared with the NEO PI-R averages of the general population of adults in the US. Compared with the general population, the IMRs were more likely to be attentive, to have deeper intellectual curiosity, to have higher aspiration levels, to have more vivid imaginations, to be more receptive to their emotions, to be interested in mental stimulation, and to think carefully before acting. Compared with the role models, the IMRs were less eager to face challenges, less able to control their impulses, less able to cope with adversity, less easygoing, and less relaxed, but were more likely to crave excitement. Results suggest that IMRs and positive role models in medicine have some distinct personal qualities. Understanding the qualities of successful physicians can be helpful in career counseling of medical students and young physicians. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Holden, R. R. (2000). Are there promising MMPI substitutes for assessing psychopathology and personality? Review and prospect. Handbook of cross-cultural and multicultural personality assessment. R. H. Dana and et al. Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 267-302.
This chapter discusses promising MMPI substitutes for assessing psychopathology and personality.:
chapter: Topics include: history of the MMPI; revision of the MMPI: the MMPI-2; psychometric properties of the MMPI-2; notable features of the MMPI-2; strengths and weaknesses of the MMPI-2; methodological advancements in test construction since the original MMPI; promising general alternatives to the MMPI-2: descriptions, assets, and limitations; the assessment of psychopathology (the Personality Assessment Inventory, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), the Basic Personality Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Holden Psychological Screening Inventory, others); the assessment of personality (the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, the California Psychological Inventory, the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Personality Research Form, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire); and issues in selecting an inventory. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hollick, C., C. L. Radnitz, et al. (2001). "Does spinal cord injury affect personality? A study of monozygotic twins." Rehabilitation Psychology 46(1): 58-67.
journal abstract: ABSTRACT. Objective: To assess whether spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with personality change. Study Design: NEO Personality Inventory-Revised results of identical twins, one of whom had a spinal cord injury, were compared. Setting. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York. Participants: Eleven sets of twins recruited through a nationwide search involving advertisements in periodicals and referrals from other professionals. Results: There were no significant differences between the scores of the non-SCI twins and their injured co-twins on NEO Personality Inventory scales and facets. Conclusions: The authors found no evidence that SCI is associated with long-term personality change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Hollifield, M., L. Tuttle, et al. (1999). "Hypochondriasis and somatization related to personality and attitudes toward self." Psychosomatics 40(5): 387-395.
Better definition of the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization was determined by measuring attitudes to self and personality dimensions associated with these syndromes. In this study, the 74 primary care patients with hypochondriacal responses (HCR) on the Illness Attitudes Scales or high somatic concern (HSC) on the Symptom Questionnaire had more negative attitudes to self and more psychological distress than the matched group of 111 primary care control Ss. The HCR Ss were different from the non-HCR Ss on two of five personality domains on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO)-Five-Factor Inventory, and the HSC Ss were different from the non-HSC Ss on four of five NEO domains. Analysis of variance demonstrated that somatization explained most of the variance in attitudes, personality, and psychological distress, but hypochondriasis uniquely contributed only to thanatophobia. The authors discuss the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization and offer a descriptive model of this relationship. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hong, S. H. and Y.-H. Kim (1998). "A validation study of the Borderline Personality Disorder Scale in Korean university students." Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology 17(1): 259-271.
Examined the reliability and validity of L. C. Morey's Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Scale (1991) in Korean university students. To test the practical validation of the Scale, 244 (122 male and 122 female) university students in Taegu, Korea were administered Morey's BPD Scale, MMPI-BPD, and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) Neuroticism and Agreeableness Scale. Then, to distinguish and compare 3 groups based on the extent of the BPD characteristics, 1,106 (432 male and 674 female) university students in Korea were administered the BPD Scale. Based on the results, a norm was established and the 3 groups were: Ss with T scores below 15 (Group 1); Ss with T scores 20-35 (Group 2); and Ss with T scores 39+ (Group 3). Comparative analyses show that as the Ss' borderline personality features increased, they manifested more depression, personality and general psychopathology. The results establish the reliability and validity of the BPD Scale. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Hopkins, W. D. and J. K. Rilling (2000). "A comparative MRI study of the relationship between neuroanatomical asymmetry and interhemispheric connectivity in primates: Implication for the evolution of functional asymmetries." Behavioral Neuroscience 114(4): 739-748.
journal abstract: The authors tested the theory that hemispheric specialization evolved as a consequence of reduced interhemispheric connectivity by examining whether neuroanatomical asymmetries were associated with variation in the ratio of corpus callosum size to brain volume (CC:VOL) and to neocortical surface area (CC:NEO) in human and nonhuman primates. Magnetic resonance images were collected in a sample of 45 primates including 8 New World monkeys, 10 Old World monkeys, 4 lesser apes, 17 great apes, and 6 humans. CC:VOL and CC:NEO were determined and correlated with measures of brain asymmetry. The results indicate that brain asymmetry significantly predicted CC:VOL and CC:NEO. Subsequent analyses revealed that species variation in functional asymmetries in the form of handedness are also inversely related to CC: NEO. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that leftward brain asymmetries may have evolved as a consequence of reduced interhemispheric connectivity. DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.114.4.739 ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hough, L. M. (1998). "The millennium for personality psychology: New horizons or good ole daze." Applied Psychology: An International Review 47(2): 233-261.
Research on 3 issues important to psychologists in applied settings are reviewed: taxonomies, intentional distortion, and measurement mode. Construct-oriented research has enabled the field to make significant advances. Nonetheless, the 5-factor model is criticized because it confounds constructs, is method-bound, and is not comprehensive. A comparison of meta-analytic research summarizing the criterion-related validity of personality constructs of different taxonomic models reveals that the Five Factor Model obscures important predictor-criterion relationships. In short, taxonomic structure affects research conclusions. The research on intentional distortion is also reviewed. People can distort their responses to self-report inventories; job applicants do not distort their responses as much as people in direct faking studies, and criterion-related validity of moderately distorted self-descriptions appears about the same as for honest self-descriptions. Measurement strategies that do not rely on self report are discussed as alternative measurement strategies. Factors and facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory are appended. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

House, R. J. (1999). "Weber and the neo-charismatic leadership paradigm: A response to Beyer." Leadership Quarterly 10(4): 563-574.
Comments on the article by J. Beyer (see record 1999-01086-007) on M. Weber's original conception of charismatic leadership and her critique of later charismatic-transformational leadership theories and literature. In general, Beyer contends that the Neo-charismatic Leadership Paradigm (NLP) results in the "taming" of the Weberian charisma, making the latter more common and less extraordinary. This commentary details assertions of Beyer's with which he agrees and those with which he disagrees and points out Beyer's overgeneralizations in her criticisms of the NLP. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Howley, A., L. Spatig, et al. (1999). Developmentalism deconstructed. Rethinking intelligence: Confronting psychological assumptions about teaching and learning. J. L. Kincheloe, S. R. Steinberg and et al. New York, NY, US, Routledge: 27-49.
chapter: This chapter evaluates developmentalism as an ideology by presenting a series of critiques from distinct frames of reference: conservatism, neo=Marxism, cultural pluralism, feminism, and postmodernism. All 5 critiques detail the issues of developmentalism from their perspectives. They suggest, sometimes in different and incompatible ways, that developmentalism is a form of restraint. Neoconservatives see it as interfering with parents' and schools' freedom to bend children's characters from evil to virtue. Neo=Marxists see developmentalism as the ideological support for labor discipline that constrains workers' emancipatory desires. Developmentalism is presented as imposing artificial hierarchies of value on cultural patterns by pluralists. And feminists point to the demeaning nature of developmentalism that diminishes their opportunities for self=worth. Finally, postmodernism presents developmentalism as a technology of power whereby developmental discourse and practice control processes of formation of self. Developmentalism appears to be a limiting force. These differences in critique serve to affirm the social construction of developmentalism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hoyt, M. F., Ed. (1998). The handbook of constructive therapies: Innovative approaches from leading practitioners. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Inc.
jacket: This handbook is a practical guide to the therapeutic techniques that have come to be known as constructive therapies. It represents a variety of contemporary schools--including solution-focused, narrative, collaborative language systems, reflecting team, interactional, and neo-Ericksonian--that all share an optimistic view of people as resourceful individuals who construct their own psychological realities. These approaches emphasize respectful collaboration and focus on the strengths and resources of the client. This book reveals how clinicians can have a fuller appreciation of the powers of language and imagination and shows how to incorporate the qualities of caring, collaboration, and respect for a client's abilities. It contains concepts, techniques, and case examples that will help clinicians develop the skills they need to use these results-oriented therapies within their own practice. The authors show how to apply these approaches with a wide range of individuals and families, including such difficult clients as violent men, troubled children, couples in conflict, people with eating disorders, victims of abuse, and others with severe and persistent problems. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hoyt, C. A. (1999). "A Wittgensteinian study of experimental psychology." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(8-A): 3023.
Experimental psychology emerged as an independent discipline in the mid to late nineteenth century, as one expression of the positivist movement to supplant various branches of philosophy with science. The founders of psychology claim to answer epistemological questions via their empirical research and theories, and much of their work can reasonably be regarded as naturalized epistemology. Of course, experimental psychology quickly assumed aims beyond epistemology. However, philosophical issues continued to heavily influence the aims and nature psychology at least into the nineteen-fifties, with the rise of the neo-behaviorist movement. Ludwig Wittgenstein was harshly critical of experimental psychology, though the precise nature of his objections is debatable. It appears that Wittgenstein believed naturalized epistemology was itself an ill-conceived movement whose fundamental flaws are relatively apparent in psychology. When applied to the historical study of experimental psychology, Wittgenstein's ideas imply that psychologists have not had the degree of success with epistemology that they claim. Moreover, the root confusions which led psychologists to approach philosophical problems from an inappropriate, scientific vantage are woven into the fabric of experimental psychology rather widely, and cannot be neatly isolated or extricated. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hrebickova, M. and I. Cermak (1996). "Vnitrni konzistence ceske verze dotazniku NEO-FFI. The internal consistency of the Czech version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory." Ceskoslovenska Psychologie 40(3): 208-216.
Studied the psychometric properties of the Czech translation of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992). Human Ss: 945 normal male and female Czech adolescents and adults (aged 14-81 yrs). The factor structure of the 12 items in each of the 5 personality scales (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) was analyzed. The internal consistency of each of the 5 scales was assessed. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hrebickova, M. (1999). "Obecne dimenze popisu osobnosti: Big Five V Cestine. General dimensions of personality description: Big Five in Czech." Ceskoslovenska Psychologie 43(1): 1-12.
Documents the particular phases of lexical study in Czech personality descriptors and presents the structure derived from the factor analysis of the representative list of personality traits. In the first phase, 4,145 adjectives proper for the description of a person or personality description were selected from the Czech language. These adjectives were classified by 6 judges into the categories of German classification system in the next phase. 366 adjectives were chosen as representative for the Disposition (personality traits) category. These were submitted to 426 subjects for self-rating. The factor analysis using the principal components analyses with the Varimax rotation was carried out. The five-factor solution produced the factors Extraversion-Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect. The interpretation of these factors in the sense of Big Five was verified on the basis of their correlations with factors gained from the evaluation of a representative list of traits according to the Norman model, with factors from the markers of Big Five and with factors derived from the scales of NEO-FFI. The more-factor solutions didn't bring any further dimension that would exceed the framework of Big Five by its content. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hrebickva, M., I. Cermak, et al. (2000). "Development of personality structure from adolescence to old age: Preliminary findings." Studia Psychologica 42(3): 163-166.
Investigated the development of personality structure from adolescence to old age and whether self-report of personality dimensions differed for men and women. 930 Ss (aged 14-81 yrs) completed the Czech version of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992). Ss were classified into 7 age groups. Results show a relation between gender and self-report in the 5 examined dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Females tended to score higher than males in all 5 personality dimensions. Younger Ss scored higher on the neuroticism, extraversion, and openness scales, whereas older Ss scored higher on the agreeableness and conscientiousness scales. Differences between the age groups suggest that personality dimensions change during development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Huang, C. D., A. T. Church, et al. (1997). "Identifying cultural differences in items and traits: Differential item functioning in the NEO Personality Inventory." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 28(2): 192-218.
Investigated the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of items on the English-language version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), a measure of the 5-factor personality model, in a different cultural context in which English is the language of instruction. Three models of differential item functioning (DIF) were examined to identify the etic and emic items, and hypotheses about the cultural mean differences in the traits associated with the 5-factor model were tested. The item responses of 432 18-27 Filipino and 610 American 18-66 yr old college students were analyzed. All 3 methods for detecting DIF showed fairly good agreement in the detection of DIF items. Nearly 40% of the 180 items showed DIF. Several significant cultural mean differences that were found with the original raw scores were no longer significant when "purified" scales obtained by deleting DIF items were analyzed. Findings conclude that the NEO-PI can be used to assess personality constructs in Filipino populations. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Huang, Y. (2000). "Discourse anaphora: Four theoretical models." Journal of Pragmatics 32(2): 151-176.
One of the central issues in the study of discourse anaphora is concerned with the problem of anaphoric distribution in discourse, namely how to account for the choice of a particular referential/anaphoric form at a particular point in discourse. Needless to say, anaphoric distribution in discourse is a very complex phenomenon, involving, among other things, structural, cognitive and pragmatic factors that interact with each other. Nevertheless, currently 3 main approaches to discourse anaphora can be identified: (1) the topic continuity model, (2) the hierarchy model and (3) the cognitive model. The aim of this article is twofold: firstly in sections 2, 3, and 4, the author reviews the 3 accounts of discourse anaphora mentioned above; secondly (and more importantly) in section 5, the author develops a neo-Gricean pragmatic analysis of discourse anaphora, which is complementary to the 3 extant theoretical models. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Huprich, S. K. (2000). "Describing depressive personality analogues and dysthymics on the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised." Journal of Clinical Psychology 56(12): 1521-1534.
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to test T. Widiger et. al's (1994) description of depressive personalities' profile scores on the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI--R); and (2) to determine the degree of empirical overlap between depressive personality analogues and dysthymics on the NEO-PI-R. 550 Ss were administered 3 screening questionnaires in random order, and 15 Ss (mean age 18.53 yrs) were selected for further interviews based upon their scores on 1 or more of the measures. Ss were then placed in 1 of 3 groups: (1) depressive personality disorder analogues (DPAs), (2) dysthymics, and (3) normal controls; comparisons between groups were made. As predicted, DPAs had significantly higher mean scores on the Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Consciousness NEO-PI--R facets of Neuroticism than did controls, but not on the Tendermindedness facet. On the second question of interest, DPAs and dysthymics significantly differed on the Self-Consciousness and Gregariousness facets and clinically differed on the Neuroticism, Openness, and Agreeableness factors, and on the Angry Hostility, Depression, and Positive Emotions facets. Despite overlap on other factors and facets, it is concluded that DPAs can be meaningfully differentiated from dysthymia on the NEO-PI--R. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Hurley, J. R. (1998). "Agency and communion as related to "Big Five" self-representations and subsequent behavior in small groups." Journal of Psychology 132(3): 337-351.
Associations between self-representations and behavior were hypothesized as varying in accordance with the interpersonal meta-concepts of agency and communion (J. S. Wiggins, 1991). The NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1985) was completed by 250 undergraduates, to address the Big Five factors (Openness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism) and 18 subscales. Several weeks later, after both 23 and 46 interaction hours in small groups, the same participants rated self and others for self-accepting and other-accepting conduct. Self-accepting conduct ratings from pooled peers and self were consistently correlated more positively with NEO-PI Assertiveness, Openness, Feelings, Extraversion, and Values; ratings of other-acceptance had parallel positive associations with Agreeableness, Warmth, and Positive Emotions, and negative associations with Hostility. All ratings were related only weakly to Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. The findings support Wiggins's views of the relevance of agency and communion. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Hurley, J. R. (1998). "Timidity as a response style to psychological questionnaires." Journal of Psychology 132(2): 201-210.
journal abstract: Firm and mild response styles to questionnaires were examined. A sample of 419 North American undergraduates chose among 5 options ranging from firm agreement to firm disagreement to respond to 181 NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and 64 Constructive Thinking Inventory items. Both mild assenting and firm dissenting options were more strongly correlated (p < .05) with subscales of the NEO-PI Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness domain measures than were mild dissenting and firm assenting. The 6 Neuroticism subscales had response option correlates largely opposite in direction to those of the 12 subscales of Extraversion and Openness. A firm assent minus mild dissent composite related more positively to the Depression, Self-Consciousness, Anxiety, Hostility, Impulsiveness, and Vulnerability subscales, but more negatively to the Actions and Values subscales, than did a firm dissent minus mild assent composite. This coherent body of associations suggests a timid style of responding to psychological inventories. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Huys, R., L. Sels, et al. (1999). "Toward less division of labor? New production concepts in the automotive, chemical, clothing, and machine tool industries." Human Relations 52(1): 67-93.
The authors focus on the results of the Belgian Trend Study. The intention of this study was to examine the prevalence of new production concepts within the widest possible range of companies in the automotive, the machine tool, the chemical, and the clothing industries. The Trend Study aimed to answer the following questions: is the Taylorist division of labor a thing of the past? What are the alternatives? Are shifts in the division of labor accompanied by another type of personnel policy, and do traditional industrial relations have to make way for this new approach? The methodological concept used had to guarantee that the findings at the level of each industry could be generalized. Though the picture emerging from the empirical data collected in the 4 industrial sectors is inevitably diverse, the data make it possible merely to suggest a neo- rather than a post-Taylorist or -Fordist concept. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jackson, C. J. and P. J. Corr (1998). "Personality-performance correlations at work: Individual and aggregate levels of analyses." Personality & Individual Differences 24(6): 815-820.
In the occupational community, there is a widespread faith in the utility of personality assessment for selection, development, etc. This faith has been immune to arguments, supported by empirical evidence, regarding the poor correlation between personality and performance in the workplace. The difference between perception of utility and the actual empirical reality is large. In 2 experiments, the authors compared the magnitude of validity coefficients from individual and aggregate (i.e., organizational) levels. The first study examined the effectiveness of the Eysenck Personality Profiler in predicting sales success; the second study examined the power of the NEO PI-R to predict rugby referee performance. Results indicate that strong actual personality-performance correlations exist at the aggregate level of analysis, but not at the individual level of analysis. The authors suggest that this aggregate-individual correlation discrepancy may, in part at least, account for the perceived-actual discrepancy noted above and conclude that the continued faith in personality testing in the workplace may be a consequence of test users' sensitivity to actual aggregate level personality-performance correlations. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jacobson, M. J. and A. Archodidou (2000). "The design of hypermedia tools for learning: Fostering conceptual change and transfer of complex scientific knowledge." Journal of the Learning Sciences 9(2): 145-199.
Discusses the knowledge mediator framework (KMF) as an approach for developing hypermedia case and problem-centered knowledge resources, and examined the use of a KMF-based system to instruct adolescents in biology. Six general types of KMF learning activities include cognitive interactivity, scaffolded problem solving, cognitive preparation, preliminary learning tasks with deep structure knowledge resources, guided conceptual crisscrossing, and learner centered and project centered learning. Eight high school students (aged 14-16 yrs) used a KMF-based hypermedia system to learn neo-Darwinian evolutionary biology. Results show that Ss using the system changed their problem solving models and continued to use expert-like models even at 1-yr follow- up. Findings suggest that the KMF systems having specific sociocognitive theoretical and research rationales can help students construct rich and useful understandings of challenging knowledge. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jacobucci, G. D. (2000). "Primary appraisal as a function of attachment pattern, personality, and situational circumstances. (coping, relationships)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3609.
This study examined influences on primary appraisal as an early stage of coping. The Life Situations Questionnaire was constructed to measure primary appraisal in each of 21 life situations, rating each both in terms of the amount of Challenge and Threat they posed. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory was used to measure personality, and attachment patterns and models were assessed with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Participants were university students (n = 89) and adults from the community (n = 54). Canonical correlation analyses between attachment models and appraisals, and between personality factors and appraisals, yielded significant relationships only when appraisals of situations involving close personal relationships were excluded. Challenge and Threat appraisals were differentially correlated with attachment patterns. Attachment dimension models were very modestly able to predict appraisals. Personality factors were differentially correlated with Challenge and Threat appraisals. Relationships between individual differences and primary appraisals were more consistent with expectations regarding personality factors than with attachment patterns/models. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jain, U., M. A. Blais, et al. (1999). "Five-factor personality traits in patients with seasonal depression: Treatment effects and comparisons with bipolar patients." Journal of Affective Disorders 55(1): 51-54.
Increasingly, the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is being used to assess personality characteristics of patients with Axis I disorders. Recent study indicates that patients with the seasonal subtype of major depression (SAD) may differ meaningfully from other depressed patients. This study examined this finding, with attention to the stability of personality characteristics across treatment. 24 outpatients with SAD (mean age 38 yrs) and 13 with bipolar disorder (mean age 35.7 yrs) completed the NEO-FFM inventory. Assessment was repeated in the SAD patients after light therapy. SAD patients scored significantly lower on Neuroticism and significantly higher on the Conscientiousness , Openness, and Extroversion domains than patients with bipolar disorder. Scores on the Openness domain remained elevated after light treatment of SAD; this occurred in the context of significant decreases in Neuroticism and increases in Extroversion scores. Findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that Neuroticism and Extroversion are the FFM domains most responsive to treatment for depression, while elevations on the Openness domain do not change with treatment and may be an enduring characteristic of patients with SAD. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jang, K. L., R. R. McCrae, et al. (1998). "Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 74(6): 1556-1565.
journal abstract: The common variance among personality traits can be summarized in the factors of the five-factor model, which are known to be heritable. This study examined heritability of the residual specific variance in facet-level traits from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Analyses of raw and residual facet scales across Canadian (183 monozygotic [MZ] and 175 dizogotic [DZ] pairs) and German (435 MZ and 205 DZ pairs) twin samples showed genetic and environmental influences of the same type and magnitude across the 2 samples for most facets. Additive genetic effects accounted for 25% to 65% of the reliable specific variance. Results provide strong support for hierarchical models of personality that posit a large number of narrow traits in addition to a few broader trait factors or domains. Facet-level traits are not simply exemplars of the broad factors they define; they are discrete constructs with their own heritable and thus biological basis. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jang, K. L., R. W. Lam, et al. (1998). "Seasonal mood change and personality: An investigation of genetic co-morbidity." Psychiatry Research 78(1-2): 1-7.
Estimates the genetic and environmental correlations between the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) from the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and personality measures, assessed using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP) in 163 monozygotic pairs (102 female and 61 male pairs; aged 16-84 yrs) and 134 dizygotic pairs (70 female, 38 male and 26 opposite-sex pairs; aged 16-66 yrs). Large genetic correlations were found between the GSS and NEO-FFI Neuroticism and DAPP-BQ Cognitive Dysregulation, Affective Lability, Anxiousness and Stimulus Seeking scales. The genetic correlations with the remaining scales, such as Extraversion, Compulsivity and Submissiveness were uniformly small. All environmental correlations between the GSS and personality scales were <= 0.19. These results provide evidence that the observed correlations between these seasonality and personality dimensions are attributable to common genetic factors and that environmental influences are domain specific. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jang, K. L. and W. J. Livesley (1999). "Why do measures of normal and disordered personality correlate? A study of genetic comorbidity." Journal of Personality Disorders 13(1): 10-17.
The genetic and environmental correlations between measures of normal (NEO-FFI) and abnormal personality (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology: DAPP-BQ) were estimated in a sample of 545 volunteer general population twin pairs (269 monozygotic and 276 dizygotic pairs, aged 16-84 yrs). The largest genetic correlations were observed between the 18 DAPP-BQ dimensions and NEO-FFI neuroticism (range = .05 to .81; median = .48), extraversion (range = -.65 to .33; median = -.28), agreeableness (range = -.65 to.00; median = -.38), and conscientiousness (range = -.76 to .52; median = -.31). The smallest genetic correlations were found between the DAPP-BQ dimensions and NEO-FFI openness (range = -.17 to .20; median = -.04). The environmental correlations are lower in magnitude but show the same pattern of correlations between DAPP-BQ and NEO-FFI scales. These results indicate that these two scales share a common broad-based genetic architecture, whereas the environmental influences show greater scale specificity. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jefferson, T., Jr., J. H. Herbst, et al. (1998). "Associations between birth order and personality traits: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings." Journal of Research in Personality 32(4): 498-509.
Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in 3 sets of analyses of archival data. The 1st used self report measures of Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness (O) in a national sample of 9,664 Ss. Results were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in 612 55-96 yr olds show only small effects for Altruism and Tender-Mindedness. Peer ratings of 166 61-94 yr olds support the hypotheses that later born children would be higher in facets of Openness and Agreeableness, but spouse ratings (N = 88) did not replicate those findings. It is concluded that birth order may have subtle effects on perceived personality, but it is unlikely that this effect mediates associations with scientific radicalism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jerram, K. L. and P. G. Coleman (1999). "The big five personality traits and reporting of health problems and health behaviour in old age." British Journal of Health Psychology 4(Part 2): 181-192.
Assessed whether the Big Five personality traits are related to health behavior among British older people. The NEO Five Factor Inventory, together with questions on medical problems, perceived health status, positive health behaviors, and frequency of visits to general practitioners were administered to 50 75-84 yr old volunteers from general practitioner (GP) lists. Neuroticism was associated with a number of reported medical problems, negatively perceived health status and frequency of visits to the GP. Extraversion was associated with positive health behaviors. Openness to experience and agreeableness were associated with positive health perceptions. There were some striking differences between associations found within the male and female groups. Agreeable women reported fewer medical problems and less frequent visits to the GP than antagonistic women, whereas conscientious men reported more positive health perceptions and more visits to the GP than non-conscientious men. Since associations are evident for each of the personality traits, all of the Big Five personality traits should be included in research on health behavior to investigate their relevance for clinical practice. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

John, O. P. and S. Srivastava (1999). The Big Five Trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. L. A. Pervin, O. P. John and et al. New York, NY, US, The Guilford Press: 102-138.
chapter: Reviews the history of the Big Five taxonomy of personality trait dimensions, including the discovery of the five dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), research replicating and extending the model, its convergence with research in the questionnaire tradition, and the development of several instruments to measure the Big Five. The authors then compare three of the most frequently used instruments (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae's (1992) NEO Personality Inventory instruments, L. R. Goldberg's (1992) Trait Descriptive Adjectives, and O. P. John, E. M. Donohue, and B. L. Kentle's (1991) Big Five Inventory) and report data regarding their reliability and convergent validity. Finally, they address a number of critical issues, including how the Big Five taxonomy is structured hierarchically, whether the five dimensions predict important life outcomes, how they develop, how they combine into personality types, and whether they are descriptive or explanatory concepts. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Johnson, E. L. (1997). "Christ, the lord of psychology." Journal of Psychology & Theology 25(1): 11-27.
Explores how Christ's lordship relates to the field of psychology. The lordship of Christ over all of a Christian's life is an assumption basic to Christianity. The acknowledgment of his lordship in psychology is especially problematic today because of the pervasive naturalism and neo-positivism of modern psychology. Nevertheless, an understanding of the kingdom concept in Scripture suggests that Christians are inevitably called to work toward the expression of Christ's lordship in psychology. This occurs as the Christian pursues psychological knowledge and practice before God, aware that all true truth about human nature is an expression of God's mind, that sin and finitude limit one's ability to grasp the truth, that the Scriptures are needed to properly interpret human nature, and that kingdom activity involves a faithful response to Christ's lordship in one's work with others and one's knowing of human nature. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Johnson, M. O. (2000). "Personality correlates with HIV vaccine trial participation." Personality & Individual Differences 29(3): 459-467.
Individual differences in motivations and behaviors among HIV-negative participants in HIV vaccine trials remain unclear. This study examined motivations for trial participation and perceived risk for HIV infection in the context of the Five Factor Model of personality as measured with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). 127 active participants (mean age 36.8 yrs) in vaccine trials completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing motivations for trial participation, personality, and perceived risk of HIV infection. Results revealed that Neuroticism was positively related to perceived risk of HIV infection, a desire for HIV testing, and a desire for protection from HIV as motivation for trial participation. Implications for personality research in HIV vaccine trials are discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Johnson, J. A. (2000). "Predicting observers' ratings of the Big Five from the CPI, HPI, and NEO-PI-R: A comparative validity study." European Journal of Personality 14(1): 1-19.
Compared the ability of 3 personality inventories to predict averaged acquaintance ratings. Scores from 135 college students on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; H. G. Gough, 1987), Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan and J. Hogan, 1992) and NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1992) were correlated with 4 sets of acquaintance ratings representing 4 variants of the Five-Factor Model. Validity coefficients for the NEO-PI-R primary domain scales equaled or surpassed the CPI and HPI validity coefficients. Across all inventory scales and subscales, the magnitude of validity coefficients was moderated by the congruence between a predictor's and criterion's secondary factor loading. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jones, L. D. (1997). "Development of 'Healthserve': A measure of customer service orientation in healthcare." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(1-B): 0445.
An assessment tool designed to measure a customer service orientation among RN's and LPN's was developed using a content-oriented approach. Critical incidents were first developed by asking two samples of healthcare managers (n = 52 and 25) to identify various customer-contact situations. The critical incidents were then used to formulate a 121-item instrument. Patient-contact workers from 3 hospitals (n = 102) completed the instrument along with the NEO-FFI, a measure of the Big Five personality factors. Concurrently, managers completed a performance evaluation scale on the employees participating in the study in order to determine the predictive validity of the instrument. Through a criterion-keying approach, the instrument was scaled down to 38 items. The correlation between HealthServe and the supervisory ratings of performance evaluation data supported the instrument's criterion-related validity (r =.66, p <01). Incremental validity of HealthServe over the Big Five was found with HealthServe accounting for 46% of the variance. The NEO-FFI was used to assess the correlation between personality traits and HealthServe. A factor analysis of HealthServe suggested 4 factors which were correlated with the NEO-FFI scores. Results indicated that HealthServe was related to Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and negatively related to Neuroticism. The benefits of the test construction procedure used here over the use of broad-based measures of personality were discussed as well as the limitations of using a concurrent validation strategy. Recommendations for future studies were provided. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Jones, M. (2000). "Hope and despair at the front line: Observations on integrity and change in the human services." International Social Work 43(3): 365-380.
The human services in the UK, as elsewhere, have been undergoing a major overhaul following the revision of social policy and public expenditure in line with principles referred to variously as neo-liberalism (in the UK), economic rationalism (in Australia), Rogernomics (in New Zealand), or New Republicanism (in the US). This article examines how those whose job it is to implement the changes where they interface with the citizenry--at the 'front line'--make sense of them in practice. The argument is that it is possible to develop an understanding of the responses of front line practitioners to these changes by reference to their construction of integrity and the moral dilemmas evoked for them. In particular, the article shows how attending to the concept of integrity in the way front-line staff negotiate their altering circumstances can enrich an appreciation of experiences of organization change; and, in doing so, can indicate necessary conditions for positive and committed ways forward. Observations from a series of change management workshops are used to provide some illustrative material for the discussion. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Joubert, C. E. (1999). "Correlates of preferences for personal names with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory." Psychological Reports 84(2): 575-581.
journal abstract: In a study of the relationship between liking of personal names and personality factors, 98 college students responded to the NEO Five-factor Inventory and rated how much they liked 60 different male and 60 different female names on 7-point Likert scales. Each list consisted of equal numbers of common, less common, dated, and rare names. Over-all, common names were preferred to less common, dated, and rare names; less common names were preferred to dated and rare names; and rare names were least preferred of all. Ss who scored higher in Extraversion or Agreeableness tended to report liking more personal names. Higher Agreeableness or Extraversion scores were associated with stronger preferences for both common or less common names but not for dated or rare names. This latter relationship was observed for male and female personal names separately as well as over-all. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Juen, B. (2000). "The spiral movement from externally authoritative to internally persuasive discourse." Narrative Inquiry 10(1): 119-126.
Comments on the article of M. B. Tappan (see record 2000-16296-005), who discusses the striking moral transformations described in the autobiography of Ingo Hasselbach, founder (1991) of the National Alternative neo-Nazi, from a mediated action approach to identity formation. Tappan's approach affords an understanding of developmental processes without the use of a teleological concept, the latter being often present in cognitive approaches to moral development. His ideas on the role action and commitment play in moral development may lead to interesting insights. Tappan's most important argument is that Hasselbach's case exemplifies the relationship between externally authoritative and internally persuasive discourse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Juslin, P. and H. Montgomery, Eds. (1999). Judgment and decision making: Neo-Brunswikian and process-tracing approaches. Mahwah, NJ, US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
cover: Research on human judgment and decision making has been strongly guided by a normative/descriptive approach, where human decision making is compared to normative models provided by decision theory, statistics, and probability calculus. It is noted, however, that Swedish research on judgment and decision making came early to depart from the dominating mainstream tradition in 2 different ways. The Neo-Brunswikian research approach highlights the relation between the laboratory task and the adaptation to a natural environment. The process-tracing approach attempts to identify cognitive processes before, during, and after a decision. This volume summarizes current Swedish research on judgment and decision making, covering topics such as dynamic decision making, confidence research, the search for dominance structures and differentiation, and social decision making. It ends with a commentary by K. R. Hammond and B. Fischhoff. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kallasmaa, T. and A. Pulver (2000). "The structure and properties of the Estonian COPE inventory." Personality & Individual Differences 29(5): 881-894.
The COPE (C. S. Carver, M. F. Scheier & J. K. Weintraub, 1989) is a multidimensional coping inventory to assess the different ways people respond to stress. The present article is about the structure and psychometric properties of the Estonian dispositional COPE. Compared to the original scales the internal reliabilities of the adapted scales were entirely satisfactory (i.e. alphas ranged from 0.49 for Restraint Coping to 0.95 for Alcohol/Drug Use). A cluster analysis with 60 items and a second-order factor analysis with 15 primary scales suggested three underlying factors identified as Task, Avoidance, and Social/Emotional. The three secondary COPE scales were almost independent, except the relation between the Task and the Social/Emotional scale. Women averaged strikingly higher on the Social/ Emotional scale whereas men scored higher on the Task scale. 33 Ss completed the COPE twice (at 27 mo intervals). The correlations between the Estonian COPE and the Estonian NEO-PI (Pulver, Allik, Haemaelaeinen and Pulkkinen, 1995) demonstrated that the Estonian COPE scales can be meaningfully viewed in a larger dispositional context marked by the Big Five personality traits. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kallasmaa, T., J. Allik, et al. (2000). "The Estonian version of the NEO-PI-R: An examination of universal and culture-specific aspects of the five-factor model." European Journal of Personality 14(3): 265-278.
Examined universal and culture-specific aspects of the Five-Factor Model measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). First, the purpose of this paper was to test the replicability of the original (North American) factor structure in the Estonian-speaking population. The translation was administered to 711 Estonian men and women aged 18-82 yrs. When the 30 facet scales were factored, parallel analysis suggested that five components should be retained. In the interpersonal plane defined by Extraversion and Agreeableness factors, Estonian facets formed a semicircular array that resembled the American pattern at a distance of about 21 deg.. After these axes were aligned by Procrustes rotation, all five factor congruences exceeded 0.96, providing further evidence that the underlying five-factor structure of the personality instrument is replicable in languages and cultures which differ substantially from those in which it was originally identified. Second, the authors tested the hypothesis that the orientation of varimax axes in the interpersonal plane is associated with the culture's degree of individualism--collectivism and found mixed support for the hypothesis. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kallos, D. and I. T. Broman (1997). "Swedish child care and early childhood education in transition." Early Education & Development 8(3): 265-284.
Discusses recent changes in the Swedish system of child care and early childhood education. These changes are described and analyzed in relation to the economic and socio-political context of which they are a part. It is argued that the early childhood education sector in Sweden has been and still is an important part of the welfare society which in its turn now is in a state of transition. Neo-liberal ideas and the economic conjuncture have implied severe cuts and changes in childcare policies. Implications of these changes are discussed. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Karstedt, S. (1999). Early Nazis 1923-1933--Neo-Nazis 1980-1995: A comparison of the life histories of two generations of German right-wing extremists. Historical and geographical influences on psychopathology. P. Cohen, C. Slomkowski and et al. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 85-114.
chapter: The author uses secondary analysis of published reports to compare the life courses of 2 generations of German right-wing extremists: Early Nazis who joined the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP, Nazis) between 1923 and 1933, and right-wing extremists (neo-Nazis) between 1980 and 1995. At issue is whether there are factors common to the life courses of both generations that are related to their extremist ideology and political action despite the decisively different social contexts, or whether neo-Nazis are different in character, with only certain rudiments of ideological convictions in common with the early members of the NSDAP. Both movements were found to essentially consist of 2 groups: one that is ideologically dominated, and one for whom participation in violent action is central. Comparison of data revealed a number of similarities, which were even more marked in the less heterogeneous group of violent extremists in both generations. There were also differences that can be linked to structural conditions of the social and political environment. Differences in the opportunity structure account for the specific composition of the new right-wing extremism and its internal structure in contrast to the NSDAP between 1923 and 1933. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kaufman, M. (1997). The construction of masculinity and the triad of men's violence. Gender violence: Interdisciplinary perspectives. L. L. O'Toole, J. R. Schiffman and et al. New York, NY, New York University Press: 30-51.
book: As a systematic attempt to comprehend male dominance generally, and violence against women specifically, the author discusses socially produced gender within the context of kin relationships, but from within a neo-Freudian psychoanalytic framework. He explores the embedded nature of violence in the male psyche and male behavior. This chapter presents a line of analysis that is central to understanding the scope of male violence. :
chapter: A new connection becomes clear: violence by men against women is only one corner of a triad of men's violence. The other 2 corners are violence against other men and violence against oneself. /// Other themes considered in this chapter are the social and individual nature of violence and aggression and beyond men's violence. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kaur, J. (1998). "Impact of viewing TV on the social life of rural illiterate and neo-literate adults." Psycho-Lingua 28(1): 39-44.
Studied the impact of viewing TV on 4 aspects of social life, namely, social mobility, social maturity, social services and fulfillment of social responsibilities. 200 illiterate and 200 neo-literate adult rural people were randomly selected and their perception toward viewing TV was studied. Results reveal that viewing of TV programs enhanced the Ss' social mobility and social maturity and activated them for social services; however, it adversely affected the fulfillment of social responsibilities. The extent of impact of TV viewing on rural adults was related to their literacy status, sex, and viewing time. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kentros, M. K., K. Terkelsen, et al. (1997). "The relationship between personality and quality of life in persons with schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia." Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation 6(2): 118-122.
Examined the effects of personality traits as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) on the quality of life of 21 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Global quality of life as measured by the Lehman quality of life instrument was positively associated with extroversion and agreeableness, and negatively correlated with the domain of neuroticism. Global satisfaction scores were not correlated with ratings of psychoticism, paranoia, or depression. Results suggest that even in psychotic conditions such as schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia, intrapsychic factors influence one's sense of QOL and that personality variables may differentially affect patients' satisfaction and quality of life with different treatment settings. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kentros, M., T. E. Smith, et al. (1997). "Stability of personality traits in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: A pilot project." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 185(9): 549-555.
This study was performed in an effort to begin characterization of personality traits in schizophrenia. Specific concerns included personality profiles relative to normal adults, personality profile stability over time, and trait-state issues. The NEO Personality Inventory as well as symptom ratings were administered at 2 time points to 21 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Personality profiles were determined for all Ss. Compared with a normal adult sample, this samples scores on 3 out of 5 of the personality domains assessed were not distinguishable from normal adults. Test-retest correlations were highly significant over an average 28.2-wk time interval. In general, the presence of positive symptoms did not appear related to NEO-PI stability, while negative symptoms did show a relationship to the stability of personality profiles. These data suggest that personality profiles can be looked at in schizophrenia, that these profiles do appear stable over time, and that negative symptoms have a strong influence on profile stability and appear to be trait-like. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kerr, B. and P. Myers (1999). "Withdrawal syndrome following long-term administration of tamoxifen." Journal of Psychopharmacology 13(4): 419.
Reports 2 cases of an apparent withdrawal syndrome following long-term (5 year) administration of tamoxifen, the first of which resulted in referral for psychiatric assessment. The first case involves a 50 yr old post-menopausal woman who had been diagnosed as having a node-negative breast carcinoma 5 years previously, which had been treated by 'neo-adjuvant' chemotherapy (mitomycin C, mitoxantrone and methotrexate), wide local excision and local radiotherapy. Her menstrual periods had ceased shortly thereafter. She was then prescribed 20 mg tamoxifen daily for the following 5 years. The second case was a pre-menopausal woman aged 43 yrs who had been diagnosed as having an invasive intra-ductal, node positive breast carcinoma 5 years previously. This had been treated by simple mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She was then commenced on 20 mg tamoxifen daily long-term. The Ss' symptoms and therapeutic outcomes are briefly described. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kilbourne, W. and S. Weeks (1997). "A socio-economic perspective on gender bias in technology." Journal of Socio-Economics 26(3): 243-260.
Examines the development of patriarchal technology within Western industrialized cultures. The approach in the analysis is based in critical theory and socialist/feminist critique. Conditioned on the Habermasian "ideal speech situation," it will be argued that neo-classical economics cannot meet the challenge of societal critique. The necessary conditions for an emancipatory reconciliation of technology and egalitarian, nongender-based values lies in our ability and willingness to go beyond the atomistic, economistic analysis based in Enlightenment values. This, it is argued, is beyond traditional economics since it relies on the reductionist assumption of an innate human nature which is individualistic and competitive and disregards the malleability of social institutions. Within this framework, specific aspects of technology-based gender bias are examined. These include such factors as technological design, work organization, and reproductive technologies. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

King, R. E., S. E. McGlohn, et al. (1997). "Female United States Air Force pilot personality: The new right stuff." Military Medicine 162(10): 695-697.
Examined the psychological and psychiatric gender differences of pilots. 48 female US Air Force pilots (mean age 30.3 yrs) were compared with both 64 male Air Force pilots (mean age 29.3 yrs) and to 103 female college students using the NEO 5-Factor Inventory within a big-five framework (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to new experiences, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results indicate female Air Force pilots were higher on the Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness scales than male pilots. Female pilots were also higher on these scales than the female comparison group and lower on the Neuroticism and Openness scales than that comparison group. It is suggested that these traits are highly adaptive for Air Force pilots, given the nature of modern military operational requirements. ((c) 1998 APA/Correctn, all rights reserved):

Kitchin, R. (1998). ""Out of place," "knowing one's place": Space, power and the exclusion of disabled people." Disability & Society 13(3): 343-356.
Disabled people are marginalised and excluded from "mainstream" society. In general, our understanding of the processes of exclusion is grounded in time and history. In this paper, it is argued that space, as well as time, is instrumental in reproducing and sustaining disablist practices. Disability has distinct spatialities that work to exclude and oppress disabled people. Spaces are currently organised to keep disabled people in their place and written to convey to disabled people that they are "out of place." Furthermore, social relations currently work to spatially isolate and marginalise disabled people and their carers. Disability is spatially, as well as socially, constructed. It is contended that an understanding of society's reaction to, and the experiences of, disability should be framed within an approach that combines a spatialised political economy with social constructivism. Unlike neo-Marxist approaches this approach is centred on notions of power rather than capital. Using this approach, the spatialities of disability are explored. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kleinschmidt, H. (1996). "Beyond Philip Rieff: The triumph of Sigmund Freud." American Imago 23(3): 244-256.
Reviews P. Rieff's The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith after Freud (see record 1966-04288-000) which discusses Freud and his theories. The current author criticizes Reiff's views on sublimation, the fate of the psychoanalytic movement, social order, culture, and the role of science. Also discussed are some of the philosophical differences between Freud and Neo-Freudians. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Knap, M. A. (2000). "The Five Factor Model of personality and psychopathy." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3570.
The relationship between personality and psychopathy was the subject of the present study. The personality profile of a psychopath, as hypothesized on the basis of evolutionary psychology, was predicted, tested, and compared with a non-psychopathic profile. Personality characteristics were measured and described by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), a psychometrically strong measure based on the most recent five factor model of personality. Initial assessment of psychopathy was based on the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). The role of personality characteristics, as tested by the NEO-PI-R, in the postdiction of crime was investigated. Finally, the relationship between the NEO-PI-R and the PCL-R was examined, and the two measures were compared as postdictors of criminal behaviour. All measures were administered to a sample of 132 violent offenders. As expected, personality characteristics measured by the NEO-PI-R differentiated psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. The predicted psychopathic personality profile was confirmed with respect to most of the hypothesized factors and subscales. Psychopaths scored very low on Agreeableness, including all of its subscales; low on Conscientiousness with the lowest scores on Dutifulness, Self-Discipline, and Deliberation; moderately high on Extraversion (relatively low on Warmth and high on Excitement-Seeking and Assertiveness); average on Neuroticism (low on Anxiety and high on Hostility and Impulsiveness); and average on Openness with low scores on Values. Further, a strong association was found between crime and the NEO-PI-R. The five factors of the NEO-PI-R postdicted the number of arrests and number of violent offences. When the main domains of the NEO-PI-R and Factor I and II of the PCL-R were compared as postdictors of crime, the NEO-PI-R was found to be a significantly stronger postdictor of the number of arrests and violent offences than Factor I; and a stronger postdictor of violent offences than Factor II. Among the five factors of the NEO-PI-R, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and to some extent Neuroticism contributed most significantly to the postdiction of crime. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Knotts, L. S. (1998). "Item response theory and person-fit analyses of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory conscientiousness domain." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(6-B): 3063.
Item response theory (IRT) and person-fit analyses have primarily been studied using computer-generated monte carlo data. Thus, little is known about how these statistical techniques perform with data collected from actual subjects. This study explores the use of item response theory and person-fit analyses with a measure of personality, the Conscientiousness Scale of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Subjects were 514 men who were administered the NEO-PI-R as part of a regular screening process for acceptance into a municipal police academy. Reliability estimates obtained for individual facets for the present sample closely approximated those of the norming sample. IRT parameters were estimated for each facet of the Conscientiousness Scale based on a two-parameter logistic graded response model. In IRT parameter estimation, Facets Two, Four, Five, and Six performed well. Facets One and Three required some modification in order to obtain IRT parameters due to the limited number of subjects who endorsed the strongly disagree category for items within each of these facets. Item fit for individual items within each facet was acceptable for Facets One, Two, Three, Four, and Six. Acceptable levels of item fit were not found for Facet Five. Therefore, person-fit statistics were not calculated for Facet five. The percentage of subjects with good person-fit for individual facets of the Conscientiousness Scale ranged from 41.63% to 64.40%. Person-fit statistics were calculated for Facets One and Three after collapsing the strongly disagree and disagree response categories in order to obtain IRT parameters. Facets Two and Four were modified by collapsing the strongly disagree and disagree categories in order to increase the proportion of subjects with good person-fit for these facets. Difficulty was encountered in estimating IRT parameters and achieving acceptable levels of person-fit for individual facets of the Conscientiousness Scale of the NEO-PI-R without collapsing response categories. It is unclear if this difficulty was due to properties of the facets of Conscientiousness Scale or to limitations of IRT and person-fit statistics with actual data samples. Research is needed into how IRT and person-fit statistics perform with larger sample sizes and other personality measures to gain more information. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kordela, A. K. (1999). "The great what's it: Capital punishment and redemption." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(7-A): 2487.
This dissertation focuses on two relations that mark epistemologically the discourse of secular modernity (roughly since the sixteenth century): the one between theory and fiction and the other between 'words' and 'things.' With regard to the former I examine specifically the epistemological preconditions that at once allow for and are produced by cultural artifacts as diverse as: the early modern philosophy of Neo-Stoicism (Lipsius); the German Baroque tragic drama (Gryphius, Lohenstein); the major European early theories of the State, the Law, and religion (Hobbes, Pascal, Spinoza, Leibniz); the philosophies of German Idealism (Kant, Hegel, Marx); the theory of linguistics (Benveniste, Saussure, Greimas); and the emergence of psychoanalysis at the beginning of the twentieth century (Freud), including its current development since Lacan and its impact on the contemporary, postmodern discourse (Foucault, Deleuze, Derrida). With regard to the relation between 'words' and 'things,' I examine the ways in which these cultural and discursive products ('words') sustain or challenge actual historical power dynamics ('things') that define the relation of the subjects to the Law as well as among subjects themselves--including not least gender relations. Crucial here is the concept of 'non-coercive coercion,' that is, the secular, willed submission to the Law and to power hierarchies despite the absence of an absolute authority (God, and the monarch as divine representative). The interlacing of law and desire and the constitution and function of sexuality and gender in attaining 'non-coercively' social cohesion are traced in major seventeenth century German tragic dramas and in their transfigurations in theory up to today. Determined by Benjaminian methodology, my approach does not apply a contemporary theory (as an analytic tool) to analyze primary fictional or theoretical texts, but attempts instead to examine how the interaction between negotiations of social power and culture necessitates historically the production of both the texts in analysis and the theory that analyzes them. The function of both is to construct a subjectivity that simultaneously produces and sustains the principle structures of semantic and economic exchange in secular modernity: 'free' interpretation and 'free' circulation of capital. The major epistemological conclusion is that psychoanalytic structures of subjectivity, rhetorico-linguistic structures, and economic structures coincide. On the one hand, this insight challenges both the bourgeois idealist assumption of the determination of the 'base' by the 'superstructure' and its Marxist inversion. On the other, it reveals the strong--though disavowed--interdependence and continuity between German Baroque and Idealism and contemporary Western, postmodern theories. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kosek, R. B. (1998). "Couples Critical Incidents Checklist: A construct validity study." Journal of Clinical Psychology 54(6): 785-794.
Examined the initial construct validity of the Couples Critical Incidents Checklist (CCICL). 109 heterosexual married couples completed the CCICL to assess levels of marital satisfaction and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to assess personality factors. As hypothesized, the rater-reports (R) and the self-ratings (S) of each of the 5 personality dimensions correlated systematically with the kinds of marital issues identified on each of the five sections of the CCICL. For instance, the Flexibility scale of the CCICL captured issues related to the dimension Openness (O) or the Cooperativeness scale of the CCICL assessed issues related to Agreeableness (A). Second, it was hypothesized that specific behavioral problems experienced by the spouses within the marital relationship would significantly correlate with the level of marital satisfaction. Overall, the analyses of the data of both the men and the women suggested that the contributing cause of marital dissatisfaction was not a specific behavioral problem experienced with the spouse, but rather the aggregate of all behavioral problems experienced with the spouse. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kowert, P. A. and M. G. Hermann (1997). "Who takes risks? Daring and caution in foreign policy making." Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(5): 611-637.
To investigate the contribution of individual differences to risk taking, the authors administered 3 questionnaires assessing risk propensity and 2 personality inventories (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory) to 126 Ss. The results identified strong personality predictors of generalized risk taking. Contrary to prospect theory, some people were especially willing to take risks to make gains, whereas others were particularly unlikely to take risks when facing potential losses. Statistical analyses lend support to a 3-stage model of risk taking. The findings suggest that if students of international conflict want to understand risk taking, then they must consider not only how leaders frame conflicts but also the character of the leaders themselves. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Krause, J. S. (1998). "Personality and life adjustment after spinal cord injury: An exploratory study." Rehabilitation Psychology 43(2): 118-130.
journal abstract: This study identified the relationship between personality and multiple components of life adjustment after spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred five men completed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), a measure of personality. In general, the NEO-PI accounted for the greatest amount of variance of scales reflecting general adaptation. Of the global domains, only two scales were strongly associated with the SCI outcomes. Among the NEO-PI facet scales, Depression was correlated with the greatest number of outcomes, whereas Warmth, Positive Emotions, Actions, and Values were correlated with superior outcomes. These findings suggest that assessment of personality is an invaluable aid in predicting long-term outcomes after SCI and should remain a priority in diverse rehabilitation settings. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Krautheim, M. D. (1998). "The development and validation of a customer service orientation scale for university resident assistants." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(9-B): 5176.
A criterion-related validity study was conducted using a newly developed instrument, the Resident Assistant Style Inventory (RASI), designed to assess the customer service orientation of individuals applying for a university resident assistant (RA) position. Exploratory principal component analysis uncovered a twelve-item, one-factor solution which focused on an individual's customer service orientation. Customer service orientation was defined as the degree to which the RA placed the student's (customer) needs before his or her own needs and the degree of helpfulness, courteousness, and tact an RA displays when dealing with resident concerns. Criterion for the study were supervisor-rated customer service orientation and job performance. Also, student ratings of presently employed resident assistants served as a criterion. Construct validity of the newly designed instrument was assessed by examining the relationship of the instrument to the 'Big Five' personality dimension of agreeableness as measured by the NEO-PI. Participants were 124 resident assistants, 11 supervisors (hall directors) and 320 students who resided in university residence halls at a large, southeastern university. The resident assistant sample was 54% female with an average age of 20.85 years and 2.6 semesters of experience as a resident assistant. Survey questionnaires were completed by supervisors who were asked to assess the customer service orientation, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors of their RAs. Students completed a survey questionnaire designed to assess the customer service orientation of their RA. The RASI was significantly and positively related to agreeableness, supervisor rated customer service orientation, and job performance. Also, the researcher found that the RASI was useful in discriminating between the top 25 and bottom 25 percent of RAs as rated on customer service orientation by their supervisors. However, organizational citizenship behavior and student ratings of customer service orientation were positively but not significantly related to the RASI. Lastly, supervisor-rated customer service orientation, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior were positively and significantly related. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kudrick, T. R. (1999). "Personality and the subjective experience of mental effort. (subjective workload assessment technique, task load index)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(5-B): 2401.
At least two reliable and valid tools for measuring the subjective experience of mental effort exist: the Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) and NASA's Task Load Index (TLX). Researchers in the 'human factors' field have used these tools to study what aspects of any particular task make that task difficult. One consistent finding is that different people consider different aspects of a task to be more troublesome than others. This research aimed at examining relationships between what an aspects of a task caused trouble for an individual, and that individual's broad personality traits. One hundred and seventy-three undergraduates from Howard University were assigned randomly to one of four experimental conditions: one control condition and three conditions designed to load highly on one known aspect of a task that can make that task difficult (time pressure, noisy working conditions, and the mental demands of a task). Subjects performed a word puzzle task under one of the four experimental conditions and used the SWAT and TLX to rate the task's difficulty. Then subjects filled out a series of personality questionnaires: the short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised), the short form of the NEO Personality Inventory, and the short form of the Need for Cognition Scale. Two types of relationships among the study's variables were predicted: simple relations and interactions. All hypothesized simple relations were tested for via a Pearson's correlation or a partial correlation. All hypothesized interactions were tested for by means of hierarchical regression analyses. Support was found for most of the predicted simple relationships between personality variables and the effects of experimental condition, but hierarchical regressions offered no support for any of the hypothesized interactions. The data were explored more deeply by splitting the database into four parts, one for each experimental condition, and this further analysis reveals that subjects' personality traits did indeed seem to interact with experimental conditions in the predicted manner. Outlines are given for studies which could investigate each discovered relationship in more depth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Kuhnigk, O. and H. Schauenburg (1999). "Psychische Befindlichkeit, Kontrollueberzeugnungen und Persoenlichkeit von Medizinstudierenden eines traditionellen und eines Reformstudienganges. Psychological well-being, locus of control, and personality traits in medical students of a traditional and an alternative curriculum." Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie 49(1): 29-36.
Examined well-being, control, and personality traits of medical students in differing curricula. Human Ss: 126 male and female German adults (traditional curriculum medical students) (median age: 23.7 yrs) and 25 male and female German adults (alternative curriculum medical students) (median age: 24.2 yrs). Ss completed questionnaires regarding their well-being, locus of control, and personality traits. Comparisons between S groups were made. Results are discussed with regard to long-term evaluation of future alternative curriculum in Germany. Tests used: The NEO 5-Factor Inventory (P. Borkenau and F. Osterdorf, 1989), the Gie_Sener Complaint Questionnaire (E. Braehle and J. W. Schneer, 1994) and the Hospital and Depression Scale--German Version (C. Herrmann et al, 1995). (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kurtz, J. E., S. H. Putnam, et al. (1998). "Stability of normal personality traits after traumatic brain injury." Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 13(3): 1-14.
Tested the hypothesis that changes in personality traits are evident after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective personality assessments were obtained from significant others of 21 TBI patients (mean age 32.7 yrs) within 30 days of injury and at 6-mo follow-up and from a control group of significant others of 25 persons (mean age 35.5 yrs) without neurological history twice over a 6-mo interval. Outcome measures included five scales--Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness--from the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), Form R, and an observer rating scale for retrospective estimates of change. Significant score changes were found for only one of the five trait domains in the patient sample. Patients' Extraversion scores declined to average levels at 6-mo follow-up, diminishing premorbid differences between patients and controls on this dimension. Subjective change estimates made by raters after follow-up reflected perceptions of increased neuroticism in patients that were inconsistent with the NEO PI-R data the raters provided. The absence of systematic changes in personality trait scores among the patients cautions against presuming that such changes account for the behavior of TBI patients. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Kurtz, J. E., P. A. Lee, et al. (1999). "Internal and temporal reliability estimates for informant ratings of personality using the NEO PI-R and IAS." Assessment 6(2): 103-113.
Examined the internal consistency and temporal stability of informant ratings from 2 widely used instruments for personality assessment, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS). Well-known adult targets (aged 18-55 yrs) were selected by 109 undergraduates and rated on 2 occasions separated by 6 mo. With few exceptions, estimates of internal consistency were adequate to good for both instruments. NEO PI-R domain scores yielded coefficient alphas ranging from .89 to .96, with a median of .80 for the 30 facet scales. IAS octant scales showed coefficient alphas ranging from .83 to .92. Retest Pearson correlations were above .60 for all scales in both instruments. Score changes were small but statistically significant for 3 of the 5 NEO PI-R domains at retest. The retest stability of IAS type classifications varied as a function of the extremity of the associated octant scores. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lange-Kuettner, C. and G. V. Thomas, Eds. (1995). Drawing and looking: Theoretical approaches to pictorial representation in children. The developing body and mind. London, England UK, Harvester Wheatsheaf.
preface: Children's drawing is a topic of considerable theoretical and practical significance to students and professionals in a range of specialisms, including art education, nursery and primary school education, as well as the psychology of perception and cognitive development. In recent years there have been a number of new and interesting empirical and theoretical advances which are scattered across a very wide range of journals and other sources. The aim of this book is to bring together accessible accounts of these developments in a single volume for anyone with interests in children's drawing and their cognitive development. The intent is to take the interested reader deeper into psychological theories of children's drawing than is the case in the currently available introductory texts. The book also brings together work on children's drawing and on understanding about pictures as representations. Although the focus is on pictorial representation, it will be clear than many of the issues raised are of more general significance. Consequently, the book could well serve as a useful supplementary text for courses on cognitive development. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lannoo, E., C. de Deyne, et al. (1997). "Personality change following head injury: Assessment with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory." Journal of Psychosomatic Research 43(5): 505-511.
Evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 mo postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the 5 personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. 28 trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head-injured group, 63 relatives also completed the questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the ratings of head-injured patients and the ratings of trauma control patients. Both groups showed significant change in the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Compared to their relatives, head-injured patients report a smaller change in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Changes were not reported on the Openness and Agreeableness scales, by either the head-injured or their relatives, nor by the trauma controls. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lavalette, M. and A. Pratt, Eds. (1997). Social policy: A conceptual and theoretical introduction. London, England UK, Sage Publications Inc.
introduction: This textbook introduces social policy and outlines the conceptual and analytical tools essential to the understanding and investigation of social policy in any society, enabling the student to engage with the theoretical debates surrounding the discipline. In the 1st part, the authors outline competing interpretations of the social world based on the perspectives of social democracy, neo-liberalism and Marxism, and attempt to ascertain where social welfare fits into these broad paradigms. The 2nd part looks at some radical critiques of welfare provision, addressing the writings of authors whose main concerns are to raise the women's perspective, the black perspective or the lesbian and gay perspective but who will very often do so in combination with some of the ideas of social democrats or Marxists or neo-liberals addressed in the first section. Part 3 looks at a number of issues and debates within social policy. The ideas and debates being discussed build on, refine, apply or take issue with the various perspectives and critiques covered in the 1st 2 parts. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lay, C. H. (1997). "Explaining lower-order traits through higher-order factors: The case of trait procrastination, conscientiousness, and the specificity dilemma." European Journal of Personality 11(4): 267-278.
Investigated whether the higher-order factor Conscientiousness is the major proximal source of the lower-order trait procrastination. Three areas were explored including the degree to which a measure of the factor would parallel a measure of the trait in predicting dilatory behavior and negative affect, the degree to which the factor would replace the trait in these predictions, and the extent to which the relations of the trait and the factor to negative affect would be mediated by Neuroticism. 232 female and 48 male undergraduates, aged 17-50 yrs, completed a trait procrastination scale and the Conscientiousness and Neuroticism factor scales of the NEO-PI-R. The Ss also responded to a measure of dilatory behavior concerning their academic work, and to a measure of negative affect involving dejection and agitation. Results show that trait procrastination was negatively related to the Conscientiousness factor and to each of its facets. Relations of trait procrastination and of Conscientiousness tended to parallel one another. Indicative of the specificity dilemma, trait procrastination outperformed Conscientiousness in predicting trait-specific dilatory behavior. However, Conscientiousness was the better predictor of dejection. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

LePage, J. P. (1999). "The impact of a token economy on injuries and negative events on an acute psychiatric unit." Psychiatric Services 50(7): 941-944.
A token economy was introduced on an acute care unit in a rural hospital, and rates of negative events were compared before and after implementation. Negative events were defined as patient and employee injuries that were not accidents. Unauthorized absences and use of emergency medications were also counted as negative events. Rates of negative events were calculated over 2 4-month periods, before and after the token economy was introduced on a 24-bed acute care unit that housed the hospital's neo-adult program for patients aged 18-20 yrs. The unit also served as an admitting unit for patients over 20 yrs old. When the analysis was controlled for unit census and the number of neo-adults, an analysis of covariance indicated that the number of negative events fell significantly after the token economy was introduced, from 129 in the 4 months before implementation to 73 after implementation, a 43% reduction. Both staff and patient injuries were significantly reduced. A small increase in use of emergency medications was noted, but it was not statistically significant. Findings support the use of the token economy in acute settings to improve the unit milieu by reducing negative events. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lerman, S. (1998). Cultural perspectives on mathematics and mathematics teaching and learning. The culture of the mathematics classroom. F. Seeger, J. Voigt and et al. New York, NY, Cambridge University Press: 290-307.
chapter: Discusses the implications for mathematics teaching and learning of views of mathematics as a social construction or as the timeless description of reality. The author suggests that most mathematicians appear to adopt the latter view, but that in rhetoric at least, mathematics educators and teachers seem to argue the former. The author addresses the issue of how interests are served by preferred perspectives. The author also suggests that mathematics educators have not yet accepted the potential of a view of mathematics as a social construction largely because, in the dominant neo-Piagetian tradition, a mechanism for the connection between history-and-culture and learning cannot be articulated. The author argues that discursive, or cultural, psychology offers a language for such connections. Some of the shifts in perspective that are offered for the mathematics classroom and for research in mathematics education are discussed. A recurring theme in the chapter centers on the resources that theoretical discourses offer for analyses of knowledge as power. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lewis, J. M. and M. Considine (1999). "Medicine, economics and agenda-setting." Social Science & Medicine 48(3): 393-405.
Discusses power and influence in health policy agenda-setting in one state of Australia during 1991-1993. The actors seen as influential are predominantly medically trained and working in academia, health bureaucracies, and public teaching hospitals. This research supports an elite model of health policy agenda-setting, in which outcomes are dependent on the structured interests within the policy field. Economic concerns appear to be shaping the visible health policy agenda, through an increased number of influentials with economics training, but also through an apparent ability to shape the issues that other influentials are adding as agenda items. The corporate elite of medicine remains powerful, but their range of concerns has been effectively limited to cost containment or cost reduction, better planning and efficiency. This limiting of concerns occurs within an international policy context, where the general trends of globalization and an emphasis on neo-liberal economics impact on the direction of health policy in individual countries. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lewis, P. (2000). Recovery and individuation two stage model in transpersonal drama therapy. Current approaches in drama therapy. P. Lewis and D. R. Johnson. Springfield, IL, US, Charles C Thomas: 260-287.
chapter: Transpersonal psychotherapy is the process through which individuals transform their identity from a limited history-based sense of self to an experience of their soul essence. From the experience of soul, individuals can access a relationship to the numinous and their unique life purpose. This chapter addresses transpersonal drama therapy. The following topics are included: genesis of transpersonal therapy (Jung and individuation; R. Assagioli and psychosynthesis; Maslow, F. Vaughn, R. Walsh, Groff and Tart and transpersonal psychotherapy; and neo-transpersonal approaches to psychotherapy); genesis of transpersonal drama therapy; drama therapy frame of reference (stage I: recovery; stage II: individuation; the therapeutic process; drama therapist's role; appropriate populations and limitations); drama therapy techniques in assessment and healing in the two stage model (the embodied psyche technique in assessment and treatment; recovery of the inner child(ren); dreamwork as theater, archetypal enactment); and case study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Lieberman, S. A., C. A. Stroup-Benham, et al. (1998). "Predictors of intellectual satisfaction in medical school: Sociodemographic, cognitive, and personality factors." Academic Medicine 73(Suppl 10): S44-S46.
Identified the baseline characteristics that predict intellectual satisfaction after the first year of medical school. All students entering a medical school were given a battery of baseline instruments during the session conducted in a testing atmosphere during orientation. Each of the 2 classes included approximately 180 students entering the traditional curriculum (TC) as well as 24 students entering the Interactive Learning Track (ILT). The latter were selected from a pool of volunteers via stratified sampling so that the ILT group was similar to the TC group with respect to gender, age, and race-ethnicity. The Medical School Learning Environment Survey and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory were completed by the students. Baseline data were available for 200 of 204 students in the 1995 entering class and 200 of 201 in the 1996 class. Follow-up data were available for all 24 ILT and 106 TC students in the first class, and 23 ILT and 161 TC students in the second class. The 2 measures of intellectual satisfaction assess several similar aspects and showed moderate correlation. It is therefore not surprising that many of the same independent variables were found to be significant predictors of both of these 2 measures' outcomes. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lindberg, E. D. (1999). "The plot of the unconscious. (modernism, postmodernism)." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(4-A): 1126.
This dissertation examines the way contemporary criticism and theory has become dependent on the notion of an 'unconscious' to the point where little skeptical attention is given to given to the history or meaning of the concept. It is generally assumed that the unconscious was discovered-that it is a dependable concept upon which various hermeneutics and critical narratives may be reliably grounded. In contrast, I argue that the unconscious was a cultural invention. I support this thesis by showing the nineteenth-century roots of the unconscious in novelists such as Hawthorne, Trollope, Charlotte Bront, and Dickens, and in the narrative based philosophy of Hegel, Darwin, Marx, and Nietzsche. During the nineteenth-century, the 'unconscious' (or what theorists now retrospectively refer to as the unconscious) was a mode of emplotment used to organize meaning in a world that was increasingly losing its foundations. This establishes the groundwork for my interpretation of Freud. I reinterpret Freud's alleged discovery of the unconscious as an effort to give a formal and quasiscientific understanding to the sorts of stories and plots that had emerged during the preceding century. By linking Freud's project with the narrative-work of the nineteenth century, I also challenge the common belief that modernist novelists discovered the unconscious-either under the influence of, or simultaneously with, Freud. Modernists, I suggest, were often aware of the fictive nature of Freud's effort. Examining writers such as Conrad, Chopin, Joyce, Proust, Forster, and Woolf, I propose that many modernists wrote at or beyond the limits of the unconscious. With the modernist deconstruction of the unconscious in mind, I conclude by discussing the work performed by the unconscious is recent theory, with particular attention to poststructuralism, neo-pragmatism, and Jameson's idea of the political unconscious. There has been a strong tendency, I argue, to misunderstand or ignore the dismantling of the Freudian concept of the unconscious performed by modernism. Thus, modernist and post-modernist theories are not sufficiently wary of the work performed by the unconscious. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Liu, J. H. and S.-H. Liu (1997). "Modernism, postmodernism, and neo-Confucian thinking: A critical history of paradigm shifts and values in academic psychology." New Ideas in Psychology 15(2): 159-178.
Cleavages between modern and postmodern paradigms are evident in all academic disciplines. The modernist search for natural laws and unified theory using impartial methods is undermined by the postmodernist critique that reality is socially constructed. The authors review this conflict in the context of paradigm shifts in psychology (i.e., psychoanalytic to behavioral to social to cognitive), which the authors argue are social rather than scientific revolutions, leading to a noncumulative discipline where objectivity is preached yet subjectivity dictates many practices. Disputes over paradigms are couched in epistemology but center also around differences in values. The insight offered by neo-Confucian philosophers is that values have an ontological basis that cannot be empirically derived. Li-i-fen-shu (one principle, many manifestations) and t'ien-jen-ho-i (heaven and humanity in union) form a value system with breadth and depth for the social sciences. Li-i-fen-shu allows multiple methods of inquiry and multiple manifestations of cultural reality to derive from one source. T'ien-jen-ho-i relates each act and actor to holistic processes of nature and interpersonal harmony. Together, they provide a perspective on science and meaning with the potential of synthesizing insights from different paradigms in psychology and other social sciences. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lomnitz, L. A. (1997). Family, networks, and survival on the threshold of the 21st century in urban Mexico. The family on the threshold of the 21st century: Trends and implications. S. Dreman and et al. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 113-125.
introduction: Emphasizes the importance of strong interpersonal networks for individuals in contemporary societies, focusing on a Latin American context. The author presents a case for the 3-generational extended or "grand family" as a support base for the individual. Such kindred networks provide a basic unit of solidarity within Mexican, and most Latin American rural and urban societies, which is expressed in economic and social solidarity, as well as in the ritual-ceremonial life of the family. The author notes that the economic crisis of the last decade has brought with it an economy based increasingly on free trade, private enterprise, and neo-liberal policies that have led to unemployment and a reduction in formal social security systems. This explains the increase in social and economic insecurity, which individuals resolve through social networks built on trust. In Latin America, this is evidenced by the growth of informal market mechanisms, characterized by small family enterprises and similar avenues of commercial enterprise.:
chapter: Topics addressed include: the grand-family; affinal relations; segmentation and evolution; kindred; social networks; middle-class networks; upper class networks; the networks of the urban poor; and the crisis of the 1980s and family survival on the threshold of the 21st century. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ludy, J. E. (2000). "Practitioner attitudes concerning professional satisfaction in the cardiopulmonary profession. (respiratory therapists, career satisfaction)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3609.
The loss of skilled practitioners keeps the respiratory care profession busy training replacements, and draws energy away from building the profession. The critical question this research investigated involved the relationship between temperaments and the personality domains of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs). A correlation design was chosen for this study to investigate the relationships that exist between various character facets of RCPs, and their personal commitment to their chosen professional career path, respiratory care. Study methodology consisted of a voluntary, confidential, and anonymous national survey of a sample of RCPs. The instrumentation consisted of three assessment tools: (1) a demographic and career satisfaction questionnaire; (2) the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II; and (3) the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Form S (Costa & McCrae). These survey results were correlated with work place issues, educational level, length of time in the profession, and career satisfaction as expressed by the RCP's. This study's results indicated there were a higher percentage of Keirsey 'Guardian' Temperaments in the career satisfied or committed survey subjects than a comparable national population. Further, multiple regression analyses (MRA) calculated for the five personality domains utilizing mean scores as divisions within personality domains provided significant statistical results (p <.05 or better). The typical career committed RCP in this study was: a middle aged man or woman with 16+ years of service who works in a hospital in a clinical or clinical leadership position, and has advanced beyond the associates degree. Further, these RCPs demonstrated higher neuroticism scores (p <.05), higher extraversion scores (p <.001), lower openness scores (p <.005), higher agreeableness scores (p <.001), and lower conscientiousness scores (p <.001). After a review of the descriptive statistics in this survey, a post hoc analysis was carded out using MRA. MRA was again used to develop predictive models to find statistically significant relationships between work place and personality variables which might better explain which temperaments or personality domains are predictive of career satisfied or committed RCPs. This study described how personality measures might be used to assist educators and managers review the personalities of perspective candidates or tailor-make curriculum or orientation materials to more effectively communicate with perspective students or employees. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Luminet, O., R. M. Bagby, et al. (1999). "Relation between alexithymia and the five-factor model of personality: A facet-level analysis." Journal of Personality Assessment 73(3): 345-358.
The relation between alexithymia and both the domain and the facet level of the five factor model (FFM) of personality was examined in a sample of 101 university students by using the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Consistent with the alexithymia construct, the TAS-20 was positively correlated with Neuroticism (N) and negatively correlated with Extraversion (E) and Openness (O), whereas no significant relations were found with Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Analysis of the lower order traits (i.e., facets) of the FFM revealed that depression for N; positive emotions and assertiveness for E; feelings and actions for O; altruism, tender-mindedness, and modesty for A; and competence for C predicted alexithymia. These results support the uniqueness of the alexithymia construct, which is represented by a cluster of traits across the dimensions and facets of the FFM. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lutz, D. J. and R. J. Sternberg (1999). Cognitive development. Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook. M. H. Bornstein, M. E. Lamb and et al. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 275-311.
chapter: Presents 4 prominent perspectives in the field of cognitive development. Each stresses different issues about what is important in children's cognitive development. Piaget is discussed first. Next, the authors discuss three neo-Piagetian theories, namely fifth-stage, R. Case's and K. Fischer's, that have been derived from Piaget's theory. In the third section, Vygotsky's sociocultural theory is addressed. Finally, the author's discuss cognitive approaches. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lyness, J. M., P. R. Duberstein, et al. (1998). "Medical illness burden, trait neuroticism, and depression in older primary care patients." American Journal of Psychiatry 155(7): 969-971.
Tested the hypotheses that medical illness burden is independently associated with depression and that this association is moderated by neuroticism. Multiple regression techniques were used to determine the independent associations of medical burden and neuroticism with depression in a group of 196 subjects, 60 yrs of age and older, recruited from primary care settings. Assessments used included the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) and the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Neuroticism was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Medical burden and neuroticism were independently associated with major depression, depressive symptoms, and psychiatric dysfunction. It is concluded that these findings support models in which medical disorders may contribute directly to depression. At the same time, the role of neuroticism in later-life depression warrants further study. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lyons, L. C. and H. J. Crawford (1997). "Sustained attentional and disattentional abilities and arousability: Factor analysis and relationships to hypnotic susceptibility." Personality & Individual Differences 23(6): 1071-1084.
The neurophysiologically separate dimensions of deeply focused, sustained attention and arousability are shown to be differentially related to hypnotic susceptibility. Ss were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility; the Group Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C; and questionnaires that assessed attentional abilities (Differential Attentional Processes Inventory (DAPI), Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS)), Extraversion (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), strength of the nervous system (Strelau Temperament Scale), augmenting-reducing (Vando Reducer-Augmenter Scale (RAS)), and emotionality (Affect Intensity Measure (AIM)). Women were higher on TAS, DAPI dual attention physical cognitive scale, and AIM; men were higher on TAS and STI Strength of Excitation Scale. Separate factor analyses for men and women yielded fairly similar 4-factor solutions: moderately and sustained attention, extremely involved and focused attention factor, arousability factor, and neo-Pavlovian nervous system processes factor. Only for women were introverts more hypnotizable than extraverts. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Lyons, W. (1999). The philosophy of cognition and emotion. Handbook of cognition and emotion. T. Dalgleish and M. J. Power. Chichester, England, John Wiley & Sons Ltd: 21-44.
chapter: In this essay, the author attempts to point out that causal-evaluative theories of emotion are arguably as old as Aristotle and the Stoics, and in our own time have been much discussed by philosophers and psychologists. In this chapter, the author reviews the history of theorizing about emotion. In particular, the author endeavors to relate the current revival of cognitive theories of emotion to past events, referring to debates and theories in both philosophy of mind and psychology. Topics discussed include the Ancient Greeks, the Medievals, New Science, Descartes, Spinoza vs the Orthodoxy, Neo-Catesianism, behaviorism, and the reappearance of cognition in philosophy and psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Lyoo, I. K., J. G. Gunderson, et al. (1998). "Personality dimensions associated with depressive personality disorder." Journal of Personality Disorders 12(1): 46-55.
Compared 26 Ss with depressive personality disorder (DPD) to 20 non-DPD Ss who have similar histories of longstanding early-onset depression on 3 personality measures, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ; C. R. Cloniger, 1987), NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ; M. Bond, 1986). The samples were demographically similar and had similar rates of comorbid depression and dysthymia. They differed in that DPD Ss scored significantly higher on Harm Avoidance and Neuroticism, and significantly lower on Novelty Seeking, Extroversion, and Adaptive defense mechanisms. These findings invite investigation into the treatment responsivity of such individuals. Implications for clinical care and nosology are discussed. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

MacCannell, J. F. (1996). "The postcolonial unconscious, or the White man's thing." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society 1(1): 27-41.
Asserts that although its effects are visible to everyone, the way neo-colonialism subjects us remains obscure. One can look for analogies in those compelling, and uncannily familiar depictions of colonization's psychic ravages offered by early anti-colonial writers. However, recognizing that what was once a seemingly restricted human problem is now the general case requires more analytic power, lest one risks unwittingly reinforcing colonization's most damaging features. This paper describes and specifies what the author terms the "colonial complex." It is contended to be an ethical disorder, a complex now ironically re-transplanted to European cultures from the very places to which it had sought to expel and export it. It is suggested that if there is be any relationship at all between psychoanalysis and postcolonial analysis, the subject must be the focus: not the poststructural, dispersed subject, or not only that subject, but the classical subject in its 3 dimensions--as sovereign individual, citizen under law, and person before God. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

MacDonald, D. A. (2000). "Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the Five Factor Model of personality." Journal of Personality 68(1): 153-197.
Examined the development and measurement of a factor model of the expressions of spirituality. Study 1, using 534 17-52 yr olds, involved the use of factor analysis to examine the latent factor structure in a sample of 11 measures of spiritual constructs. Study 2, using 938 17-55 yr olds, focused on the replication of Study 1 results and on the construction and initial validation of an instrument to operationalize the factor model of spirituality. Results indicate that at least 5 robust dimensions of spirituality underlie the spirituality test domain. These dimensions were labeled Cognitive Orientation Towards Spirituality, Experiential/Phenomenological Dimension, Existential Well-Being, Paranormal Beliefs, and Religiousness. The measure developed, named the Expressions of Spirituality Inventory, takes the form of a 98-item instrument that generated scores demonstrating satisfactory reliability and adequate initial validity. Examination of spirituality to the Five Factor Model (FFM) as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised revealed that the dimensions of the FFM appear to differentially relate to the major elements of spirituality but are nevertheless conceptually unique, pointing to the possible existence of major aspects of personality not represented in the FFM. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

MacDonald, D. A., J. J. Gagnier, et al. (2000). "The Self-expansiveness Level Form: Examination of its validity and relation to the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised." Psychological Reports 86(3,Pt1): 707-726.
This study examined the validity of the Self-expansiveness Level Form of H. L. Friedman (1983) with particular emphasis on the Transpersonal subscale, a measure of transpersonal self-concept, in terms of its basic psychometric properties and its relation to the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised. Support for the basic psychometric properties of the scale in terms of reliability, factorial validity, and concurrent validity was obtained; however, support was limited for convergent validity as correlations between scores on the Transpersonal subscale and measures of theoretically related constructs were low. Correlational analyses involving the Self-expansiveness Level Form and NEO Personality Inventory--Revised indicated that Transpersonal scores were not appreciably associated with the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised domains. Moreover, factor analysis of NEO Personality Inventory--Revised facets and Self-expansiveness Level Form items generated a solution in which the two measures contributed to separate factors. Discussion of the implications and limitations of the findings is included. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

MacNeilage, P. F. (1999). Whatever happened to articulate speech? The descent of mind: Psychological perspectives on hominid evolution. M. C. Corballis, S. E. G. Lea and et al. New York, NY, US, Oxford University Press: 116-137.
chapter: The author uses the neo-Darwinian perspective and some of K. S. Lashley's insights to give an account of the nature of articulate speech. It is noted that P. Broca's localization of "articulate speech" in the left frontal lobe was a landmark in the history of human understanding, but one that has not yet been fully capitalized on. Action, and the Darwinian perspective on it, has generally been neglected in our attempts to understand ourselves. However, it is contended that Lashley has provided a set of guidelines for the understanding of the cerebral organization underlying any serially ordered behavior. In this chapter a frame/content theory of the evolution of articulate speech is outlined which makes use of 4 of these guidelines: (1) the necessity for an ordering process independent of the elements to be ordered; (2) the importance of rhythm generators in achieving time-extended output; (3) the necessity of a temporary priming stage (working memory) for the assembly of complex output sequences; and (4) the extreme conservatism of evolution. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Maercker, A., S. A. Boehmig-Krumhaar, et al. (1998). "Existentielle Konfrontation als Zugang zu weisheitsbezogenem Wissen und Urteilen: Eine Untersuchung von Weisheitsnominierten. Existential confrontation as access to wisdom-related knowledge and judgment: A study of wisdom-nominees." Zeitschrift fuer Entwicklungspsychologie und Paedagogische Psychologie 30(1): 2-11.
Studied existential confrontation as related to wisdom-related knowledge and judgment. Human Ss: 16 male and female normal German adults (nominated as wise by a panel of journalists) (mean age 67.9 yrs). 16 male and female normal German adults (clinical psychologists) (mean age 65.9 yrs) (controls). 20 male and female normal young German adults (mean age 29.3 yrs) (controls). Ss completed a think-aloud task involving existential confrontation, and responses were rated using the Berlin Wisdom Model (P. B. Baltes and J. Smith, 1990) according to 5 criteria: factual and procedural knowledge, life-span contextualism, value relativism and uncertainty. The wisdom-nominated group was compared against the 3 control groups. Insight and judgment about fundamental life matters evolving from the task were discussed. Tests used: NEO Personality Inventory, Advanced progressive Matrices, The Hamburg-Wechsler Intelligence Test for Adults (D. Wechsler, 1964), and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Magee, M. and M. Hojat (1998). "Personality profiles of male and female positive role models in medicine." Psychological Reports 82(2): 547-559.
188 physicians (aged 31-86 yrs) who had been nominated by the chief executive officers of their institutions as positive role models completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Compared to the general population, Ss scored higher on the Conscientious factor, and on Achievement Striving, Activity, Competence, Dutifulness, Trust, Assertiveness, and Altruism facets, but they scored lower on the Vulnerability facet than the general population. Also, male role models scored significantly higher than men in the general population on the Agreeableness factor, and the female role models obtained significantly higher scores than the population norms on Extraversion and Openness factors, and on Feelings, Ideas, Positive Emotions, Values, Warmth, Aesthetics, and Fantasy facets. Female role models scored far below their sex-related norms on Neuroticism factor and on Angry Hostility facet. Comparisons between the males and females show that the female role models scored higher on the Openness factor, and on the Feelings, Positive Emotions, Aesthetics, and Fantasy facets of personality. Implications for medical education and professional success and for promoting the concept of positive medicine are discussed. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Manuck, S. B., J. D. Flory, et al. (1998). "Aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity in a nonpatient sample." Neuropsychopharmacology 19(4): 287-299.
To test the hypothesis that traits of aggression and impulsivity correlate negatively with central serotonergic system function in a nonpatient population, a standard fenfluramine challenge (for assessment of serotonergic responsivity) and behavioral measurements germane to aggression/impulsivity were administered to a community-derived sample of 119 men and women. In men, peak prolactin responses to fenfluramine correlated significantly with an interview-assessed life history of aggression, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and traits of Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Angry Hostility on the NEO-Personality Inventory. No significant relationships were observed across all women, although subanalyses restricted to postmenopausal subjects (in whom ovarian influences on prolactin secretion may be mitigated because of diminished estrogen) showed a pattern of behavioral associations somewhat similar to that seen in men. By extending documented relationships between an index of central serotonergic system function and traits of aggression and impulsivity to a more normative range of population variability than is represented in prior literature, this study supports speculation that these associations reflect a basic neurobehavioral dimension of individual differences. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Maraun, M. D. (1997). "Appearance and reality: Is the Big Five the structure of trait descriptors?" Personality & Individual Differences 22(5): 629-647.
It is argued that contrary to the claims of Big Five investigators, the structure of trait descriptors is still very much an open issue. This is because their methodology, factor/component analysis paired with the dimensional interpretation/simple structure procedure, does not investigate the closed topological manifold that constitutes the "structure" of a set of variables. Instead, radex-related configurations are likely candidates for the structure of trait descriptors. Some preliminary support for this claim is given by an analysis of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), a Big Five questionnaire measure, and the Goldberg-40, an adjective measure. The NEO-PI data was the correlation matrix among the 30 NEO-PI facet scales (P. Costa & R. McCrae, 1992). The Goldberg-40 was administered to 215 undergraduates. Results show the NEO-PI and Goldberg-40 have radex structures. A facet theory rationale is provided for these findings. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Marsella, A. J. and A. M. Yamada (2000). Culture and mental health: An introduction and overview of foundations, concepts, and issues. Handbook of multicultural mental health. I. Cuellar, F. A. Paniagua and et al. San Diego, CA, US, Academic Press: 3-24.
This chapter provides an introduction and overview of foundations, concepts, and issues related to culture and mental health.:
chapter: Topics include: overview of foundations (E. Kraepelin--comparative psychiatry, culture and mental health: the early struggle); the "new" culture and mental health; the neo-Kraepelinian movement; postmodern views; individualism and scientism; American Psychological Association guidelines; the maturation of the field; some defining questions, some important concepts (ethnocentrism, culture, ethnocultural identity); cultures as causative of psychiatric disorders (stress and stressors, resources and supports, standards of normality/abnormality, definition of selfhood and personhood); important issues (concepts of illness and disease), epidemiology, understanding culture and symptomatology relationships, ethnocultural parameters of psychopathology, culture-bound disorders); and ethnocultural diversity. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Martin, H. F. (1999). "A cross-cultural validation of personality testing." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(9-A): 3351.
This dissertation is part of the search to define personality cross-culturally. American psychological and educational traditions arise from a cultural backdrop different from its newest clients, whose characteristics call into question the appropriateness and underlying assumptions of standard assessment instruments. Issues in cross-cultural psychology, Indian culture, and temperament are reviewed. A growing body of evidence attests to the viability of viewing clusters of traits as constitutional factors, e.g., temperament or some other constellation, as major determinants of behavior. This research concentrated on the measurement one temperament, whose members value conformity, tradition, the concrete, order, security, and usefulness. Portions or all of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), NEO-Five-Factor Indicator (FFI), and Personality Research Form (PRF) tests were administered to 100 male students in South India and 100 in Southern California, exploring the cross-cultural applicability of both the temperament concept and the ability to measure it. Validity was sought by convergent validation of the standardized test outcomes and instrumentation designed for this research, through subject feedback elicited via questionnaires and interviews, and comparisons with comparable subjects in the USA. Statistical analysis showed that the four MBTI-derived temperament scores related in the expected manner to three of five personality scores from two other inventories for both Americans and Indians, supporting only minimally the transport of MBTI scores. Stronger relationships were found between standardized measures of temperament features and self-assessed statements of temperament in the receiving culture. There was a clear trend in the direction of South Indians not to recognize or own their scores as readily as young males in the culture where the measures were developed. Matching self-selected MBTI-based characterizations with temperament characterizations do not support transportability of scores. This study suggests that temperament characterizations be reconstructed emically, so as to be grounded in meanings and statuses of the receiving culture and that hypothetical links of temperaments to traits and statues be more firmly established in the USA before such links can be claimed outside the American culture. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Martin, P., M. Gruenendahl, et al. (2000). "Persoenlichkeit, kognitive Leistungsfaehigkeit und Gesundheit in Ost und West: Ergebnisse der Interdisziplinaeren Laengsschnittstudie des Erwachsenenalters (ILSE). Personality, cognitive functioning, and health in the east and west: Results of the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Aging (ILSE)." Zeitschrift fuer Gerontologie und Geriatrie 33(2): 111-123.
Explored indicators for healthy and satisfying aging in middle adulthood and later life using the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Aging, and comparing adults from eastern and western Germany. 500 Ss from Heidelberg (mean age 62.51 yrs) and 501 (mean age 43.78 yrs) from Leipzig were studied with regard to personality, cognitive functioning, subjective well-being, and health. Measures included (1) the NEO-Fuenf-Faktoren-Inventar (Borkenau & Ostendorf, 1993), (2) parts of the Nuernberger Altersinventar (Nuremberg Age Inventory; Oswald & Fleischmann, 1995); (3) the Hamburg Wechsler Intelligenztest fuer Erwachsene (Hamburg Wechsler Intelligence Test for Adults--Revised, Tewes, 1994); and (4) parts of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (Lawton, 1975) as well as the Self-Rating-Depression Scale (Zung, 1986). Health status was tested using the body-mass index, medication use, subjective assessment of health, and the physician's evaluation. Significant age by region interactions were obtained for openness and some of the cognitive measures as well as for health ratings. Results are discussed with regard to functional abilities and levels of satisfaction in midlife, and with respect to regional differences caused by prior political differences in east and west. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Martin, L. R. and H. S. Friedman (2000). "Comparing personality scales across time: An illustrative study of validity and consistency in life-span archival data." Journal of Personality 68(1): 85-110.
This study (1) examined whether personality scales, meaningful in contemporary terms, could be derived from archival data; and (2) used these scales to aid in the understanding of the relation of personality to mortality. Revised NEO Personality Inventory data and a battery of archival items, taken from Terman's Life Cycle Study, were collected on 2 new samples. The 1st sample included 167 9-15 yr old Ss and the 2nd sample included 203 18-36 yr old Ss. Measurement invariance of the archival scales was assessed, and validity was examined using both rational analyses and associations with the Five Factor Model. It was demonstrated that interpretable scales can be derived from 50- and 70-yr-old archival data. The archival adult personality data were then used to predict mortality. Conscientiousness remains the strongest personality predictor of longevity. Criteria for establishing the validity of archivally derived scales are suggested. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Martin-Mcallen, A. (1998). "An exploratory study to identify if personality traits differ among women with fibromyalgia and women without fibromyalgia." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(10-B): 5650.
Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a syndrome which is defined as a specific complex of symptoms. There are three factors which made this syndrome an important subject to research: (1) It is very difficult to diagnosis FMS therefore the number of individuals who endure the pain and suffering is unknown; (2) it is suspected that a large number of individuals have FMS, both women and men; (3) the quality of life is greatly affected in a negative manner by FMS. One question health professionals ask is, 'what role does the person's personality, beliefs, attitudes and behavior play in the development of FMS?' Studies are needed to answer this question. This exploratory study was designed to determine if personality traits differ among women with and without FMS. Two personality inventories, the 'Personality, Stress, and Disease Inventory' (PSDI) and the 'Revised NEO Personality Inventory' (NEO-PI-R) were utilized to collect data. This study's participants included 61 women, from the ages of 20 years to 78 years, diagnosed with FMS, and 44 women, from the ages of 22 years to 84 years of age, not diagnosed with FMS. Participants with FMS were recruited from 164 respondents from the FMS Support Group at Kaseman Presbyterian Hospital, the FMS Support Group Through the Arthritis Foundation of New Mexico and an article in the Albuquerque Journal. Participants in the comparison group were recruited through posters placed in various public settings. An independent one-tailed t-test was utilized to analyze the data collected. The demographic analysis revealed that most women both the FMS group and the comparison group were '41 to 50 years,' and 'Non-Hispanic Caucasian'. Most of the women with FMS were married, while the greatest frequency in the comparison group were single. The FMS group possessed a lower level of education and occupational status than the comparison group. The difference in time between when the individual began experiencing symptoms and when they received a diagnosis was nine years. An independent one-tailed t-test was utilized to analyze the data collected. Results showed a significant difference between groups on the Neuroticism domain of the NEO-PI-R and the Type 1, and the total scores of Type 1 plus Type 5 on the PSDI. No difference was found on the Agreeableness domain and the Conscientiousness domain of the of the NEO-PI-R, and the Type 5 inventory of the PSDI. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Marusic, I., D. Bratko, et al. (1996). "A contribution to the cross-cultural replicability of the five-factor personality model." Review of Psychology 3(1-2): 23-35.
Over the recent years numerous studies have contributed to the evidence of cross-cultural validity of the 5-factor model as the most adequate paradigm for description of the personality domain. The aim of this study was to validate Croatian translation of the most widely used 5-factor questionnaire, NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO PI--R). The research was carried out on 2 samples of Ss. The 1st sample consisted of 466 high school graduates, 233 males and 233 females aged 17-19 yrs. The 2nd sample consisted of 256 adults, 123 males and 133 females aged 35-61 yrs. Alpha reliabilities in both samples were very high for all 5 scales, and are in the range of values obtained on the normative American sample. Correlations among the scales are also comparable to those reported by authors of the questionnaire. Furthermore, factor analysis of the facets in both samples provided close replications of the original factor structure. Results of our validation study clearly show that NEO PI--R is a valid instrument for the assessment of 5 broad personality dimensions in Croatian population, and thus are still another contribution to the empirical evidence on the universality of the 5-factor model. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Marusic, I. and D. Bratko (1998). "Relations of masculinity and femininity with personality dimensions of the five-factor model." Sex Roles 38(1-2): 29-44.
Examined the relationship of masculinity and femininity with 5-factor personality dimensions in 232 female and 232 male 17-19 yr old Whites, 90% of whom are Croatians. Ss were given Croatian translation of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (S. L. Bem, 1974) to assess gender role orientation, and the Croatian translation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) to assess the neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness domains of the 5-factor personality model. Data were analyzed with a multiple regression analysis using masculinity, femininity, gender, and their interactions as independent variables. Results showed that masculinity contributes positively to extraversion and conscientiousness, and negatively to neuroticism and agreeableness, while femininity shows strong positive relationship with agreeableness, and weak positive relationships with the other 4 dimensions. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Matthews, K. A., J. D. Flory, et al. (2000). "Does socioeconomic status relate to central serotonergic responsivity in healthy adults?" Psychosomatic Medicine 62(2): 231-237.
Tested whether low SES was associated with reduced central serotonergic responsivity in a community sample of 24-60 yr old men and women and the extent to which standardized measures of aggression and impulsivity mediate this association. 270 Ss enrolled in a clinical trial on the neurobehavioral effects of lipid lowering were given a neuropharmacologic challenge (plasma prolactin response to oral fenfluramine) to measure serotonergic responsivity. Measures of family income and educational attainment were standardized and summed to derive an overall index of SES. Scores from the Brown-Goodwin Life History of Aggression interview, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Angry Hostility subscale from the NEO Personality Inventory were also standardized and summed to form an aggression/impulsivity score. Low SES was correlated with low prolactin responses to the fenfluramine challenge in the full sample as well as in Whites, men, and women evaluated separately. Although standardized SES score was correlated inversely with aggression/impulsivity, the association between SES and prolactin responses remained significant when adjustments were made for age, gender, body mass index, and aggression/impulsivity scores. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCrae, R. R. and P. T. Costa, Jr. (1997). "Personality trait structure as a human universal." American Psychologist 52(5): 509-516.
journal abstract: Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCrae, R. R., S. V. Stone, et al. (1998). "Identifying causes of disagreement between self-reports and spouse ratings of personality." Journal of Personality 66(3): 285-313.
Explored causes of disagreements between self reports and spouse rating of personality traits in 2 experiments. In Exp 1, 47 married couples (individuals were aged 26-85 yrs) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) to describe themselves and their spouses. Extent of agreement was not consistently moderated by response sets; the age, intelligence, or education of the respondent; or the length or quality of the relationship. In Exp 2, these couples were interviewed about reasons for substantial disagreements, and an audiotape was content-analyzed. 16 reasons were reliably coded, including idiosyncratic understanding of items, reference to different time frames or roles, and unavailability of covert experience to the spouse. Faking good, assumed similarity, and other variables prominent in the psychometric literature were relatively unimportant. Findings suggest that attempts to improve the validity of self-reports and ratings may need to be refocused and underscore the desirability of routinely obtaining multiple sources of information on personality. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCrae, R. R., M. S. M. Yik, et al. (1998). "Interpreting personality profiles across cultures: Bilingual, acculturation, and peer rating studies of Chinese undergraduates." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 74(4): 1041-1055.
journal abstract: Prior research (R. R. McCrae, P. T. Costa, & M. S. M. Yik, 1996) using a Chinese translation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory suggested substantial differences between Hong Kong and North American undergraduates. Study 1, with a sample of bilingual Hong Kong students (N = 162), showed that prior findings were not due simply to the translation. Study 2, with undergraduates of European and Chinese ancestry living in Canada (N = 633), suggested that most of the differences were cultural in origin. Study 3, which used peer ratings of Chinese students (N = 99), replicated most Study 2 results, suggesting that exposure to Canadian culture increased openness, cheerfulness, and prosocial behavior and attitudes. Differences in sense of competence and vulnerability to stress appeared to be due to different cultural standards for judging these traits. Together, the 3 studies illustrate an integrated approach to interpreting personality differences across cultures. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCrae, R. R., P. T. Costa, Jr., et al. (1998). "Cross-cultural assessment of the five-factor model: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29(1): 171-188.
The five-factor model (FFM) is a representation of the patterns of covariation of personality traits in terms of five broad factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a questionnaire measure of the FFM, has recently been translated into a number of different languages, permitting tests of its cross-cultural replicability. Data from Filipino and French translations are presented, showing clear and detailed replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Results from these and other cross-cultural and behavior genetic studies suggest that the FFM is a biologically based human universal. Applications of trait psychology in clinical, educational, and organizational settings may prove generalizable across cultures, and cross-cultural psychologists can profitably explore the expression of the same personality traits in different cultural contexts. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCrae, R. R., P. T. Costa, Jr., et al. (1999). "Age differences in personality across the adult life span: Parallels in five cultures." Developmental Psychology 35(2): 466-477.
journal abstract: Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in the United States have shown consistent changes between college age and middle adulthood. There appear to be declines in 3 of the 5 major factors of personality-Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness-and increases in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. To examine cross-cultural generalizability of these findings, translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory were administered to samples in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea (N = 7,363). Similar patterns of age differences were seen in each country, for both men and women. Common trends were also seen for the more specific traits that define the major factors. Because these nations differ substantially in culture and recent history, results suggest the hypothesis that these are universal maturational changes in adult personality. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCrae, R. R., P. T. Costa, Jr., et al. (2000). "Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 78(1): 173-186.
journal abstract: Temperaments are often regarded as biologically based psychological tendencies with intrinsic paths of development. It is argued that this definition applies to the personality traits of the five-factor model. Evidence for the endogenous nature of traits is summarized from studies of behavior genetics, parent-child relations, personality structure, animal personality, and the longitudinal stability of individual differences. New evidence for intrinsic maturation is offered from analyses of NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores for men and women age 14 and over in German, British, Spanish, Czech, and Turkish samples (N = 5,085). These data support strong conceptual links to child temperament despite modest empirical associations. The intrinsic maturation of personality is complemented by the culturally conditioned development of characteristic adaptations that express personality; interventions in human development are best addressed to these. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McCurrie, T. F. (1998). "White racist extremist gang members: A behavioral profile." Journal of Gang Research 5(2): 51-60.
Studied 82 hard core White racist extremist gang members, including members of the Aryan Nation, Aryan Youth Movement, Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazis, skinhead groups, White power groups, and motorcycle gangs. Violent crimes accounted for 70.9% of known offenses committed by the gang members. Profiles outlined for the gang members include school/education, sexual, family background, religious, drug involvement, gang involvement, and gang quitting. Gang organization, correctional behavior, and prosecution impact profiles are also summarized, and recommendations included for those concerned about gangs and hate groups. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

McLaughlin, N. G. (1998). "Why do schools of thought fail? Neo-Freudianism as a case study in the sociology of knowledge." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 34(2): 113-134.
Offers a sociology of knowledge analysis of the collapse of neo-Freudianism as a separate school of psychoanalysis and influential intellectual current. While the existing literature stresses personal conflicts between K. Horney, E. Fromm and H. S. Sullivan as a major cause of the failure of cultural psychoanalysis, the author's analysis highlights the sect-like nature of Freudian institutes, the professionalizing dynamics of American psychoanalysis, the contribution of the celebrity-dominated book market and culture, and the highly controversial nature of Fromm's writings and intellectual activity. Neo-Freudianism is conceptualized as a hybrid system that is a combination of a literary phenomena, intellectual movement, faction of a sect, theoretical innovation and therapy. This analysis of hybrid intellectual systems raises larger sociology of knowledge questions about schools of thought and intellectual movements. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Meadows, S. (1998). ""I have a dream..."." Educational & Child Psychology 15(2): 21.
Responds to P. Stringer's comment (see record 1998-04203-002) on the author's original article (see record 1998-04203-001). Meadows recognizes that the neo-Vygotskian framework is an enabling one that can be used by psychologists to gain a richer understanding of the development of learning. However, she states that she has been conscious of the need for "strong, water-tight, evidence to be the basis of any practical recommendations" and "of the dangers of over-simplifying fields related to the focal one." Meadows also states that Stringer appears "optimistic about the practical difficulties, the institutional and systematic constraints that would have to be overcome" in order to apply Vygotskian theories to educational practice. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Meadows, S. (1998). "Children learning to think: Learning from others? Vygotskian theory and educational psychology." Educational & Child Psychology 15(2): 6-13.
Currently developmental psychology is increasing its recognition of individual differences between children in how effectively they apply their thinking skills and in the cultural origins of those skills. Neo-Vygotskian accounts of cognitive development that emphasize the effects on thinking of culture and social interactions provide the main theoretical models of the developmental processes involved, and are influencing educational theory and policy. Within Vygotskian theory, social structures and processes influence what practical activities are engaged in and valued in a society, and these activities and the psychological-cultural tools associated with them determine cognitive development. Just as teaching and learning are not done independent of a culture with a history, so they cannot be done irrespective of the cognitive and affective history of the individual learner--the learner's "Zone of Proximal Development." Vygotskian theory shares the assertion of Piagetian theory and of information-processing theory that forms of metacognitive development are at the center of cognitive development in childhood. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Meadows, J. H. (2000). "The five factor model and personality pathology: The role of dysfunction in the determination of dependent personality disorder." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(9-B): 4897.
Interest in utilizing a dimensional model to assess personality pathology has grown in recent years. There appear to be many benefits associated with the use of a dimensional model such as the five-factor model of personality (FFM). However, the FFM has no intrinsic mechanism to determine what is or is not pathological. This study examined the relationship of the FFM (as measured by the NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) to indicators of social and occupational impairment (as measured by the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report; SAS-SR, Weissman et al., 1978), and predicted that the utilization of a measure of impairment would significantly augment the ability of NEO-PI-R domain and facet scores to predict a diagnosis of Dependent personality disorder (as assessed by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire; PDQ-4; Hyler et al., 1994). The results of this study lend support to the hypothesis that the simultaneous assessment of personality traits and impairment can improve the ability of the FFM to predict personality pathology (specifically, Dependent personality disorder). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Merrens, M. R. and G. G. Brannigan (1998). Experiences in personality: Research, assessment, and change. New York, NY, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
cover: Experiences in Personality: Research, Assessment, and Change is designed to serve as a supplement for any personality course. The authors have provided a balance of book readings, "spotlights," and active learning exercises with the intention of involving students in the psychological study of personality. Students become engaged in the scientific process by participating in assessment, behavior recording, and behavior change activities as either an observer, a writer, a subject, or an investigator. The students' first hand involvement provides them with better understanding and appreciation for the interesting field of personality. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Miller, R. J. (1996). "Effects of a prison-based program for reducing violence." Psychiatry, Psychology & Law 3(2): 153-162.
This study evaluates a prison-based intervention for reducing violence, known as the Alternatives to Violence (ATV) program. The study also explores the ATV participants' defining personality characteristics for their therapeutic implications. Ss were 22 males (aged 21-46 yrs). Self-report personality and anger measures (the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, respectively) collected from volunteer ATV participants were compared with those from a control group at program commencement and again at its end. Results indicated that at program commencement the ATV group displayed a strong propensity for violence as reflected in high levels of anger, expressed antagonism, cynicism, and impulsivity. At program's end, the ATV group displayed improved interpersonal qualities, becoming more open and accepting of others. They also improved their anger proneness, resentful brooding, and anger control. The data support the program's efficacy and document the challenges posed by ATV participants' tendency to antisocial personality characteristics. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Mirels, H. L., F. Stevens, et al. (1998). "Differentiation in personality descriptions of the self and others." Personality & Individual Differences 25(4): 663-681.
Previous studies of the tendency to describe one's own personality or the personality of another in a differentiated, nuanced way have assessed differentiation in terms of number of ascribed traits. Findings have been inconsistent and conclusions compromised by failure to consider a key component of differentiation--the relationships between attributed characteristics. The authors report 2 studies with a total of 246 undergraduates in which the magnitude of the correlations between personality scale descriptions of a target was taken as an inverse indicator of differentiation. In both Study 1, using the Personality Research Form, and Study 2, using the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised, participants showed greater differentiation in descriptions of themselves than of others and greater differentiation in descriptions of liked than of disliked persons. Participants also revealed a tendency to describe familiar persons in a less differentiated way than persons whom they knew less well. This pattern of findings is well-accommodated by the E. Berscheid et al (1976) "outcome dependency" formulation, which proposes that the more vulnerable our welfare to another person's influence, the greater our motivation to construe that person's behavior in dispositional terms. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Mogenson, G. (1999). "Psyche's archetypes: A response to Pietikainen, Stevens, Hogenson and Solomon." Journal of Analytical Psychology 44(1): 125-133.
Responds to the article by P. Pietikainen (see record 1998-10513-001), together with the responses of A. Stevens (see record 1998-10513-002), G. B. Hogenson (see record 1998-10513-003), and H. M. Solomon (see record 1998-10513-004) on Jung's concept of the archetype. Biology and philosophy, the 2 fronts upon which the battle over analytical psychology and the archetype concept is fought by Pietikainen, Stevens, Hogenson, and Solomon, correspond to the realms of being adjacent to the psyche in neo-platonic tradition. Psyche, according to that tradition, is the middle term between the matter and spirit (biology and philosophy). Rarer than the physical world, yet more embodied than the world of spirit or mind, it is a realm of imaginal or subtle bodies. While there may be differences in how various schools of analysis conceive of the psyche, its existence per se is not doubted. Reading Pietikainen's article and the submissions of his respondents, the author was struck by the absence of reference to the psyche. He feels that all parties to this debate, by turning to realms outside the psyche in their endeavour to authenticate Jung's archetypes, undermined the ontological ground of analytical psychology. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Montes, R. (1999). "A reliability and validity estimate of the religious status inventory among a male christian substance abuse sample." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(7-B): 3765.
An article in the August edition of the APA Monitor (Clay, 1996) had emphasized the growing trend among psychologists to examine the spiritual functioning of their patients. Studies have shown that understanding levels of spiritual functioning enables psychologists and mental health counselors to evaluate more effectively their patients' tolerance for treatment (Leak & Randall, 1995), coping (Pargament, Ensing, Falgout, Olsen, Reilly, Van Haitsma, & Warren, 1990) and motivation (Pargament, 1992). A review of instruments measuring the Christian religion were found to lack the specificity necessary for a detailed, multi-dimensional assessment (Allport, 1950; Fowler, 1981; Hoge, 1972). The Religious Status Inventory (RSI) (Massey & Hadlock, 1988) was designed as a multi-dimensional measure of Christian theological functioning, but no study had examined the RSI using both construct and concurrent validity approaches (Jackson, 1992). This study examined the internal consistency reliability, construct and concurrent validity of the RSI with a sample of Christian substance abusers, working through three phases of treatment in a Christian substance abuse rehabilitation program. Using multiple linear regression analysis (McNeil, Newman, & Kelly, 1996), results of the hypotheses found support for the concurrent validity of the RSI. The RSI was significantly correlated with patient status, but independent t-tests found significant differences only between Phase I and Phase III groups. Mean RSI scores by phases identified a positive linear relationship (p =.05) in the predicted direction. Results also supported the construct validity of the RSI. The RSI was significantly correlated to the NEO PI-R domain scales of Agreeableness (r =.55, p <01) and Conscientiousness (r =.48, p <05). Numerous NEO PI-R facet scale correlations were found with the RSI and its subscales which were theoretically consistent. Post hoc analysis of Jackson's (1992) Factor 4 was significantly negatively correlated with Neuroticism (r = -, p =.001). This study supported both the concurrent and construct validity of the RSI for this sample. Future efforts to improve the RSI should consider revising the questionnaire, restructuring the scoring scheme, incorporating Jackson's Factor 4, and examining the RSI among subjects of differing Christian religious denominations, especially among those who are theologically Arminian and Calvinistic. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Morra, S. (1995). A neo-Piagetian approach to children's drawings. Drawing and looking: Theoretical approaches to pictorial representation in children. C. Lange-Kuettner, G. V. Thomas and et al. London, England UK, Harvester Wheatsheaf: 93-106.
introduction: Morra argues that Piaget's idea of the mind as a structure of schemes that changes over time is taken up by neo-Piagetians. They specify different types of schemes as well as diverse cognitive factors and mechanisms responsible for cognitive performance of specific tasks. Qualitative change in development is no longer assumed, but instead, a quantitative increase in information-processing capacity. /// Morra describes a 2-level architecture of the mind. The basic units of cognition are 2 types of schemes: figurative schemes which refer to objects and operative schemes which refer to spatial relations.:
chapter: Morra discusses figurative schemes, operative schemes, and metasubjective operators in drawing. He also describes research on the M operator and planning of drawings, research on modification of figurative schemes, and research on cognitive conflict in drawing. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Morra, S. and A. Scopesi (1997). "Issues in testing for processing capacity: Portrait of convergent validity with oblique rotations in the background." International Journal of Behavioral Development 20(4): 739-742.
journal abstract: Commenting on a note by Steven Pulos (see record 84-29817), it is argued that a relationship between processing capacity and field independence, reported by R. Case and T. Globerson (1974) and S. Morra and A. Scopesi (1988), is compatible with the view that field independence tests are also demanding in terms of processing capacity. This does not imply that one should refrain from using a battery of tests in measuring M capacity. It is also noted that our previous research emphasized convergent validity because of current rhetorical needs, and we agree with Pulos that the nature of the relationship between processing capacity and other abilities deserves to be investigated more deeply. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Morra, S. (2000). "A new model of verbal short-term memory." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 75(3): 191-227.
Two experiments tested a neo-Piagetian model of verbal short-term memory and compared it with the articulatory loop model. In Exp 1, 113 Ss (aged 8.9-11.4 yrs) tested word span for 2, 3, and 4-syllable words, with both visual and auditory presentation. Exp 2 (which used the same Ss) tested recall of visually presented supraspan lists. Measures of M capacity (mental energy; as conceived in J. Pascual-Leone's neo-Piagetian theory, 1970) and articulation rate were also used. The proposed model can account for the effects of M capacity, word length, and presentation modality. The fit of this model to the data was acceptable, and parameter estimates were consistent across experiments. Furthermore, a correlation was found between M capacity and word span which resisted partialling out of age and articulation rate. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Morris, J. B., Jr. (1997). "The relationship of parental personality characteristics to the control of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 57(7-B): 4785.
The relationship of parental personality to the control of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) of their child was examined. Sixty families participated, 40 of whom provided information about the personality of both parents, 19 of who responded only about the mother, and one of whom responded only about the father. Parental personality was assessed using the NEO PI-R, and metabolic control of IDDM was operationalized as the average of each child's last three glycosylated hemoglobin assays. Only one hypothesized aspect of parental personality was found to be associated with the measure of metabolic control. Higher levels of maternal Conscientiousness were significantly related to lower blood glucose levels (r = -21, n = 59, p =.016). Other variables emerged from the data with statistically significant associations and are discussed. Exploratory multiple regression analyses were conducted and three variables were retained in the most meaningful equation: paternal Modesty, paternal Tender Mindedness, and maternal Conscientiousness. This model accounted for 43.68% of the variance associated with glycemic control (R2 =.4368, F(3, 36) = 9.307, p =.000), and yielded an adjusted R2 of.3899. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Morros, M., D. Pushkar, et al. (1998). "A study of current, former, and new elderly volunteers: A comparison of developmental and trait models of personality." Journal of Adult Development 5(4): 219-230.
Examined relationships among personality traits, ego development, and volunteering among 104 retired seniors (aged 55-82 yrs) who were current, former, and new volunteers. Ego development was measured by the short form of the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development (J. Loevinger, 1985; J. Loevinger and L. X. Hy, unpublished manuscript [1989]). The personality dimension openness to experience was measured by The openness to Experience scale of the NEO Five Factor Inventory. Volunteer history, but not extensiveness of volunteer experience, was associated with higher ego development. Current volunteers had higher levels of ego development than former and new volunteers, and former volunteers had higher levels than new volunteers. Openness to experience and ego development were positively associated. Results of multiple-regression analyses indicated that openness and volunteering history and extensiveness positively predicted ego development. This study supported the hypothesis that ego development is related to volunteering and suggests that participation in volunteer work promotes ego development. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Mos, L. P. (1998). "On methodological distinctions: Nomothetic psychology, or historical understanding." Theory & Psychology 8(1): 39-57.
What follows is a critical review of W. Windelband's (1894) methodological distinction between nomothetic and idiographic thought as based on J. T. Lamiell's translation of Windelband's speech. This is followed by a critique of Lamiell's (1998) interpretation of the distinction and its implications for his proposed nomothetic psychology of personality. In the course of evaluating this proposal, Windelband's distinction is placed within the broader context of the neo-Kantian understanding of science, history and philosophy, and briefly contrasted with Dilthey's epistemological distinction between the human and natural sciences which takes psychology, and our understanding of individual persons, as belonging to the human, which is to say, historical sciences. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Moser, K., F. Schwoerer, et al. (1998). "Persoenlichkeitsmerkmale und kontraproduktives Verhalten in Organisationen. Ergebnisse einer Pilotstudie. Personality and counterproductive behavior in organizations: Results of a pilot study." Zeitschrift fuer Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie 42(2): 89-94.
Studied the effect of personality on counterproductive behavior. Human Ss: 75 normal German adults (white-collar workers). Ss completed a questionnaire on counterproductive behavior in organizations. "Theft in a broadest sense' and "uncooperativeness' were correlated with conscientiousness, extroversion, and agreeableness. The results were factor analyzed. Tests used: NEO Personality Inventory and Eysenck Personality Inventory. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Muggleton, D. (2000). Inside subculture: The postmodern meaning of style. New York, NY, US, Berg.
cover: The book provides original insights into issues of subjectivity and identity by listening to the voices of the subcultural stylists themselves--their subjective perceptions of their style and the ideas that lie behind them. Situating an empirical case study within a wider consideration of postmodernism and cultural change, the author rejects cultural studies perspectives that attempt to "read" subcultures as texts. Drawing on extensive interviews with people who dress in what might be deemed a stylistically unconventional manner, the author seeks instead to establish whether contemporary subcultures display modern or postmodern sensibilities and forms. It is argued that they do both-- a stress on postmodern hyperindividualism, fluidity and fragmentation runs alongside a modernist emphasis on authenticity and underlying essence. It is concluded that a Romantic libertarianism has permeated working-class culture and that the distinction between "individualistic" middle-class countercultures and "collectivist" working class subcultures has been over-emphasized. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Musgrave-Marquart, D., S. P. Bromley, et al. (1997). "Personality, academic attribution, and substance use as predictors of academic achievement in college students." Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 12(2): 501-511.
Investigated the relationships among personality factors that have been found to correlate with academic achievement and the consumption of common alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine substance use in 161 undergraduates. Ss completed 3 questionnaires: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), the Academic Attributional Style Questionnaire, and a modified Substance Use Questionnaire. Significant positive relationships were obtained between grade point average (GPA) representing academic achievement and the NEO PI-R personality factors of neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. Significant negative correlations were found between GPA and the use of alcohol and nicotine. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and lack of nicotine use best predicted GPA. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Nader-Grosbois, N. (1997). "Variabilites inter- et intra-individuelles des competences cognitives et socio-communicatives chez le jeune enfant presentant un retard mental. Inter- and intra-individual variabilities in cognitive and socio-communicative competences in young mentally handicapped children." Revue Francophone de la Deficience Intellectuelle 8(2): 159-172.
In the framework of research on the relationships between cognitive and socio-communicative competences, a neo-Piagetian approach has been used to explore questions relevant for general and differential developmental psychology. These questions are important for the research on young mentally handicapped children and for their specialized early education. In a longitudinal and cross-sectional study, we examined (a) the hierarchical organization and the synchrony of cognitive and socio-communicative performances; (b) their specific and global relationships and (c) inter- and intra-individual variations of these performances, during the "sensori-motor" period. To investigate these questions, normal and mentally handicapped children were examined by administration of adapted versions of the Infant Psychological Development Scales (I. Uzgiris and J. M. Hunt, 1975) and the Early Social Communication Scales. Preliminary results of this research work, still in progress, are detailed in the following text. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Naidoo, R. (1998). "Levelling or playing the field? The politics of access to university education in post-Apartheid South Africa." Cambridge Journal of Education 28(3): 369-383.
This article identifies the three discursive forces of "equity and redress," "development," and "academic standards" in the structuring of access and admission policies in South Africa. It is argued that these forces undergo a process of complex repositioning within the policy making arena of the National Commission on Higher Education. The discourse of "development" couched in neo-classical economic terms emerges as a dominant discourse in this process and shapes the discourses surrounding academic standards and, more fundamentally, redress policies and strategies. Such oblique effects of the dominant discourse, it is suggested, have fundamentally reframed access and admission policies and strategies proposed by the Commission. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Neuman, G. A. and J. R. Kickul (1998). "Organizational citizenship behaviors: Achievement orientation and personality." Journal of Business & Psychology 13(2): 263-279.
Investigated the effects of personality variables as antecedents in predicting organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), with the covenantal relationship as a mediating variable. Ss were 284 retail sales employees (aged 22-66 yrs) of a large wholesale/retail jewelry organization. Criterion measures were collected from employee and supervisors. Employees completed the antecedent and covenantal measures, while supervisors completed the OCB surveys. Thus, common method variance was reduced by using different data sources. Value for achievement was measured with the Survey of Personal Values (R. V. Gordon, 1984). Personality was measured with the NEO-PI--R. The 5-factor model of OCB defined by D. W. Organ (1988) and refined by P. M. Podsakoff et al (1990) was used to define citizenship behavior. Covenantal relationship was measured with a scale similar to that used by L. Van Dyne et al (1994). Value for achievement, agreeableness, and conscientiousness predicted 5 types of organizational citizenship. Extraversion was not predictive across all OCBs. Implications for the relationship between personality and citizenship are discussed. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Niaz, M. and E. Caraucan (1998). ""Learning-to-learn": A neo-Piagetian interpretation of the potential for learning." Perceptual & Motor Skills 86(3, Pt 2): 1291-1298.
Examined the learning (academic performance) that takes place in a traditional classroom. 94 children (aged 7-10 yrs) divided into 3 age groups, were tested to assess development (Piaget's Cognitive Development and Pascual-Leone's M-power) and learning (Pascual-Leone's L-power; i.e., potential for learning). Analysis shows that the 2 developmental measures did not predict academic performance for 2 of the groups, whereas Pascual-Leone's L-power correlated significantly with academic performance for all 3 groups of children. It is concluded that Pascual-Leone's L-power can explain academic performance as a function of classroom learning. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Nielsen, G. (1998). The norms of answerability: Bakhtin and the fourth postulate. Bakhtin and the human sciences: No last words. M. M. Bell, M. Gardiner and et al. London, England UK, Acad. Hebrew Language: 214-230.
chapter: Examines conceptual shifts and interconnections between two of M. Bakhtin's first essays' Towards a Philosophy of the Act (1919-1921) and the unfinished "The author and hero in aesthetic activity" (1920-24). These works contain 3 distinct but overlapping problem motifs that combine to constitute the core of his philosophical anthropology: the personalist ethics of Being yourself, the aesthetics of the self-other or author-hero relation, and the normative framework of answerability that would come to define his general theory of the dialogic work inherent to the whole sphere of culture. The author is particularly interested in further reconstruing how Bakhtin's thought evolves out of a critical reception of neo-Kantian ideas. The authors main argument is that conceptual shifts in the early essays are attempts to move beyond the 4th postulate of neo-Kantian philosophy, that is, the assumption of the existential animateness of other egos and the implications such an assumption has for normative actions. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Niemeyer, L. O. (2000). "Identifying psychosocial indicators of high risk for delayed recovery in an outpatient industrially injured population." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(9-B): 4564.
The purpose of this investigation was to devise a screening methodology to identify injured workers at high risk of rehabilitation failure, or 'delayed recovery,' that would provide a basis for prevention and represent an improvement over the conventional medical model approach. A self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 156 injured workers admitted to an upper extremity rehabilitation program who had been off work 3 months or less. Subjects were followed for 6 months after discharge from therapy to determine outcome. The questionnaire consisted of 15 short scales selected to represent psychosocial variables likely, based on literature review from both theoretical and empirical standpoints, to have a relationship with the dependent variable of return to work. Twelve scales were adapted from measures available in the literature and 3 were written to fit theoretical constructs. Subjects also filled out the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the primary therapist completed a short impairment rating measure. 30% of subjects failed to return to work within 6 months. Scales from the questionnaire comprised two components, namely life-outlook related and injury related factors. Based on logistic regression analysis, the life-outlook related component did not predict return to work, while the injury related component accounted for 41% of the variance in outcome. Four scales were identified from the latter component that predicted 50% of the variance in outcome and correctly identified 58% of subjects who failed to return to work, namely: Therapist's Estimate of Impairment, McGill Pain Questionnaire-Number of Words Chosen, Work Injury Attribution-External/Stable/lUncontrollable, and Return to Work Self-Efficacy. Personality did not directly predict return to work, but was a significant predictor for both components. Return to Work Self-Efficacy and Work Injury Attribution were better predictors of outcome than the pain scale, and these in any combination predicted outcome more effectively than estimated impairment alone. Results support the conclusion that perceived degree of control and expectancies regarding return to work may steer the rehabilitative process. The key to effective early intervention may lie in gaining a clear understanding of these aspects of the worker's experience and then addressing specific concerns in the rehabilitation program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Niepce, W. and E. Molleman (1998). "Work design issues in lean production from a sociotechnical systems perspective: Neo-Taylorism or the next step in sociotechnical design?" Human Relations 51(3): 259-287.
The similarities and differences between 2 paradigms, lean production (LP) and sociotechnical systems (STS) thinking, which currently compete for the attention of managers and scholars interested in improving the design of work systems, are studied in this article. In order to find the logic behind each approach, the design principles formulated by A. Cherns (1987) were used to evaluate LP from an STS viewpoint with respect to work design issues. The 2 concepts differ most with respect to their definition of system boundaries, the control mechanisms they favor and their value bases and assumptions about workers. The way control is exercised in each concept is closely related to the production structure and has far-reaching consequences for the human resource policies practiced. Although each approach has something to offer the other, the question whether the best ideas of both can be synthesized in designing a superior overall system cannot be answered so easily. In the end, it will require more than just choosing features of each approach to apply in combination; the differences in fundamental beliefs about people need to be reconciled in the design of the organization and its system. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Norton, G. R., B. J. Cox, et al. (1997). "Personality factors associated with generalized and non-generalized social anxiety." Personality & Individual Differences 22(5): 655-660.
95 university students completed 2 measures of social anxiety, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and 2 personality scales, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO) and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). The results of step-wise regression analyses showed that scores on the SPS, a measure of nongeneralized (circumscribed) social anxiety, were mostly predicted by the ASI. The SIAS, a measure of generalized social anxiety, was mostly predicted by the NEO domain of Neuroticism. Results suggest that circumscribed social fears (e.g. public speaking) are associated with a fear of anxiety symptoms whereas generalized social anxiety is more related to personality dimensions reflecting neuroticism. The importance of these findings for assessing and conceptualizing social anxiety/phobia are discussed. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Nunez, R. and W. J. Freeman, Eds. (2000). Reclaiming cognition: The primacy of action, intention and emotion. Thorverton, England, Imprint Academic.
introduction: This volume is a collection of papers from a variety of disciplines with the goal of calling to attention the urgent need to reconsider the study of the mind. The aim is not to answer questions about the nature of mind and cognition, but to bring to the fore some avenues of exploration or issues down-played under the legacy of Cognitivism, and which today are sustained by Neo-Cognitivism. Also, the editors aimed to reassert the pertinence of cognitive science (rather than abandon it) in a wide range of behavioural sciences. The editors reinstate some inherent aspects of the mind: action in the world, intention, emotion, bodily grounded experiences, the human brain as an organ of social action, and so on. Because of the variety of the backgrounds of the contributors, the collection of papers included is heterogeneous. The common thread is a determination to take full advantage of the social and biological contexts of the human animal, and to develop conceptual frameworks and methodologies freed from the assumptions of Cognitivism as outlined above. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Olson, B. D. and D. L. Evans (1999). "The role of the Big Five personality dimensions in the direction and affective consequences of everyday social comparisons." Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 25(12): 1498-1508.
Investigated the role of the Big Five personality dimensions in everyday social comparisons. 133 college students completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. For the following 2 wks, Ss recorded their comparisons and positive and negative affect using the Rochester Social Comparison Record. Analysis using Hierarchical Linear Modeling shows that people high in Neuroticism reported a greater increase in positive affect after comparing downward than people low on the dimension. People high in Extraversion and low in Agreeableness compared downward more. People high in Openness compared upward more and reported less of a decrease in positive affect after making these comparisons. Findings are discussed in relation to downward comparison theory, the selective-priming model, and the attributes of the five personality dimensions. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Olson, B. D. and J. Suls (2000). "Self-, other-, and ideal-judgments of risk and caution as a function of the five-factor model of personality." Personality & Individual Differences 28(3): 425-436.
It was predicted that four "Big Five" personality dimensions--Openness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness--would be related to Ss' responses to decisions in risky and cautious situations. 305 students completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. They then made self-, other-, and ideal-judgments on risky and cautious dilemmas. People high in Openness made more extreme self- and ideal-judgments on risky dilemmas. People high in Agreeableness made more extreme, socially valued judgments across risky and cautious dilemmas. People high in Conscientiousness made more extreme ideal judgments on cautious dilemmas. People high in Neuroticism made more extreme ideal-judgments on risky dilemmas. These findings suggest that personality influences people's perceptions of risk and caution. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Osborn, L. A. (2000). "Three modes of psychodynamic psychotherapy intervention and the perception of empathy and the therapeutic relationship." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(8-B): 4243.
This study attempted to determine the differential perceptions of empathy and the quality of the therapeutic relationship using the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory among three psychodynamically-based therapeutic interventions. An experimental control-group posttest only design was used. The study controlled for the personality characteristics of the subjects as measured by the NEO-FFI and non-specific characteristics of the interviewers. Subjects in this study were 61 female undergraduates from a major metropolitan university. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 43 years. The average age of the subjects was 24.3 years. Analyses of Covariance were performed to test the hypotheses generated. Results showed that there were no significant differences among interventions as measured by Empathy and total Relationship ratings on the BLRI. However, the personality characteristic of Agreeableness was found to contribute significantly to overall Relationship scores with (p =.004). Post-hoc analyses showed differences in the perception of the experimental interventions when other sub-scales of the BLRI were used. In addition, certain statements on the BLRI indicated significant differences in the perception of the experimental intervention. No significant differences were found in the perception of the interviewers. Despite the non-confirmation of the hypotheses in the study, perceived empathy's importance in the therapeutic encounter was maintained. The most significant find from the study was the relationship between the personality characteristic of Agreeableness and total BLRI relationship scores. These findings have implications for the further study of therapeutic effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Ozone, S. J. (1998). "The relationship between holland's theory of vocational interest and the five factor model of personality." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: the Sciences & Engineering 58(7-B): 3962.

Parker, W. D. (1997). "An empirical typology of perfectionism in academically talented children." American Educational Research Journal 34(3): 545-562.
Conducted a cluster analysis of the perfectionism scores of academically talented children to determine if there are different types of perfectionism within a sample of academically talented students and, if so, whether some types are more healthy than others. A nationally gathered sample of 820 academically talented 6th graders at the Center for Talented Youth of Johns Hopkins University took the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and scores were cluster analyzed using both hierarchical and nonhierarchical cluster analysis with cross-validation. A 3-cluster solution was indicated. Students also took the Adjective Check List, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Brief Symptom Inventory to determine characteristics of cluster membership. Results indicated that the cluster groups comprised a nonperfectionistic type (32.8%), a healthy perfectionistic type (41.7%), and a dysfunctional perfectionistic type (25.5%). Parent perceptions of the children were consistent with the students' self-perceptions. The construct of perfectionism was primarily associated with conscientiousness and secondarily with agreeableness and neurosis. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Parker, W. D. and H. Stumpf (1998). "A validation of the five-factor model of personality in academically talented youth across observers and instruments." Personality & Individual Differences 25(6): 1005-1025.
Four instruments, the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Adjective Check List (ACL), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the California Child Q-Set (CCQ), and two data sources, self reports and parental ratings, were used to assess personality dimensions according to the five-factor model of personality in 870 academically talented youth (mean age 13.77 yrs). Data from the parents of 565 of these children were also analysed. The factor structure of the self and parent reports, the convergence between the two sources of reports, and the correlations of the adjectives in the ACL with the scores on the NEO-FFI were all consistent with previous results (R. R. Holden and G. C. Fekken, 1994) obtained from adults. The findings largely support the notion that the five-factor model as derived from data from adults is applicable to academically talented youth. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Parker, W. D. (1998). "Birth-order effects in the academically talented." Gifted Child Quarterly 42(1): 29-38.
Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented 6th grade students from a national sample collected by the Institute for the Academic Advancement of Youth of Johns Hopkins University. When compared to 1990 US Census Bureau data, the sample was disproportionately composed of first-born students. However, much of this birth order effect can be explained by the covariate of family size, with small families over-represented among the gifted. First-born students tended to get higher verbal scores on the Secondary School Admissions Test while youngest-born tended to do better in math. Students were administered the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Adjective Check List, the NEO Five Factor Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Except for a mild relationship between birth order and perfectionistic type, there was no relationship found between birth-order position and personality and adjustment. It is believed that often reported birth-order position effects are strongly related to the covariance of family size. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pascual-Leone, J. (1997). "Divergent validity and the measurement of processing capacity." International Journal of Behavioral Development 20(4): 735-738.
Disagrees with the epistemological presuppositions of S. Pulos' (see record 84-29817) identification of factors associated with neo-Piagetian measures of processing capacity while reanalyzing 2 studies (R. Case and T. Globerson, 1974; and S. Morra, 1994). The author states that the existence of other more concrete (group factor) similarities, or differences, among the reanalyzed tests is no argument against using the originally presented procedure. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pascual-Leone, J. and R. R. Irwin (1998). Abstraction, the will, the self, and modes of learning in adulthood. Adult learning and development: Perspectives from educational psychology. M. C. Smith, T. Pourchot and et al. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 35-66.
book: Incorporating ideas from Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theories into life-span developmental concepts regarding the nature of adult learning, the authors describe a process-analytic account of consciousness, cognition, and personal factors that interact to determine learning. Two basic forms of learning are described: high-road and low-road learning, each having multiple aspects and all unfolding along 3 dimensions of variation (or, more concretely, mechanisms of learning). These dimensions are constructive, reductive, and causal abstraction. Two noncognitive variables also operate to affect adult learning: hardware operators and personal factors. According to the authors, particular modes of abstraction are called into play for given learning tasks. Different methods of instruction in adult learning place different demands on these modes of abstraction. The authors classify 6 methods of instruction and learning and, thereby, offer some guidance for designing instructional methods for adult learners in particular learning situations. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pascual-Leone, J. and J. Johnson (1999). A dialectical constructivist view of representation: Role of mental attention, executives, and symbols. Development of mental representation: Theories and applications. I. E. Sigel and et al. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 169-200.
chapter: Current theories of representation must be contrasted with that of Piaget, whose work synthesizes the classic view. Thus, we begin by summarizing in a number of "P" points Piaget's theory of representation. In a parallel series of "DC" points, we then summarize our dialectical constructivist correction to Piaget's theory. Next, we present a summary of our theory (theory of constructive operators), and finally, illustrate the application of this theory by task analyzing four representational tasks studied by other researchers. /// To evaluate the predictive power of our theoretical model, examples of representational tasks were chosen to cover a wide range of neo-Piagetian sensorimotor stages and a wide range of semantic contents. In each case, our theory-based task analyses accounted for developmental landmarks and showed habitual schemes or other factors that make these situations misleading for the child. Because they are misleading, mental attention is needed to bring about the truly novel dynamic syntheses of performance that each task exhibits in the child when it is solved for the first time. This detailed demonstration of how mental attention participates in the genesis of representations is a contribution of our theory. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pascual-Leone, J. (2000). "Is the French connection Neo-Piagetian? Not nearly enough!" Child Development 71(4): 843-845.
Comments on the article by S. Larivee, et al (see record 2000-02736-001) which reviews the contributions of French-speaking reasearchers to the field of differential developmental psychology. Pascual-Leone discusses some general causal assumptions of current neo-Piagetian research and compares them with those of French European developmentalists. Developmental theory problems for the millennium are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Paunonen, S. V. (1998). "Hierarchical organization of personality and prediction of behavior." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 74(2): 538-556.
Two studies evaluated personality trait measures and Big Five factor measures for their accuracy in predicting important behavior criteria. The results of both studies showed that the narrower traits and the broader factors, thought to define 2 levels of a hierarchy of personality variables, separately predicted most criterion variables. However, the incremental validity of the personality trait measures (the degree to which the traits increased the criterion prediction achieved by the factors) was generally much larger than the incremental validity of the Big Five factor measures. It was concluded that aggregating personality traits into their underlying personality factors could result in decreased predictive accuracy due to the loss of trait-specific but criterion-valid variance. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pearce, J. L., G. A. Bigley, et al. (1998). "Procedural justice as modernism: Placing industrial/organisational psychology in context." Applied Psychology: An International Review 47(3): 371-396.
A particularly ethnocentric theory--procedural justice--is placed within a larger theoretical context drawn from theories of comparative institutions. All of the hypotheses (tested in a sample of 1,604 engineers and managers in Lithuanian and American electronics companies) were supported: (a) Employees in the "neo-traditional" political economy perceived their organisations as significantly (and substantially) less meritocratic than did their peers in the "modern" political economy. (b) The relationship between political economy and employee perceptions of procedural justice was mediated by the organisation's use of meritocratic practices. (c) Procedural justice was associated with employee organisational commitment and coworker trust, even when controlling for political economy. By placing procedural justice into its societal context, insight was gained into its role in fostering peer trust and its value to employees even in those organisations where it is unexpected. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pedersen, N. L. and C. A. Reynolds (1998). "Stability and change in adult personality: Genetic and environmental components." European Journal of Personality 12(5): 365-386.
Examined longitudinal stability and change in the sources of variation in personality in the latter half of the life-span using a twin/adoption design with up to 4 times of measurement. The following features are presented: (1) cohort-sequential descriptions of mean change and rate of change; (2) combined factor simplex models of phenotypic stability and change; and (3) evaluations of genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change. 821 twins (mean age 60.15 yrs) who responded to 1 or more questionnaire mailings completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Openness to Experience Scale of the NEO-Personality Inventory. The substantial mean-level stability observed across age, time, and cohort for all 3 personality traits is supportive of previous findings, although some cohort-by-time interactions suggest that there may be some effects of terminal decline. Across traits, familial similarity was due primarily to genetic influences with very little indication of shared or correlated environmental contributions. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Persson, M. L., D. Wasserman, et al. (2000). "Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers." European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience 250(4): 203-206.
Investigated the relationship between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking. 142 men (mean age 39.3 yrs) and 114 women (mean age 43 yrs) were analysed. Venous blood from all individuals was collected and extraversion was assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory. Results did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the DRD4 polymorphism. Although the negative result for the DRD4 polymorphism was obtained, it does not rule out the possible influence of dopaminergic mechanisms in Novelty and Excitement-Seeking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Persson, M.-L., D. Wasserman, et al. (2000). "Search for the influence of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TCAT)-super(n ) repeat polymorphism on personality traits." Psychiatry Research 95(1): 1-8.
A putatively functional tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH) has been investigated with regard to different aspects of psychopathology. The authors investigated whether reported associations of this TH polymorphism may reflect associations with common personality traits. Personality was assessed by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised version (NEO PI-R), in 205 healthy volunteers. Tendencies for higher scores in the neuroticism (N) facets, Angry hostility and Vulnerability, were observed among carriers of one of the alleles (T8). Healthy women with the T6/T10 genotype had significantly higher scores in the Deliberation and Dutifulness facets (the Conscientiousness dimension, C) and lower scores in the Feelings facet (the Openness dimension, 0). It is concluded that: (1) higher mean scores in the Neuroticism facets among T8 allele carriers are consistent with previous data and warrants further research; (2) the T6/T10 genotype may influence personality among women; (3) these data should be cautiously interpreted in the absence of corroborating data. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Peterson, D. B. (2000). "Clinical problem solving in micro-case management: Computer-assisted instruction for information-gathering strategies in rehabilitation counseling." Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 43(2): 84-96.
An updated and expanded version of N. L. Berven and M. E. Scofield's (1980) computer simulation of a clinical scenario in rehabilitation counseling was administered to 65 graduate students (mean age 27.29 yrs) in rehabilitation counseling and 30 rehabilitation counseling professionals (criterion group; aged 26-57 yrs). It was hypothesized that, based on criterion group performance, problem-solving approaches similar to those manifested in prior medicine and rehabilitation counseling micro-case management research would emerge from the sample of graduate students. The influence of enduring personality traits on problem-solving approaches was also explored by administering the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Repertory Grid Test to the student sample. Cluster analysis of simulation results identified 4 homogenous groups of graduate students, indicating 4 different problem-solving approaches: thorough and discriminating, shotgun, constricted, and random. No significant relationships were demonstrated for the influence of affective characteristics on clinical problem-solving behavior. The results support the continued use and development of computerized simulations of rehabilitation counseling scenarios to identify problem-solving approaches in rehabilitation counselor education. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Phillips, K. A. and S. L. McElroy (2000). "Personality disorders and traits in patients with body dysmorphic disorder." Comprehensive Psychiatry 41(4): 229-236.
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic, and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD are limited. This study assessed 148 Ss (aged 18-80 yrs) with BDD, 26 of whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 Ss were assessed for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) Personality Disorders, 100 Ss completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 Ss completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. 42 Ss (57%) had 1 or more personality disorders, with avoidant personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent (15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness, the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean score was -17.1 +- 32.0 for women and -17.0 +- 32.3 for men. Among fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Piedmont, R. L. and J.-H. Chae (1997). "Cross-cultural generalizability of the five-factor model of personality: Development and validation of the NEO PI-R for Koreans." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 28(2): 131-155.
Examines the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO Pl--R), and demonstrated the utility of the 5-factor model of personality in the Korean culture. Study 1 involved 645 Korean nationals (mean age 34 yrs) and documented the reliability and structural validity of the Korean translation. Correlations with the Korean version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Impostor Phenomenon Scale (P. R. Clance and S. A. Ames, 1978) provided preliminary validity evidence. Study 2 included 116 17-61 yr old bilingual Korean expatriates living in the US. Ss took both the Korean and English versions of the NEO Pl--R. Results document the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the NEO PI--R. Results indicate that the Korean version can be considered a parallel form to its English counterpart and that the 5-factor model can generalize well to the Korean culture. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Piedmont, R. L. (1998). The revised NEO Personality Inventory: Clinical and research applications. New York, NY, Plenum Press.
preface: The purpose of this book is to introduce clinicians to a general personality measure that is most relevant for the clinical context--the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). This well-developed instrument is designed to measure the 5 major dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These constructs define what is known as the 5-factor model of personality (FFM)--a trait-based taxonomy of personality dispositions. The book shows how the FFM can provide a useful framework for conceptualizing people and for anticipating the directions in which they will move. /// Strategies are presented for using the instrument in clinical contexts. Research applications of the NEO PI-R are also discussed, and paradigms for approaching many of the most salient issues in research are provided. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Piedmont, R. L. and J. W. Ciarrocchi (1999). "The utility of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in an outpatient, drug rehabilitation context." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 13(3): 213-226.
journal abstract: This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in a mostly African American clinical sample and determined if these qualities provided useful information about their motivational characteristics that were germane to treatment. Eighty-two men and 50 women entered a 6-week outpatient drug rehabilitation program, completed the NEO-PI-R, and received counselor ratings of personality at admission. The 99 who finished the program completed a 2nd NEO-PI-R. Counselors provided ratings of treatment responsiveness. The cross-observer, cross-method, cross-time correlations indicated that the NEO-PI-R can be a useful tool for organizing clinical information about clients. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Piedmont, R. L., R. R. McCrae, et al. (2000). "On the invalidity of validity scales: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings in volunteer samples." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 78(3): 582-593.
journal abstract: Because of the potential for bias and error in questionnaire responding, many personality inventories include validity scales intended to correct biased scores or identify invalid protocols. The authors evaluated the utility of several types of validity scales in a volunteer sample of 72 men and 106 women who completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1978/1982) and were rated by 2 acquaintances on the observer form of the NEO-PI-R. Analyses indicated that the validity indexes lacked utility in this sample. A partial replication (N = 1,728) also failed to find consistent support for the use of validity scales. The authors illustrate the use of informant ratings in assessing protocol validity and argue that psychological assessors should limit their use of validity scales and seek instead to improve the quality of personality assessments. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Podar, I., A. Hannus, et al. (1999). "Personality and affectivity characteristics associated with eating disorders: A comparison of eating disordered, weight-preoccupied, and normal samples." Journal of Personality Assessment 73(1): 133-147.
Assessed the relative contribution of personality and emotional experience to self-reported eating attitudes among 29 female patients (aged 16-43 yrs) with clinically diagnosed eating disorders, 41 females (aged 15-42 yrs) in a weight-reduction training group (Weight Watchers(R)), and a control group of 44 females (aged 15-45 yrs) without body weight problems. Ss completed Estonian versions of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the NEO Personality Inventory, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, Expanded Form. Data demonstrated the validity of the Estonian version of EDI-2 in its ability to identify problems on a continuum of disordered eating behavior. Among the Big Five personality dimensions, Neuroticism made the largest contribution to EDI-2 subscales. Two other dimensions, Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness, were also found to predispose individuals to eating problems. Personality traits made a larger contribution to the self-reported eating pathology than the self-rated effects experienced during the last few weeks. It is argued that personality dispositions have a larger relevancy in the etiology of eating disorders than emotional state. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Polak, H. E. (1999). "The Five-Factor Model and personnel selection: Frame of reference effects." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(3-B): 1312.
The purpose of this study was to explore the use of personality measures in personnel selection decisions. Specifically, scores on personality tests are influenced by non-personality factors related to the response set adopted by the applicant. The effect of job knowledge on scale scores of the NEO-PI-R was examined using a 2 x 2 between groups design, by manipulating the respondent's frame of reference. In the present study frame of reference was defined as job knowledge and was controlled by providing the subjects with one of two job descriptions (accountant and occupational therapist) as well as by controlling the level of detail for each description (detailed and general). Subjects were 120 introductory psychology and introductory social psychology students from Rutgers University, Camden campus. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment conditions and each completed the NEO-PI-R and a Job Knowledge Checklist after reading the job description and instructions. The results demonstrate that the manipulation was successful. Subjects who read the detailed job description knew more about accounting or occupational therapy than those who had read the general description. The results failed to demonstrate the expected differences among subjects' profile scores on the NEO-PI-R. A significant interaction effect was expected, demonstrating differences between the accountant and occupational therapist conditions moderated by the description level. Main effects for job and description conditions were expected, but not found. Additionally, differences were predicted between the accountant and occupational therapist conditions on specific NEO-PI-R scales, but again were not found. Possible explanations for failing to find the expected results are a lack of adequate power to find a small or moderate effect, subjects' failure to understand the instructions, and a lack of an interview 'reality' in the experimental context. Future research should focus on increasing power, clarifying the effect size, and it's practical importance. Future research should also focus on increasing the 'reality' of the testing context. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Poole, S. J. (1999). "Cross-cultural generalizability of personality types and their relationship to the Five-Factor model." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(4-B): 1903.
The study explored the generalizability of personality types across culture and gender and their configuration of Five-Factor personality traits. Indigenous types were derived and compared in Philippine and United States samples and assessed as to their fit with Block and Block's (1980) typology based on dimensions of ego resilience and control. To expand beyond the use of the Q-sort method to derive types, the study used questionnaire and trait adjective approaches. The study used three sets of data in deriving the types. In the first, a measure consisting of 520 trait adjective items was completed by 333 male and 407 female Filipino college students (Church, Katigbak, Reyes, & Grimm, 1997). In the second, a 288 item questionnaire and the NEO-PI were completed by 263 male and 273 female Filipino college students (Katigbak, Church, & Akamine, 1996). In the last set, the same questionnaire and the NEO-PI were completed by 207 male and 430 female U.S. college students (Church & Burke, 1994). Inverse factor analysis was used to derive the types and MANOVAs were performed on the Big 5 Adjective/NEO-PI scales to assess the influence of type membership, gender, and culture. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to evaluate the content of the types and to make comparisons across samples. Interpretable 3-factor solutions were found for all samples. These types were comparable to each other, except for the Philippine males in the questionnaire sample, who demonstrated two somewhat unique types. The types were found to be comparable to Block and Block's (1980) resilient overcontroller, brittle undercontroller, and brittle overcontroller types, though the U.S. male sample demonstrated a resilient undercontroller, rather than overcontroller, type. These types were found to have unique Five-Factor Model configurations that supported the interpretation of the types. Additionally, subtle differences emerged in the types due to gender and culture. The nature of those differences was discussed in the context of gender and culture differences in personality. It was concluded that typological research will continue to augment the contributions of trait research in the understanding of personality. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Porath, M. and P. K. Arlin (1997). "Developmental approaches to artistic giftedness." Creativity Research Journal 10(2-3): 241-250.
Considered 2 studies done from constructivist perspectives for their complementarity in understanding the development of gifted young artists. Study 1 used R. Case's (1992) neo-Piagetian theory as a framework and investigated the developmental progression in ability to represent spatial relations in children (aged 4, 6, 8, and 10 yrs). Children identified as gifted demonstrated some advancement in their use of perspective but were distinguished primarily by their elaborate and novel representations of space. An age related progression in acquisition of ability to render perspective supports a general factor in development, whereas abilities unique to the artistic domain support the relevance of including domain-specific characteristics in developmental models of giftedness. Study 2 was done primarily from a structuralist perspective but also incorporated a postformal perspective on the problem-finding and problem-solving behaviors of young artists (aged 13-18 yrs). There was support for age-related domain-general aspects of thought with discipline-specific skills in making multiple comparisons in proportional relations and coordinating multiple perspectives. This finding may be an extension of young children's intrastage elaboration of the spatial structures available to them. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Porath, M. (1997). "A developmental model of artistic giftedness in middle childhood." Journal for the Education of the Gifted 20(3): 201-223.
journal abstract: Artistic giftedness in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds was investigated from a neo-Piagetian perspective, which articulates the increasingly complex structures for representing spatial relations in drawing during middle childhood. Composition, color use, and competence in human-figure drawing also were studied. Gifted young artists structured the spatial relations in their drawings, composed their drawings, and used color in a fashion similar to average children. However, they often used these variables in a flexible way, resulting in distinctive drawings. Their drawings were distinguished by graphic competence and the degree of elaboration in their human figures, skills that appear to be less constrained by developmental factors. Artistic giftedness may be demonstrated by the flexible and elaborate way in which gifted young artists use their structural capabilities and by their advanced mastery of specific artistic skills. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Porter, S., A. R. Birt, et al. (2000). "Negotiating false memories: Interviewer and rememberer characteristics relate to memory distortion." Psychological Science 11(6): 507-510.
Examined the hypothesis that memory distortion is related to characteristics of interviewers and rememberers. The relations between susceptibility to memory distortion and (a) dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale; E. M. Berstein and F. W. Putnam, 1986) and (b) personality traits (NEO-Five Factor Inventory; P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1985) were investigated using 50 participants and 7 interviewers. Results indicated that participants who exhibited memory distortion scored significantly higher on the dissociative scale than their counterparts who did not exhibit memory distortion. Further, susceptibility to memory distortion was associated with higher extraversion scores in interviewers and lower extraversion scores in participants. It is concluded that this pattern of findings suggests that false memories may derive from a social negotiation between particular interviewers and rememberers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Potocky, M. (1997). "Multicultural social work in the United States: A review and critique." International Social Work 40(3): 315-326.
This paper traces the history of multicultural social work in the US, from early assimilation approaches in work with immigrants, to the present-day emphasis on culturally sensitive practice. It is argued that the current model has limitations in the face of rising racism and neo-assimilation ideology. The model should be expanded to target racism, prejudice, and ethnocentrism among all members of society. The national and international implications of such an expanded model are discussed. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Preston, L. A. D. (1999). "Psychopathy and its associations to the Five Factor Model of Normal Personality." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(3-B): 1312.
The relationship between the Five Factor Model of Normal Personality and psychopathy was examined in a sample of 56 college males, 41 minimum security male inmates, and 33 maximum security male inmates. The Five Factor Model was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, while psychopathy was assessed with the PPI, a new personality-based self-report measure of psychopathy. Total PPI scores were inversely associated with the NEO factors of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and positively associated with Extraversion and Neuroticism. A principal components analysis of the five NEO factors and eight PPI subscales resulted in a five-factor solution which accounted for 72% of the variance. Only three of the NEO factors emerged as salient markers for interpreting the PPI subscales: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. The study also examined how psychopathy and normal personality traits relate to history of violent behavior, and more specifically instrumental violence (e.g. purposeful aggression engaged in for personal gain) and reactive violence (e.g. violence in response to an intense emotional state such as anger). Regression analysis indicated that the PPI subscale of Coldheartedness was the only significant predictor of total number of violence convictions. However, it was not a significant predictor of either instrumental or reactive violence. None of the higher-order NEO factors were significantly predictive of total number of violence convictions. For the student sample, regression analyses indicated that total PPI scores were significantly predictive of Total Self-Report Violence Scores, Reactive Violence Scores, and Instrumental Violence Scores. The NEO factor of Agreeableness was inversely associated with Total Self-Report Violence Scores, Instrumental Violence Scores, and Reactive Violence Scores. The NEO factor of Conscientiousness was inversely associated with Total Self-Report Violence Scores and Instrumental Violence Scores. Clinical applications of the findings were also discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pullmann, H. and J. Allik (2000). "The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Its dimensionality, stability and personality correlates in Estonian." Personality & Individual Differences 28(4): 701-715.
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was adapted to the Estonian language. The developed Estonian version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (ERSES) was identical to the original construct measuring a person's overall evaluation of his or her worthiness as a human being. Ss were 197 college students and 419 other Ss (mean age 34.8 yrs). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that global self-esteem (SE) can be best represented as a single dimension. The temporal stability of the ERSES was very similar to the original version showing an exponential decay over time. Like previous reports, people with high SE tended to get similar scores and people with low SE got divergent total SE scores on 2 subsequent occasions. A joint factor analysis of the ERSES and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) scales led to a 5-factor structure which replicated the normative North-American structure, SE loading significantly only on the Neuroticism factor. The pattern of correlations between the ERSES and the Five-Factor model of personality dimensions was very similar to that obtained in other countries. The correlations between the ERSES and 2 other personality measures also supported cross-cultural generalizability of the relationships between personality and SE. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pulos, S. (1997). "Construct validity and measures of processing capacity: A response." International Journal of Behavioral Development 20(4): 743-745.
Comments on responses by J. Pascual-Leone (see record 84-29918) and S. Morra and A. Scopesi (see record 84-29901) to the author's reanalysis of 2 studies of neo-Piagetian processing capacity measurement (see record 84-29817). The author states that the prime focus of his original paper was the measurement of processing capacity and not the theoretical nature of the construct and maintains that it is still necessary to establish the divergent validity of processing capacity measures while attempting to establish their construct validity. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pulos, S. (1997). "Divergent validity and the measurement of processing capacity." International Journal of Behavioral Development 20(4): 731-734.
journal abstract: This study examines the divergent validity of the neo-Piagetian measures of processing capacity by reanalyzing two factor-analytic studies of processing capacity (R. Case and T. Globerson, 1974; S. Morra, 1994). The reanalyses found that the assumption of orthogonal, independent, factors used in the studies was not warranted. Rather, it appears that although processing capacity tasks do fall on one factor, this factor is highly related to a factor traditionally identified as fluid/spatial intelligence. Implications for neo-Piagetian theory and research are discussed. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Pychyl, T. A. and B. R. Little (1998). "Dimensional specificity in the prediction of subjective well-being: Personal projects in pursuit of the PhD." Social Indicators Research 45(1-3): 423-473.
Research on personal goals in relation to subjective well-being (SWB) typically involves appraisals of these goals on a number of appraisal dimensions. In this study, the authors examined how dimensional specificity affects predictions of SWB. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 19 doctoral candidates were interviewed with respect to their personal projects. Using a grounded-theory approach to the interview transcripts, 11 context-specific dimensions were identified: time pressure, time conflict, procrastination, anxiety, guilt, financial stress, uncertainty, social support, passion, commitment and positive effects on mood. These dimensions were then used in a second study of 81 doctoral students who completed a questionnaire package including: Personal Projects Analysis (PPA), the NEO Personality Inventory, and SWB measures. Regression analyses revealed that the context-specific PPA dimensions identified in Study 1 accounted for unique variance in perceptions of life satisfaction and provided a more detailed perspective on doctoral students' stress and coping resources. The results of the two studies are discussed in terms of the Personal Action Constructs now being used in studies of the conative aspects of well-being. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Quiniou-Pizzoglio, Y. (1998). "L'operatoire, une impasse de la reanimation neo- natale? Operativity, an impasse of neonatal resuscitation?" Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse 62(5): 1667-1673.
Describes the impressions of a psychoanalyst participating in the postnatal resuscitation of premature babies, which, according to the author, might be said to represent a model of "operative" management. The resuscitation in question is performed by machine with unforeseeable results. Clinical material exemplifying possible outcomes of this intervention, where the inchoate emotional life of the small human being the hospital team is trying to save, and operative states, are separated by a fragile border. When the resuscitation is successful, it accomplishes the passage from a traumatic state to a vital process. This process is fraught with intense emotions from which the analyst protects him-/herself by resorting to the objectivity of his/her medical training, especially in interacting with the infant's parents. The analyst is just as exposed to these situational traumatic states as the other members of the "resuscitation" team. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Quinodoz, D. (1998). "A fe/male transsexual patients in psychoanalysis." International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 79(1): 95-111.
Describes the analysis of a transsexual who had undergone a vaginoplasty as a young man and has since been living as a woman. The complexity of the psychic reality is epitomized by the analyst's difficulty in deciding whether to use masculine or feminine grammatical forms to refer to this patient. The author tells how she assumed the fantasy role of the parents expecting a baby whose sex they did not yet know. She discusses at length her hesitation about accepting a transsexual patient into analysis and reports how she overcame her misgivings after analyzing her own countertransference and consulting the literature. Noting that this borderline analysand resorted to both psychotic and neurotic mechanisms, the analyst decided to rely on the capacity for symbolization and mental representation evinced in the latter. On the psychotic level, the delusional neo-reality of the appearance of a woman sought to replace the unbearable reality of being a man, whereas the neurotic part was aware that s/he could never really be a woman. The author observed that in this analysand sexualization served to conceal a fundamental narcissistic fault. She also describes how she worked with her own madness to help the patient emerge fro a situation of paradoxical fusion with the mother in madness. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Quirk, S. W. and R. A. McCormick (1998). "Personality subtypes, coping styles, symptom correlates, and substances of choice among a cohort of substance abusers." Assessment 5(2): 157-169.
Investigated the usefulness of the Five-Factor personality domains measured by the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) in identifying subtypes among a cohort of 3,256 adult males admitted for substance abuse. Three groups were reliably identified across clustering methods and the groups differed in reported coping style, psychopathological symptoms, and pattern of substance choice. The largest differences between group members' personality dimensions were found for measures of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Members of groups characterized by elevated levels of neuroticism demonstrated low levels of conscientiousness and agreeableness. The more extreme the group members' levels on these personality dimensions, the higher their reported levels of depressive symptoms, aggressive/hostile cognitions, impulsiveness, maladaptive coping styles, and likelihood of abusing more than one substance. Results support the use of measures of normal domains of personality in identifying meaningful subtypes of substance abusers. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ramanaiah, N. V., J. P. Sharpe, et al. (1997). "Type A behavior and the five-factor model of personality." Psychological Reports 81(2): 368-370.
The hypothesis that people classified as Type A and Type B have different personality profiles based on 5 major personality factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) was tested using the Student Jenkins Activity Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Results based on discriminant function analysis of data from 243 psychology undergraduates (105 males and 138 females) strongly supported the hypothesis indicating that Type A and Type B groups have significantly different Revised NEO Personality Inventory profiles and that the standardized discriminant function coefficients were large for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness and moderately large for Extraversion. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ramanaiah, N. V., F. R. J. Detwiler, et al. (1997). "Life satisfaction and the five-factor model of personality." Psychological Reports 80(3, Pt 2): 1208-1210.
journal abstract: The hypothesis that happy and unhappy people have different personality profiles based on five personality factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) was tested using 245 undergraduates (111 men and 134 women) who completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the NEO Personality Inventory. Analysis indicated that High and Low Satisfaction groups had significantly different personality profiles, supporting the hypothesis. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ramanaiah, N. V. and J. P. Sharpe (1998). "Structure of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory personality disorder scales from the Five-Factor model perspective." Psychological Reports 83(3, Pt 1): 947-952.
Comments on the article by F. L. Coolidge et al (see record 1994-17729-001) which tested the generality and comprehensiveness of the five-factor model of personality as applied to personality disorders by performing a canonical correlation analysis for the scales from the Coolidge Axis 11 Inventory and the NEO Personality Inventory testing 178 undergraduates. The authors argue that their results did not support the generality and comprehensiveness of the five-factor model for interpreting the structure of personality disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that the results of Coolidge et al might be attributed to the failure to rotate canonical variates to obtain good simple structure. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ramanaiah, N. V., J. P. Sharpe, et al. (1999). "Hardiness and major personality factors." Psychological Reports 84(2): 497-500.
Investigated whether Hardiness is an index of mental health. 241 undergraduates (aged 18-41 yrs) completed the Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), and the Psychopathology-5 Scales (P-5). Using the individual median scores on the 3 subscales (Commitment, Control, and Challenge) of the DRS, the High Hardiness group was obtained by identifying individuals scoring above the medians on all the 3 subscales, whereas the Low Hardiness group scored consistently below the median. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the 2 groups had significantly different mean profiles on the NEO-PI and P-5. Combined discriminant function analysis revealed significantly different mean profiles for the 2 groups, and substantial differences in standard discriminant function coefficients (>.3) for the NEO-PI Openness (.65) and Conscientiousness (.49) scales and the P-5 Positive Emotionality (.56) and Psychoticism (-.36) scales. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ranseen, J. D., D. A. Campbell, et al. (1998). "NEO PI-R profiles of adults with attention deficit disorder." Assessment 5(1): 19-24.
journal abstract: The personality functioning of adults diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) without comorbid psychiatric illness was examined. NEO PI-R profiles in a group of 25 adults referred for ADD evaluation meeting criteria for this diagnosis without any history of other psychiatric disturbance were compared to profiles from a control group of 23 nonpsychotic adult outpatients being treated with psychotherapy. All participants completed self-report measures of ADD symptoms as well as the NEO PI-R (Form S). The ADD adult group obtained significantly higher scores in the Neuroticism domain and significantly lower scores in the Conscientiousness domain than the outpatient comparison group. The NEO PI-R appears useful to the understanding of ADD in adulthood. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rao, D., E. G. Joensson, et al. (1999). ""Schizophrenia and the serotonin transporter gene": Erratum." Psychiatric Genetics 9(1): 51.
Reports an error in the original article by D. Rao et al (Psychiatric Genetics, 1998[Win], Vol 8(4), 207-212). On page 207 in the introduction, the sentence "Association between alleles at 5-HTTLPR...with anxiety-related traits...have been suggested (Lesch et al., 1996)...(but) could not be replicated (Ebstein et al., 1997)" should read "The study by Ebstein et al. (1997) is not a strict replication of the study by Lesch et al. (1996) due to the different personality scales used (Lesch et al.: the NEO and the Catell 16PF, Ebstein et al.: Cloninger's TPQ). (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1998-03397-002.) A case control study was conducted among cases with Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) scizophrenia and screened adult controls from 3 cohorts (US Caucasians: 80 cases and 37 controls; US African-Americans: 47 cases and 37 controls; and Swedish Caucasians: 122 cases and 99 controls). Bi-Allelic polymorphisms in the promotor region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) were examined in conjunction with those of the serotonin 5-HT2a receptor (HTR2). No significant association with 5-HTT was detected among US Caucasians, African-Americans or Caucasians from Sweden. However, survival analysis suggested an association with the age at onset among the Swedish cases. The association should be considered tentative as it was not evident in the smaller US samples. The following exploratory analysis among the US samples were also not significant: associations . . . (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Ravindran, A. V., L. N. Yatham, et al. (1999). "Paraphrenia redefined." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 44(2): 133-137.
Paraphrenia is a disorder similar to paranoid schizophrenia but with better-preserved affect and rapport and much less personality deterioration. It is not listed in Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). In this article, the authors distinguish paraphrenia from "late paraphrenia," a diagnosis used mainly in the United Kingdom, and provide a neo-Kraepelinian description of paraphrenia that would be compatible with the formats of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Using a questionnaire adapted from this description, intake cases in 2 Canadian psychiatric centres were surveyed. Cases of paraphrenia were distinguished from those of schizophrenia and delusional disorder and were examined at the time of intake and immediately prior to discharge. During an 18-mo period, investigators in both centres identified 33 cases closely fitting paraphrenia. The outstanding features of these cases are enumerated, and an outline description of paraphrenia is derived. The authors conclude that it is possible to define and recognize paraphrenia and that it is a viable diagnostic entity. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rawlings, D. and V. Ciancarelli (1997). "Music preference and the five-factor model of the NEO Personality Inventory." Psychology of Music 25(2): 120-132.
150 college students completed an updated version of the Music Preference Scale (P. Litle and M. Zuckerman, 1986) and a revised NEO Personality Inventory. Factor analysis identified 3 patterns of preference associated with liking for most types of Rock Music, general Breadth of Musical Preference, and liking for Popular Music (such as easy listening). The 3 factors were employed as dependent variables in canonical correlations to examine relationships with personality. Results show most relationships with music preference involved the personality measures extraversion and openness. Extroverts obtained high scores on the Popular Music factor. Open individuals liked a wide range of music types. It was also found that females liked popular music styles more than did males. Particular personality facets were examined, as were the effects of musical training and interest. This research extends previous investigations relating preference and personality. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rawlings, D., F. Twomey, et al. (1998). "Personality, creativity and aesthetic preference: Comparing psychoticism, sensation seeking, schizotypy and openness to experience." Empirical Studies of the Arts 16(2): 153-178.
Examined the relationship between measures of creativity and aesthetic preference and established personality scales in 3 studies involving 308 college students. Study 1 derived indices of fluency, originality, and preference for complexity and Meaningfulness using random polygons varying in complexity; the scales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised), a schizotypal personality scale, and the Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (see record 64:08099) were the personality measures. Study 2 added Openness to Experience from the NEO Personality Inventory (Revised) to the personality measures; factors derived from a music preference Scale were added to the creativity/preference set. Study 3 replaced the polygons used in Study 2 with 2 creativity tests, and added a word association task. Results suggest a substantial relationship between sensation-seeking, openness, and psychoticism, and a creativity/preference set particularly represented by preference for complexity, dislike of soft popular music, and originality or number of divergent thinking responses. Subscale analyses implicate willingness to question conventional values as a major component of the creative personality. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rawlings, D. (2000). "The interaction of openness to experience and schizotypy in predicting preference for abstract and violent paintings." Empirical Studies of the Arts 18(1): 69-91.
Examined the relationship between schizotypy and aesthetic preferences. In Exp 1, 48 undergraduate psychology students (mean age 20.27 yrs) completed an abbreviated version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O. Mason et al, 1995) (O-Life) and the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (G. S. Welsh, 1987). They also rated their liking of 62 paintings categorized as violent, erotic, religious, complex, simple, structured, photographic, abstract, and realistic. Results show a correlation between the schizotypy measure of Impulsive Nonconformity and preference for paintings in the violent category. In Exp 2, 62 students (mean age 20.39 yrs) completed the O-Life and subscales of the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1994), then rated paintings. Results show that openness was associated with liking for abstract over realistic paintings. After controlling for openness, preference for violent, abstract paintings was positively associated with schizotypy measures of unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity and negatively associated with introvertive anhedonia. Preference for erotic, abstract paintings was also associated negatively with introvertive anhedonia. Findings suggest that aesthetic context leads to a dissociation of negatively emotional information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Ray, L. (1997). "Post-communism: Postmodernity or modernity revisited?" British Journal of Sociology 48(4): 543-560.
Coinciding with the popularity of postmodern theory, the fall of communism appeared to offer further evidence of the exhaustion of modernity. Such analysis is grounded in a view that the Soviet system was the epitome of modernity. An alternative approach regards post-communism as opening new terrains of struggle for modernity. Thus J. Habermas and others suggest that post-communist societies are rejoining the trajectory of western modernity whose problems they now recapitulate. This alternative view implies that Soviet systems were something other than modern, although their nature is not always clearly defined. However, even if post-communist societies do encounter problems of modernity, they do so in new circumstances where modernist notions of social development have become problematic. This article argues that, contrary to those who regard modernization or postmodernization as irresistible trends, core post-communist societies are likely to develop along an alternative path to that of western modernity. This is tentatively described as neo-mercantilist. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ray, C. L. (1998). "The influence of time assessment and personality on the working alliance in career counseling." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(3-B): 1378.
The current research examined whether timing of career assessment affects the working alliance in career counseling and if personality variables influence the degree to which timing issues affect this working relationship. Relevant literature supports the idea that in career assessment, timing issues may have an important effect on the working alliance and that the five-factor personality variables of extroversion and neuroticism may moderate this effect. A sample of 63 undergraduate volunteers participated in two structured career counseling sessions, one of which included administration of the Strong Interest Inventory. All participants filled out the NEO-FII and demographic information. Half of the participants were administered the Strong in their first session, and half were administered a career counseling interview in their first session. Questionnaires to assess the working alliance were completed by participants after each session. Masters and doctoral-level students in counseling psychology were oriented to the research procedures. The counselors were informed that they were expected to meet with participants for two career counseling sessions. Working Alliance Inventory scores were found to depend upon when the Strong Interest Inventory was measured, but not in the way expected. Until the career interview was administered, working alliance scores were relatively low. These initially low working alliance ratings for individuals given the Strong in the first session, however, recovered once the interview was delivered in the second session. Exploratory analyses found that the three Working Alliance subscale scores were patterned similarly to the WAI total scores. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test whether extroversion or neuroticism moderated the relation of timing to the working alliance. Extroversion and neuroticism did not moderate this relationship, but extroversion alone did predict working alliance ratings. Higher levels of extroversion were associated with higher working alliance scores. Levels of agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness also did not significantly impact the relationship between timing of administration of the Strong and the working alliance. Higher agreeableness scores were associated with higher Working Alliance Inventory scores, and more conscientious individuals reported more agreement with their counselor on goals than less conscientious persons. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Realo, A. and J. Allik (1998). "The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality." Journal of Personality Assessment 70(1): 109-124.
Presents a 26-item modified scale, the Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale (ESCS), and examines the relation between the ESCS and the 5-factor model of personality. Samples of 246 undergraduate psychology students (mean age 19.4 yrs) and 438 undergraduate psychology & business students (mean age 20.8 yrs) were administered the ESCS and the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI). A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO-PI scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big 5 personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), and openness to experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between social anxiety and E, public self-consciousness and N, and private self-consciousness and O, which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported by M. Zuckerman et al (1993) for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI. It is concluded that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big 5 model of personality dimensions. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Reigle, N. E. (1997). "Predicting Alcoholics Anonymous affiliation using measures of personality factors and coping processes." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 57(10-A): 4275.
This study sought to determine the extent that personality factors and coping processes could predict alcoholics' involvement in five components of A.A. including the number of meetings attended, the frequency of contact with an A.A. sponsor, the number of close friends in A.A., the frequency of contact with close friends in A.A., and the frequency of reading A.A. literature. Many alcohol treatment programs heavily rely on the Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) philosophy and participation in A.A. after treatment for maintaining the sobriety of problem-drinkers. Research has been conducted to distinguishing who will be successful in A.A. However, a consensus has not been reached regarding the personality factors and coping processes that determine successful A.A. affiliation. A total of 125 alcohol abusing male veterans' were assessed on the dimensions of personality, coping, alcohol usage, and A.A. affiliation prior to treatment. Alcohol usage and A.A. affiliation were reported again 12 months after treatment. The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985) and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ; Folkman & Lazarus, 1988) were utilized to assess personality factors and coping processes, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were implemented to determine which personality factors and coping processes predicted the 5 component of A.A. at the 12 month follow-up and the change over time in the 5 components of A.A. The findings showed few significant results using the domain scores of the NEO-PI and 5 WCQ scales scores to predict the change in the 5 components of A.A. over time and at 12 months after treatment. Higher conscientiousness and lower positive reappraisal were predictive of having close friends in A.A., higher conscientiousneas and lower agreeableness were predictive of an increase in the number of A.A. meetings attended, lower agreeableness was predictive of an increase in contact with an A.A. sponsor, lower agreeableness and higher neuroticism were predictive of an increase in the number of close friends in A.A., and higher neuroticism was predictive of an increase in contact with close friends in A.A. Conclusions are discussed in relation to treatment and research implications. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Reise, S. P. and J. M. Henson (2000). "Computerization and adaptive administration of the NEO PI-R." Assessment 7(4): 347-364.
This study asks, how well does an item response theory (IRT) based computerized adaptive NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO PI-R) work? To explore this question, real-data simulations (N = 1,059) were used to evaluate a maximum information item selection computerized adaptive test (CAT) algorithm. Findings indicate satisfactory recovery of full-scale facet scores with the administration of around four items per facet scale. Thus, the NEO PI-R could be reduced in half with little loss in precision by CAT administration. However, results also indicated that the CAT algorithm was not necessary. We found that for many scales, administering the "best" four items per facet scale would have produced similar results. In the conclusion, we discuss the future of computerized personality assessment and describe the role IRT methods might play in such assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Rest, J., D. Narvaez, et al. (1999). "A neo-Kohlbergian approach: The DIT and schema theory." Educational Psychology Review 11(4): 291-324.
The present article is an overview of a recent book, Postconventional Moral Thinking: A Neo-Kohlbergian Approach by J. Rest et al, 1999 (see record 1999-02514-000), as well as a number of other articles. The purpose of this article is to discuss Kohlberg's ideas for the field of morality and propose a new synthesis of ideas that are valid and useful. "Macromorality" concerns the formal structure of society, as defined by institutions, rules, and roles. "Micromorality" concerns the particular face-to-face relations that people have in everyday life. Kohlbergian theories are most useful for issues of macromorality. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) derives from Kohlberg's approach but makes several departures, including defining cognitive structures in terms of schemas instead of stages, reformulating the definition of postconventional moral thinking, and using different research strategies. The validity of the DIT is based on 7 criteria (briefly discussed), and hundreds of studies have produced significant trends. Recent research derived from schema theory produces novel phenomena that link the author's theory of moral schemas more closely with information processing and decision making. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rest, J., D. Narvaez, et al. (1999). Postconventional moral thinking: A neo-Kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publishers.
cover: Although L. Kohlberg provided major ideas for psychological research on morality for decades, today some critics regard his work as outmoded, beyond repair, and too faulty for anybody to take seriously. These critics suggest that research on moral development would advance more profitably by taking a different approach. The authors propose a neo-Kohlbergian reformulation that provides a coherent theoretical overview for hundreds of studies that have used the Defining Issues Test (DIT), a methodology first employed within the standard Kohlbergian model. The book includes analysis of criticisms of the Kohlbergian approach, a rationale for DIT research, and new theoretical ideas and research. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Richardson, P. (1998). "Literacy, learning and teaching." Educational Review 50(2): 115-134.
journal abstract: By taking Australia as a case study site and with findings from the new literacy studies and new theories of learning, this paper sketches a perspective on contemporary issues in English literacy education. While research from a number of fields and disciplines advises abandonment of traditional skills-based views of literacy and literacy learning, governments with neo-conservative agendas are moving to institutionalise a model of literacy learning embodied by psychometric measures and benchmarks. Increasingly literacy, learning and teaching are being seen by governments as too important to the state and the market to be left only in the hands of teachers and literacy educators. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Richardson, S. M. (1999). "Further evidence of the partial independence of optimism and pessimism." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(6-B): 3002.
Key questions about the interpretation of the optimism and pessimism constructs hinge on whether this conceptually related pair is bipolar or partially independent. Two sets of hypotheses were tested using separate scales from the Optimism & Pessimism Instrument (OPI; Dember, Martin, Hummer, Howe, & Melton, 1989), and comparative measures from the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier & Carver, 1985). As hypothesized, optimism and pessimism demonstrated separate relationships with the domains, Neuroticism. and Extraversion, and with preselected facets from three domains of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992), including the Agreeableness facet, Trust. These analyses also suggested that the link between optimism and pessimism is connected to some aspect of the Neuroticism facet, Depression, while divergent associations with other dimensions of personality were simultaneously demonstrated. Further, the definition of dispositional optimism as generalized outcome expectancies may be narrower than the dimension actually tapped by the OPI and the LOT. Second, an effort was made to test an explanation that is consistent with the unidimensional view. This new perspective was based on the idiographic theory that individual traits apply only to a portion of the population (e.g., Allport, 1961). A ranking procedure (Zuckerman, Bernieri, Koestner, & Rosenthal, 1989) was adapted for the purpose of identifying trait-relevant and trait-irrelevant groups. Optimism and pessimism scores were significantly more extreme, and the inter-construct correlation significantly higher in the trait-relevant group. However, the proportion of self-identified pessimists was significantly higher in the trait-irrelevant group. This discovery was pursued using a two-way analysis of variance testing the differential effects of two levels of relevance, and two trait identity groups, i.e., optimists vs. pessimists. Among self-identified optimists, trait relevance moderated scores on the OPI and LOT, while trait relevance demonstrated no effect among self-identified pessimists. Finally, a test of the moderator effects was nonsignificant, suggesting that the significant interaction found in the ANOVA might have been missed had this method been used alone. Results were discussed in terms of the possibility that both intra-individual and inter-individual differences contribute to the partial independence of optimism and pessimism. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Riemann, R., A. Angleitner, et al. (1997). "Genetic and environmental influences on personality: A study of twins reared together using the self- and peer-report NEO-FFI scales." Journal of Personality 65(3): 449-475.
Measured personality constructs via self- and peer reports on the items of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The sample included 660 monozygotic and 200 same sex and 104 opposite sex dizygotic twin pairs. Participants were aged 14-80 yrs. Self- and 2 independent peer reports for each of the twins were collected. Analysis of self-report data replicates earlier findings of a substantial genetic influence on the Big Five. This influence was also found for peer reports. Results validate findings based solely on self-reports. However, estimates of genetic contributions to phenotypic variance were substantially higher when based on peer reports or self- and peer reports because these data allowed for the separation of error variance from variance due to nonshared environmental influences. Correlations between self- and peer reports reflected the same genetic influences to a much higher extent than identical environmental effects. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rinfret, N., M.-F. Levesque, et al. (2000). "Validation trans-culturelle de l'echelle Women as Managers Scale (WAMS). The cross-cultural validation of the Women as Managers Scale (WAMS)." European Review of Applied Psychology/Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee 50(1): 187-194.
Studied the validity and psychometric properties of the Women as Managers Scale (L. H. Peters et al, 1974), a questionnaire designed to measure attitudes toward female managers, in 334 French-speaking and 313 English-speaking public service managers in Quebec, Canada. The Neo-Sexism Scale (F. Tougas et al, 1995), which measures attitudes toward working women, was also used. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity were determined. The results indicate equivalence to the original English version, a negative correlation with the Neo-sexism scale, as expected, and stable attitudes toward women over time. Implications for further cross-cultural studies of attitudes toward women managers and working women are discussed. The English-French version of the scale is provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Robie, C., M. J. Schmit, et al. (2000). "Effects of item context specificity on the measurement equivalence of a personality inventory." Organizational Research Methods 3(4): 348-365.
Personality measures with items that ask respondents to characterize themselves across a range of situations are increasingly used for personnel selection purposes. Research conducted in a laboratory setting has found that personality items may have different psychometric characteristics depending on the degree to which that range is widened or narrowed (i.e., degree of contextualization). This study is an attempt to study the psychometric impact of contextualization in a large field sample of 1,078 applicants for police officer positions. Respondents were given either a contextualized (at work) or noncontextualized (in general) version of the 6 facets of the conscientiousness factor of the NEO PI-R. Analyses were conducted at the facet and item levels. Results were mixed but indicated that error variances tended to be slightly lower for the work-specific instrument in comparison to the noncontextualized instrument. Implications for personality inventory development, validation, and use are discussed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Rock, P. (1998). "Rules, boundaries and the courts: Some problems in the neo-Durkheimian sociology of deviance." British Journal of Sociology 49(4): 586-601.
journal abstract: This paper examines a very simple theme in sociology. It is so simple that it has tended either to be accepted or neglected but very rarely, it seems, critically reviewed. The sociology of crime and deviance concentrates on the problematics of ruling, rule-enforcement, and rule-observance, and one of the neo-Durkheimian tenets held by many of its practitioners is that rules are reinforced and revealed in the boundary-defining work of institutions of social control, and in the work of the law courts above all. It is that tenet which is discussed here, principally by examining its empirical claims. It appears that little or no good empirical evidence is available to support the thesis, and that there are major methodological obstacles to its production. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rodgerson, T. E. and R. L. Piedmont (1998). "Assessing the incremental validity of the Religious Problem-Solving Scale in the prediction of clergy burnout." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37(3): 517-527.
To meet the rigorous standards set by the social sciences, religious research needs to answer two questions: "To what degree are constructs developed on spirituality separate and distinct from established psychosocial variables"; and "To what degree do religious constructs provide insights into human functioning over and above those already provided by existing psychological constructs?" Addressing these questions, the current study evaluated the relative contributions of the Religious Problem-Solving scale, the NEO-FFI (a measure of the five-factor model of personality) and 2 measures of environmental stress in predicting burnout among 252 American Baptist clergy on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results indicated that the Religious Problem-Solving scale was a construct relatively distinct from the other psychological constructs. While the Religious Problem-Solving scale showed incremental significance in predicting burnout over the other psychosocial measures on 2 of the Maslach Burnout Inventory scales, its contribution was small. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Roelcke, V. (1997). "Biologizing social facts: An early 20th century debate on Kraepelin's concepts of culture, neurasthenia, and degeneration." Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry 21(4): 383-403.
This paper uses an historical approach to elucidate two alternative modes of conceptualizing the relation between social factors and psychological phenomena perceived as pathological. The core features of Neo-Kraepelinian psychiatric nosology associated with the introduction of DSM-III in 1980 were also at the center of a debate in early 20th century Germany. The protagonists were Emil Kraepelin and Oswald Bumke. Kraepelin's empirical research selectively focused on somatic factors as independent variables, such as alcohol, syphilitic infection, and heredity. The ensuing nosology marginalised social factors which might contribute to the etiology and symptom formation of psychiatric conditions. For Bumke, the disorders in question (including the category of neurasthenia) did not represent qualitative deviations from normal psychological states, but quantitative variations of ubiquitous psychological functions caused by a multitude of somatic, psychological, and social factors. The main arguments of the historical debate are reconstructed, with special regard to the professional and political context. The paper illustrates the importance of context-bound pre-'scientific' decisions for the process of formulating theoretical concepts in psychiatry and related disciplines. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rogers, M. T. (1999). "Marital satisfaction as it relates to similarity versus complementarity in personality dimensions. (couples)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(4-B): 1917.
The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of marital satisfaction as they relate to the similarity or complementarity of personality dimensions within couples. By using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), dimensions of personality and the degree to which couples are satisfied were determined respectively. Each of the 103 couples, 59 married and 44 dating, volunteering for this research project fulfilled the following requirements: (a) each consisted of one male and one female; and (b) married couples were married at least five years while dating couples were exclusively dating at least one year. The sample population for the research project was composed of couples residing in southern Florida. Each subject was asked to respond to the NEO-PI-R and DAS. The NEO-PI-R was used to determine the extent to which both members of the dyad correlated with regard to their overall personality. The resultant, transformed score was correlated with the mean score of the couple's rating of their level of satisfaction within their relationship. Further analyses were made relating to personality factors that appear to influence relationship satisfaction. Two hypotheses were presented. The first stating that a statistically significant relationship will be found between personality similarity and satisfaction among married couples and the second one stating no such relationship will exist among dating couples. In general, by several correlational measures and multiple regressions, and at a chosen alpha level of.05, a significant relationship resulted between couples' personality similarity and the degree to which they reported being satisfied in their relationship. This occurred in married couples, supporting the first hypothesis, and was found to be even stronger in dating couples, therefore refuting the second hypothesis. In addition, personality dimensions such as Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness played significant roles in relationship satisfaction. Correlations between partners regarding the degree of personality similarity independent of level of satisfaction were also established. Contrary to earlier research, results of this research yielded a strong relationship between dyad selectivity and personality similarity. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rogler, L. H. (1997). "Making sense of historical changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Five propositions." Journal of Health & Social Behavior 38(1): 9-20.
From the 1st to the 4th edition, the DSM has grown considerably in size and complexity. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III (DSM-III) represented a paradigm shift in psychiatric diagnoses and is the main focus of the author's 5 propositions that attempt to make sense of basic historical changes in the manual. The 1st 2 propositions concern theoretical changes in the manual; they critically examine the effort to evict unverified etiological assumptions from diagnoses, the adoption of formulations of disorders as discretely constituted, and the role of the multiaxial context in diagnosis. The next 2 propositions attempt a new development: a set of concepts designating the structural changes in the DSM histories of individual disorders. The 5th proposition examines historical forces supporting the neo-Kraepelinian psychiatrists' efforts to produce the DSM-III. The conclusion brings the propositions together to explain the DSM's growth in size and complexity and to show that the general pattern of the DSM changes are aimed at remedicalizing the profession of psychiatry. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rohe, D. E. and J. S. Krause (1999). "The five-factor model of personality: Findings in males with spinal cord injury." Assessment 6(3): 203-213.
journal abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify common personality traits in males with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred and five participants with SCI completed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI). The participants averaged 41.1 years of age and 17.9 years since injury onset. Compared with the NEO-PI normative sample, the SCI sample scored significantly lower on the Conscientiousness factor and the Activity and Assertiveness facet scales. They scored significantly higher on the Excitement-Seeking scale. These results suggest that males with SCI are less determined, have lower energy levels, are socially retiring, and that they tend to seek stimulation. These findings may reflect the contribution of both preinjury personality traits and adaptation to the limitations imposed by SCI. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rolland, J. P., W. D. Parker, et al. (1998). "A psychometric examination of the French translations of the NEO-PI-R and NEO-FFI." Journal of Personality Assessment 71(2): 269-291.
Examined the French translations of the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI-R) and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) to assess their equivalence to the original English-language instruments. Two French samples were employed: 447 college students responding anonymously, and 268 military recruits responding as part of their military selection process. Internal reliability of domains on both instruments were highly similar to the US normative group, although some NEO-PI-R facets were not. Factor structures of the NEO-PI-R at the facet level and the NEO-FFI at the item level yielded high congruence coefficients when target rotated to previously published factor structures from US, Canadian, and German samples. Concerns that a positive presentation response set yields a 6-factor rather than a 5-factor solution were not supported by these French samples. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rollenhagen, A. and H.-J. Bischof (2000). "Evidence for the involvement of two areas of the zebra finch forebrain in sexual imprinting." Neurobiology of Learning & Memory 73(2): 101-113.
Tested the idea that the spine density decrease in medial neo/hyperstriatum (MNH) and LNH is the anatomical manifestation of the imprinting process. For the aviary group zebra finches were reared by their parents until day 40 and remained in an aviary with other young and adult birds until day 107. The isolated group remained in isolation until day 107. The 1-wk female group was exposed to a female for 7 days from days 100-107 after isolation from days 40-100. The CYA isolated group was given a silastic tubing implant containing cyproterone acetate. Results show that nestbox exposure also reduces the spine density in MNH and LNH, but has no effect on neurons of 2 forebrain areas (archi-neostriatum caudale [ANC] and hyperstriatum accesorium/dorsale[HAD). It has also been shown previously that treating males with an antiandrogen between days 40 and 100 affects the final preference of a male. The present experiment indicates that the same treatment affects spine growth during development in MNH and LNH and prevents the increase of spine density within HAD and ANC normally induced by exposure to a female. The results are interpreted as strong evidence for the involvement of MNH and LNH in sexual imprinting. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ross, S. R., S. E. Bailley, et al. (1997). "Positive self-presentation effects and the detection of defensiveness on the NEO PI--R." Assessment 4(4): 395-408.
Recent investigations suggest that the 5 factors are highly susceptible to faking. Three studies are presented that address the effects of positive self-presentational set on the revised edition of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI--R; P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992). Study 1, with 100 Canadian university students, involves a within Ss design for the purposes of determining the effects of positive self presentation on NEO PI--R domain and facet scales. Study 2, with 202 university students, reports the development of 2 multivariate functions for the classification of fake good protocols and provides results supporting the generalizability of these equations. Finally, Study 3, with 254 university students, addresses the issue of specificity in a low base-rates sample and lends further evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of these functions. These findings suggest that the NEO PI--R is clearly vulnerable to faking and support the contention that profiles derived under socially desirable conditions can be accurately identified. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rosse, J. G., M. D. Stecher, et al. (1998). "The impact of response distortion on preemployment personality testing and hiring decisions." Journal of Applied Psychology 83(4): 634-644.
journal abstract: Response distortion (RD), or faking, among job applicants completing personality inventories has been a concern for selection specialists. In a field study using the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised, the authors show that RD is significantly greater among job applicants than among job incumbents, that there are significant individual differences in RD, and that RD among job applicants can have a significant effect on who is hired. These results are discussed in the context of recent studies suggesting that RD has little effect on the predictive validity of personality inventories. The authors conclude that future research, rather than focusing on predictive validity, should focus instead on the effect of RD on construct validity and hiring decisions. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rossman, B. B. R. and W. C. Gamble (1997). "Preschoolers' understandings of physical injury: Stressor, affect and coping appraisals." Children's Health Care 26(2): 77-96.
Used an elicited storytelling methodology to examine in 3 domains (stressor, affect, and coping) the appraisals that 4-, 5-, and 6-yr-olds made of physical injury events. Children completed the Verbal and Memory subtests of the McCarthy Intelligence Scale, as these abilities were relevant for story task performance and important for assessing age group differences. In each domain, stories varied in the complexity of cognitive operations required as posited by K. W. Fischer's (1980) neo-Piagetian framework, Skill Theory. Most children passed the simple representational mapping tasks in the stress and affective appraisal domains. Some 4-yr-olds, many 5-yr-olds, and most 6-yr-olds showed the more advanced representational compound mappings in the stressor, affect, and coping appraisal domains. Age-related changes were observed in comprehension based on Skill Theory in most domains, and these understandings were predictive of mothers' observations of children's reactions to physical injury events. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rost, J., C. H. Carstensen, et al. (1999). "Sind die Big Five Rasch-skalierbar? Eine Reanalyse der NEO-FFI-Normierungsdaten. Are the Big Five Rasch scaleable? A reanalysis of the NEO-FFI norm data." Diagnostica 45(3): 119-127.
Presents a reanalysis of the data samples from the German version of the NEO Five Factor Inventories. The question whether the five-point rating scale represents an ordinal scale that corresponds to the measured trait is addressed. The five factors are found to be unidimensional in the sense of the ordinal Rasch model. It is shown that person heterogeneity exists in the form of a two-classes Rasch model. Implications of the findings on future research are discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Rubenzer, S. J., T. R. Faschingbauer, et al. (2000). "Assessing the U.S. presidents using the revised NEO Personality Inventory." Assessment 7(4): 403-420.
This article describes the use of objective psychological instruments, including the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), to assess the personalities of all 41 US presidents to date. We briefly report our findings pertaining to the average profile of chief executives on the NEO PI-R and summarize data on two of our most illustrious presidents, Washington and Lincoln. We review a typology of presidents based on our data. Finally, we summarize the results of our investigation of the Big Five personality dimensions and facets that are related to presidential success (i.e., historical greatness). The project and findings are discussed in terms of the use of the NEO PI-R in psychohistorical research and assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Rueschemeyer, D. and J. Mahoney (2000). "A neo-utilitarian theory of class?" American Journal of Sociology 105(6): 1583-1591.
Comments on the article by A. B. Sorensen (see record 2000-05422-001), which proposed 2 main concepts of class based on personal wealth. It is agreed that the labor theory of value of classical economics is indefensible, leaving Marxist theory without its primary basis for identifying class exploitation. However, the current authors believe that Sorensen's alternative theory of rent suffers from its own serious problems and ultimately fails as a basis for a renewal of class analysis. The theory assumes that rent-based deviations from a fully competitive market can be used as a baseline for assessing the existence of structural inequality and exploitation. Yet, perfectly competitive markets as such carry no moral authority, and above-market returns in the form of rents cannot be morally condemned as unjust and exploiting simply because they deviate from the returns on assets in competitive markets. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ruiselova, Z. and N. Korcova (2000). "Salutogenetic approach in the context of the big five factors." Studia Psychologica 42(3): 157-161.
Compared the salutogenesis of coping (SOC) approach (which is focused on the question why some people can better cope with stressful situations) with factors of the 5-Factor Personality Model. 115 adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) and 53 pediatricians (mean age 42 yrs) completed the NEO-5 Factor Inventory (R. R. McCrae and T. Costa, 1992). Results show a significant relationship between SOC scores and both neuroticism and conscientiousness in male adolescents. These relationships were seen in female adolescents as well, with the additional observed relationship between SOC and agreeableness. In pediatricians, significant relationships were seen between SOC and neuroticism, conscientiousness, extroversion, and agreeableness. Findings suggest that SOC is a broader characteristic than is personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Rustomjee, S. (1997). "Traversing the psychoanalytic pathway: From phobias to Chung Yung--the Confucian Golden Mean." Group Analysis 30(3): 395-407.
The position of the father in the formation of totems, in religion, in philosophy (Confucian and neo-Confucian) and in psychoanalysis is described in a Freudian/Lacanian framework. The application of this in understanding the psychodynamics of both phobic and obsessional neurosis is demonstrated through the study of 2 of Freud's case histories. The use of group-analytic psychotherapy in the management of patients is then described, highlighting the nature of specific resistances encountered in therapy groups where the majority of members predominantly suffer from obsessional and phobic neuroses. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Ryan, E. L. (1999). "False memory and personality integration. (cognition, keywords)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(6-B): 2959.
The relationship of personality integration and false memory for keywords was explored in 2 experiments. It was predicted that higher level of personality integration would reduce susceptibility to false memory for keywords, and conversely, lower levels of personality integration would increase susceptibility to false memory for keywords. In Experiment 1, NEO-PI revised Openness to Experience, a variable believed to be related to personality integration, was significantly negatively associated with false memory for keywords. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2. In addition, other measures of personality integration were included in Experiment 2. The Action Control Scale, the Ambivalence Over Emotional Expression Questionnaire, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were significantly predictive of false memory for keywords. The Ambivalence Over Emotional Expression Questionnaire and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were predictive of false memory for keywords in the predicted direction. The Action Control Scale was predictive of false memory for keywords in the opposite direction than predicted. These effects held even when anxiety, as measured by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, a known source of interference on memory tasks, was partialled out. The overall pattern of results lent support for the experimental hypothesis and were discussed in terms of personality integration and its role in differentiating semantic from historical memory. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sadowski, C. J. and H. E. Cogburn (1997). "Need for cognition in the Big-Five factor structure." Journal of Psychology 131(3): 307-312.
The short Need for Cognition Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory were completed by 85 undergraduates (aged 17-22 yrs) to investigate the relationship between the need for cognition construct and the domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness) of the Big-Five Factor Model of Personality. Significant positive direct relationships were obtained between need for cognition construct and the big-five domains of openness to experience and conscientiousness. These findings are consistent with the conceptualization of need for cognition as the tendency to enjoy and engage in effortful thought. There also was a significant 1st-order negative correlation between need for cognition and the neuroticism domain. This finding is consistent with the role of need for cognition hypothesized within cognitive-experiential self-theory (S. Epstein, 1994). ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Saffer, V. J. (1999). "Discipline: An interactive model." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(3-B): 1314.
This study of 159 college student participants was conducted to examine the Interactive Model of Discipline. The model proposes that attitudes about parenting mediate the relationship between disciplinary history, personality, and disciplinary actions. In addition, the model identifies child factors (including temperament disciplinary history, and behavior) that may influence the use of different disciplinary techniques. The parental component of the model was the focus of the current analysis. The participants were asked to complete a disciplinary history questionnaire, the NEO-PI-R, the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and scenarios involving situations that required a parental response to a child. Personality was associated with disciplinary history and attitudes but was not related to disciplinary behavior. Therefore, the mediator model focused on disciplinary history, attitudes, and disciplinary behaviors. The mediator model was significant for the variables that involved physical discipline. The results indicated that attitudes about corporal punishment mediate the relationship between being spanked as a child and choosing to spank as an adult. Physical disciplinary styles may be passed across generations because individuals adopt a strong belief in the use and effectiveness of corporal punishment. No differences were found for how males and females were disciplined as a child or how they chose to discipline the child in the scenarios. These results are surprising in light of previous research. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Salgado, J. F., C. Remeseiro, et al. (1996). "Personality and test-taking motivation." Psicothema 8(3): 553-562.
Studied the relation of personality traits and test-taking motivation. Data on sociodemographic variables, personality traits, employment status and test-taking motivation were obtained by questionnaire from 58 normal male and 87 normal female Spanish adults (university students) (no work experience) and 49 normal male and 138 normal female Spanish adults (employed). The results were evaluated according to employment history and status, test anxiety and poor control dimension, motivation and confidence in tests, motivational distortion, neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Tests used: The Test Attitudes Questionnaire (J. F. Salgado, 1994), the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Lie Scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). Correlation analysis and other statistical tests were used. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Samuels, J., G. Nestadt, et al. (2000). "Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder." British Journal of Psychiatry 177: 457-462.
Evaluated personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases and controls and their first-degree relatives in order to determine whether specific personality characteristics are part of a familial spectrum of OCD. Clinicians evaluated personality disorders in 72 OCD case and 72 control probands and 198 case and 207 control first-degree relatives. The self-completed Revised NEO Personality Inventory was used for assessment of normal personality dimensions. The prevalence of personality disorders and scores on normal personality dimension were compared between case and control probands and between case and control relatives. Case probands and case relatives had a high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and high neuroticism scores. Neuroticism was associated with OCPD in case but not control relatives. It was concluded that neuroticism and OCPD may share a common familial aetiology with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Satterwhite, R. C., E. E. Fogle, et al. (1999). "Revisiting the stability of variability: Traitedness and supertraitedness on the ACL and NEO-FFI." Social Behavior & Personality 27(2): 205-220.
The concept of traitedness asserts that some people are so consistent/variable with regard to relevant trait behavior that they should be considered "traited"/"untraited" on a given factor. The present studies assessed the stability of traitedness, operationalized via the intra-individual standard deviations for each of the Big Five factors, over time using two different instruments. Self-descriptions of male and female university students on the Adjective Checklist and NEO Personality Inventory demonstrated: (1) reliable individual differences in the stability of traitedness on each of the five factors over time; (2) positive correlations among the five standard deviations at a given testing, suggesting that some persons are generally less/more variable than others; and (3) an absence of convergent validity between the traitedness measures for the two instruments, suggesting that the two instruments were assessing different types of consistency. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Saucier, G. (1998). "Replicable item-cluster subcomponents in the NEO Five-Factor Inventory." Journal of Personality Assessment 70(2): 263-276.
The NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO-PI--R) has a short form, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), that taps the 5 broad factors with fidelity and reliability. However, conventional scoring of this short form does not provide scores on more specific aspects of the broad-bandwidth factors. In this study, 13 item clusters were found to replicate across halves of a sample of self-descriptions by 732 adults. 13 factor-analytically derived scales were developed for the item clusters. The scales demonstrated reliability and factor structure comparable to that of the 30 facet scales of the NEO-PI--R. Correlation and multiple regression analyses showed that the content coverage of the 13 scales is more moderate. Archival and existing data involving the NEO-FFI can be easily rescored for these 13 subcomponents, increasing the researcher's gain of information from this convenient personality inventory. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J., B. G. Wlazelek, et al. (1997). "Personality of the therapist and theoretical orientation." Irish Journal of Psychology 18(4): 413-418.
Examined the relationship between therapist personality and theoretical orientation from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model of personality. 41 psychotherapists with 7.1 mean yrs of clinical experience in counseling or psychology or social work completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), and ratings of theoretical orientation (cognitive, behavioral, eclectic, gestalt, humanistic, family systems, psychoanalytic). Results revealed a significant relationship between theoretical orientation and certain NEO-PI-R domains and related facet scores. The Cognitive orientation was significantly related to the Agreeableness domain and the associated facets of Straightforwardness and Altruism. The Humanistic and Gestalt orientations were significantly related to the domain of Openness and the facet of Openness to Fantasy. The Humanistic orientation was also significantly related to the Openness to Action facet. In addition, gender differences were noted in NEO-PI-R profiles, but not theoretical orientation. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J. (1998). "Self-awareness, self-consciousness and performance on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(11-B): 6275.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of private self-consciousness, public self-consciousness and feedback expectancy on the validity and reliability of NEO-FFI profiles. One hundred eleven participants were randomly assigned to one of three feedback expectancy conditions (public feedback, private feedback, control group) and completed five measures including a brief demographic questionnaire, the Self-Consciousness Scale, the Self Focus Sentence Completion Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Hypothesis 1 predicted an interaction between feedback expectancy and public self-consciousness on NEO-FFI scores such that participants high in public self-consciousness would manifest a 'fake good' profile in the public, but not in the private feedback condition. No support was found for this hypothesis. High public self-consciousness participants did not self-present in a differential manner depending upon feedback expectancy, F(10, 184) =.836, p =.569. Hypothesis 2 predicted that participants in the private feedback condition would demonstrate significantly higher levels of inter-item homogeneity and split-half reliability on the NEO-FFI than participants in the public feedback and control conditions. No support was found for this hypothesis. Informing participants that they will be provided with individual feedback did not increase the split-half reliability (z=.833, p>.05) or inter-item homogeneity (z=.329, p>.05) of the NEO-FFI. Hypothesis 3 suggested that higher levels of private self-consciousness would be associated with increased reliability. However, private self-consciousness was not found to be differentially related to either split-half reliability (z=.010, p>.05) or inter-item homogeneity (z=.153, p>.05). Finally, the public, but not the private feedback manipulation, was found to be an adequate operationalization of self-awareness. Participants in the public feedback condition manifested significantly higher levels of self focus than did participants in the control condition, F(2, 107) = 4.295, p =.016. Additionally, public feedback participants exhibited significantly lower external world focus scores than did participants in the control group, F(2, 107) = 4.991, p =.009. The major finding of this study was that feedback expectancy was unrelated to the validity or reliability of NEO-FFI scores. This implies that respondents are not motivated to engage in impression management on the NEO-FFI based upon expectations of individual, group or no feedback. Future research should examine other variables related to impression management on the NEO-FFI. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J. (1998). "The personality correlates of public and private self-consciousness from a five-factor perspective." Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 13(4): 579-592.
Examined the personality correlates of private and public self-consciousness from a Five-Factor perspective, comparing the results using both simple and partial correlational techniques. 18-49 yr old college students completed the Self-consciousness Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Both simple and partial correlation revealed a significant relationship between public self-consciousness and Neuroticism. Private self-consciousness was significantly correlated with Neuroticism, Openness and Agreeableness (negatively). However, when the effect of public self-consciousness was controlled through partial correlation, the relationship between private self-consciousness and Neuroticism was nonsignificant. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J. (1998). "Relationship between private self-consciousness and indices of reliability and homogeneity." Psychological Reports 82(2): 467-473.
84 females and 27 males (aged 18-49 yrs) completed the Self-consciousness Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, Jr., 1992). It was hypothesized that Ss scoring high in private self-consciousness would show greater split-half reliability and homogeneity. The results did not support the hypotheses as scores for private self-consciousness were not significantly related to split-half reliability or homogeneity on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. The present results, combined with previous findings, suggest that private self-consciousness is related to temporal stability of test scores but not to estimates of reliability associated with parallel forms of a test or to internal consistency. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J. and B. Wlazelek (1999). "The relationship between self-perceived personality and impression management on the NEO-FFI." Personality & Individual Differences 27(1): 147-154.
Examined the relationship between self-perception of personality traits and adoption of a self-presentational strategy using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) of personality. Ss aged 18-52 yrs (89 females and 57 males) were provided with blank NEO-FFI Summary Forms and asked to estimate their levels of Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness on a 3-point scale. Self-ratings on the NEO Summary Form served as the measure of self-perceived personality. Ss then completed the NEO-FFI under one of five instructional sets (fake good, fake bad, graduate psychology and police academy admissions and control). Results suggest that NEO-FFI scores were influenced by both instructional set and self-perceived personality. That is, even when Ss were faking, their NEO-FFI scores still reflected the influence of self-perceived personality. Results suggest that for Ss in this study, self-perceived personality structure influenced results when instructed to fake on the NEO-FFI. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J. (2000). "Development and initial validation of validity scales for the NEO-Five Factor Inventory." Personality & Individual Differences 29(6): 1153-1162.
In Study 1, 111 undergraduates completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and item means, standard deviations, and intercorrelations were used to construct measures of Positive Impression Management, Negative Impression Management, and Inconsistent Responding. In Study 2, 146 Ss completed the NEO-FFI under 1 of 5 instructional sets (control, fake good, fake bad, graduate psychology and police academy admissions). A set of randomly produced NEO-FFI profiles were added to this data set. ANOVA results provide support for the utility of the validity scales, as they were differentially sensitive to random responding, positive and negative impression management in hypothesized ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Scandell, D. J., B. Wlazelek, et al. (2000). "Effect of feedback expectancy on NEO-Factor Inventory scores." Psychological Reports 86(3,Pt2): 1157-1167.
Although Costa and McCrae have indicated that respondents can strategically self-present on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory when instructed to do so, little research has examined the situational factors related to the motivation to self-present. This study examined feedback expectancy concerning test performance as one variable that might have relevance to strategic self-presentation on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Participants (N = 108) completed the inventory under one of three feedback expectancy conditions: public feedback, private feedback, or a control condition. Multiple analyses of variance indicated no significant differences on the inventory's domain scores among conditions, suggesting that feedback expectancy was not related to performance. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Scheuer, E. and S. Epstein (1997). "Constructive thinking, reactions to a laboratory stressor, and symptoms in everyday life." Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal 10(3): 269-303.
Compared groups of good and poor constructive thinkers, as measured by the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI), on cognitive, affective, and physiological reactions to a laboratory stressor, and examined the relation of cognitive, affective, and physiological reactions in the laboratory to emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms in everyday life. The present study is a follow-up investigation of a study by L. Katz and S. Epstein (1991). 26 Ss (mean age 21.3 yrs) were in the good constructive thinking group and 26 Ss (mean age 21.7 yrs) were in the poor constructive thinking group. Ss completed the CTI, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Neuroticism scale of the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory, the Shipley Institute of Living Scale, and a thought sampling questionnaire. Ss rated their cognitive, affective and physiological reactions for 4 separate periods (baseline, anticipation, stress, and 1st recovery). Results show that Ss with poor constructive thinking scores reported more negative cognitions and more negative affect, and exhibited a greater increase on these variables in the stressor phase of the experiment than those with more favorable constructive thinking scores. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schimmack, U. (1997). "Das Berliner-Alltagssprachliche-Stimmungs-Inventar (BASTI): Ein Vorschlag zur kontentvaliden Erfassung von Stimmungen. The Berlin Everyday Language Mood Inventory (BELMI): Toward the content valid assessment of moods." Diagnostica 43(2): 150-173.
Developed and tested the Berlin Everyday Language Mood Inventory (BELMI). The everyday concept of mood was analyzed, and a representative sample of mood adjectives was subjected to similarity scaling using hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting 10 major content domains of the mood concept are represented in the BELMI by 2 items each. Thus, the BELMI can claim both higher content validity and greater economy than other questionnaires. The BELMI includes 3 bipolar scales for measurement of basic state dimensions: pleasure-displeasure, arousal-calmness, and wakefulness-tiredness. This allows for simultaneous assessment of mood on both a specific and a global level. Studies showed that the BELMI scales were content specific, had satisfactory to good internal consistency, were sensitive to situational contexts, and were related to personality dimensions of the NEO Personality Inventory in an expected way. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schinka, J. A., D. A. Dye, et al. (1997). "Correspondence between five-factor and RIASEC models of personality." Journal of Personality Assessment 68(2): 355-368.
Examined relationships between the full five-factor ([FF] P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) and J. L. Holland's (1985) RIASEC models of personality in a sample of 389 men and 645 women. The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa and McCrae, 1992) and the Self-Directed Search (Holland, 1985) provided measures of the FF and RIASEC dimensions, respectively. Canonical correlation analyses provided evidence primarily for a pattern of linkages between the FF Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness measures and the RIASEC Enterprising, Artistic, and Social scales. Findings indicated that the FF model appears to ignore the Realistic dimension and provides coverage of the Investigative and Conventional dimensions in women only. In turn, the RIASEC model appears to provide modest coverage of the FF Neuroticism and Conscientiousness domains for women and not at all for men. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schinka, J. A., B. N. Kinder, et al. (1997). "Research validity scales for the NEO-PI-R: Development and initial validation." Journal of Personality Assessment 68(1): 127-138.
Developed a set of research validity scales for use with the NEO Personality Inventory --Revised (NEO-PI--R). In Study 1, 140 adults were given the existing NEO-PI--R item pool to select items for 3 validity scales: positive presentation management, negative presentation management, and inconsistency. Analyses resulted in 10-item scales. In Study 2, the internal consistency, interscale relationships, and normative characteristics were examined in a separate sample of 400 adults. In Study 3, the validity of the scales was examined by contrasting 5 sets of NEO-PI--R protocols: from a separate sample of 200 adults, from a sample of 100 NEO-PI--R protocols with randomly produced responses, and from 3 samples of undergraduates completing the NEO-PI--R under different instructional sets. Analyses revealed that both the research validity scales and the NEO-PI--R domain scales were sensitive to group differences. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schmidt, J. A., C. C. Wagner, et al. (1999). "Covert reactions to Big Five personality traits: The Impact Message Inventory and the NEO-PI-R." European Journal of Psychological Assessment 15(3): 221-232.
168 participants (aged 18-21 yrs) rated acquaintances' personality using the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R; Peer Rating Form) and the Impact Message Inventory (IMI) to examine the relationship between the interpersonal circumplex and Big Five models of personality. Results support the predicted finding that the NEO scales of Extraversion and Agreeableness load most strongly on the circumplex regions of Friendly-Dominance and Friendly-Submissiveness, respectively. Unexpectedly, the NEO domains of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Openness (to a lesser extent) also show projections onto circular structure. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schmidtke, J. I. (2000). "Personality, affect and EEG: An integration of three models to predict neural patterns of activity." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(9-B): 4949.
This research assessed whether individual differences in frontal and posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha were associated with basic dimensions of personality, extraversion and neuroticism. A theoretical model proposed that extraversion and neuroticism (measured by the NEO-PI-R) were related to the affect circumplex and Heller's (1990, 1993) model of brain activity associated with affect. Other hypothesized dimensions of affect (PANAS-GEN Positive and Negative Affect Scales) were also measured. Resting EEG was recorded for subjects on one occasion for eight 60-second resting baseline periods. Mean log-transformed alpha power was extracted from the EEG for each electrode site, and asymmetry scores were computed across homologous electrode sites by subtracting left from right hemisphere mean log-transformed power. Results indicated that increased relative right posterior activity was associated with higher neuroticism and Negative Affect (NA) scores, and these effects for posterior activity remained unchanged when the effect of current mood was included in the statistical model. Predicted effects for extraversion and neuroticism associated with frontal activity emerged when the effect of current mood was included in the statistical model. Results support the model of brain activity and affect proposed by Heller (1990,1993), as well as the model for brain activity and personality proposed in the current research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Schmutte, P. S. and C. D. Ryff (1997). "Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 73(3): 549-559.
journal abstract: Because measures of personality and well-being share common affective underpinnings and items, previously reported links between these domains may be tautological. To explicate the connections between personality and well-being, 2 samples of midlife adults (N = 215 and N = 139) completed measures of personality (NEO Five-Factor Inventory; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and psychological well-being (C. D. Ryff's, 1989b, Psychological Well-Being [PWB] inventory) that were maximally distinct, both conceptually and methodologically. Analyses included additional controls for source overlap, common affective underpinnings, and shared item content. Distinctive personality correlates were observed for the 6 PWB outcomes: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, and purpose in life were linked with Neuroticism (N) Extraversion (E) and Conscientiousness (C); personal growth was linked with Openness to Experience (O) and E; positive relations with others was linked with Agreeableness (A) and E; autonomy was linked with N. Psychological wellness and its personality correlates may be more complex than prior studies suggest. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schneider, M. H. (1999). "The relationship of personality and job setting to job satisfaction." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(11-B): 6103.
The problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality variables and job satisfaction in various job settings. Method. A correlational study was conducted using survey data from assessment of personality constructs and job satisfaction taken from 96 occupational therapists in two job settings. The NEO-FFI (Form S) was used to assess personality and the Job Descriptive Index was used for the purpose of assessing job satisfaction. The job settings studied were the home health and rehabilitation center. Results. The first hypothesis, which stated there was a relationship between the personality constructs of Extraversion and Agreeableness and job satisfaction in the rehabilitation job setting was not supported. The results showed a correlation between different personality constructs, Openness to Experience and satisfaction with Co-Workers and the Job in General of the Job Descriptive Index. Additionally, the Conscientious construct of personality showed a significant correlation with the Job in General. The second hypothesis, which stated there was a relationship between the personality construct Openness to Experience and job satisfaction in the home health job setting was also not supported. No other relationships were found in the home health group. Reports of job satisfaction were similar between the two groups on all subscales of the Job Descriptive Index. The casting of job setting as the classification of environment in this study acknowledged the person-environment model from a situational perspective. The study reviewed literature on the criterion job seekers use to determine fit and the consequences of fit perception once in an organization. The study discussed the importance and methodology of making decisions that support creating a good person-job setting fit. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schrauth, N. and U. Geuter (1997). "Wilhelm Reich, 1897-1957, zum 100. geburtstag und 40. todestag. Wilhelm Reich, 1897-1957, to the 100th anniversary of his birth and the 40th anniversary of his death: About his way to a body oriented psychotherapy." Psychotherapeut 42(2): 92-97.
Beginning in the 1920s, Reich developed the basic concepts of a body-oriented psychotherapy out of psychoanalysis, starting from considerations of egopathology, sexuality, and analysis of resistance and character patterns. Characterological and bodily attitudes were understood as defense patterns against emotions, which function psychologically and bodily. Reich began to mobilize repressed affects through work on muscular tensions and bodily expressions so that their meaning in a person's history could be understood and a self-healing process could be restarted. This approach to releasing constrained energy is still valid for neo-Reichian schools whose understanding of human nature and healing processes is similar to those of other schools of humanistic psychotherapy. Also, there are impulses in modern body psychotherapies to work with the body in the relationship and transference process and attempts to reintegrate psychoanalytical concepts. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Schwebel, D. C. and J. Suls (1999). "Cardiovascular reactivity and neurotiscm: Results from a laboratory and controlled ambulatory stress protocol." Journal of Personality 67(1): 67-92.
Studied whether there are differences in the cardiovascular reactivity of persons varying in neuroticism, the disposition to experience negative subjective emotions. 36 individuals (19 men, 17 women; aged 18-23 yrs) who scored approximately 1 standard deviation above or below the mean on the Neuroticism scale of the revised NEO Personality Inventory were recruited from a larger pool of undergraduates. Ss, who had been outfitted with an ambulatory blood pressure/heart rate monitor, were exposed to 5 laboratory stressors and 7 field stressors during a 6-hr protocol. Results indicate that individuals scoring high in neuroticism showed blood pressure reactivity to laboratory and field stressors that was comparable to that of persons low in neuroticism. Aggregating responses across stressors, there was evidence of exaggerated heart rate responses. Results suggest that, although neuroticism is related to high levels of negative subjective experience, differences between persons scoring high versus low in neuroticism were not exhibited strongly at the cardiovascular level. Implications for stress, coping, and disease are discussed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Segal, N. L. (1997). Twin research perspective on human development. Uniting psychology and biology: Integrative perspectives on human development. N. L. Segal, G. E. Weisfeld and et al. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association: 145-173.
chapter: D. G. Freedman was one of the first investigators to articulate the meaningful relationships between behavior genetics and evolutionary psychology. His insights moved twin methods beyond their traditional application in studies of nature and nurture to a means for considering how relative genetic relatedness may influence human social behavior and organization. The studies described in this chapter flow naturally from that perspective. Potential contributions from additional novel extensions of twin and adoption designs are also examined. /// The topics discussed are: twins as couples: a fresh approach to social relations (twin studies as cooperation; twin studies of bereavement; Grief Intensity Scale; other measures); new applications of existing twin methods (monozygotic half-sibling study; twin children with unfamiliar partners: genes, environment, and gender; twins as couples: ethological analysis of social behavior; twins as couples: prisoner's dilemma; "neo-classic" twin method: olfactory recognition; new research design: unrelated siblings of the same age). ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Segraves, R. T. and S. Althof (1998). Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of sexual dysfunctions. A guide to treatments that work. P. E. Nathan, J. M. Gorman and et al. New York, NY, Oxford University Press: 447-471.
chapter: Historically, the treatment of sexual dysfunctions can be divided into 5 eras: psychoanalytic, early behavioral, Masters and Johnson, neo-Masters and Johnson, and psychobiological. Many methodologic problems have been pointed out concerning studies evaluating the effects of all of these forms of treatment. Some long-term follow-up studies have demonstrated the positive sustained effect of therapy on individuals' and couples' subjective senses of sexual satisfaction and self-acceptance. This chapter reviews the literature on treatments for the following specific sexual disorders: hypoactive sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, female orgasmic disorder, male orgasmic disorder, dyspareunia and vaginismus, and substance-induced sexual disorders. Controlled clinical trials meeting rigid research requirements are sparse, and more research has been done on male than female sexual dysfunction. In the next decade, there will be a pressing need to define the indications for specific types of psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions and when a combined approach is indicated. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Shamir, B. (1999). "Taming charisma for better understanding and greater usefulness: A response to Beyer." Leadership Quarterly 10(4): 555-562.
Comments on J. Beyer's arguments against the neo-charismatic and transformational leadership paradigms (see record 1999-01086-007); in particular, Beyer thinks that the new paradigm has diluted the richness and distinctiveness of the original conception of charisma. She also thinks that the new paradigm (1) is not really new; (2) is too psychological; (3) is too leader-centered; (4) relies too heavily on follower's reports of leaders' behaviors and effects; (5) does not pay enough attention to the causal role of crisis, in the development of charisma; (6) applies the concept of charisma too broadly; (7) is too universalistic in its claims and does not pay enough attention to cultural differences; (8) promotes a romantic and heroic view of business leaders; (9) is written in a more promotional than scientifically questioning vein; and (10) does not pay sufficient attention to the dangers and practical drawbacks of charisma. The commentator writes that it is possible to hold a view of social science that accepts both context-specific studies of the type recommended by Beyer and modest attempts to generalize beyond a specific context of the type exemplified by neo-charismatic and transformational leadership theories. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sharpe, J. P. and N. V. Ramanaiah (1999). "Materialism and the five-factor model of personality." Psychological Reports 85(1): 327-330.
The hypothesis that High and Low Materialism groups have different personality profiles was tested with 280 introductory psychology students (135 men and 145 women; aged 18-58 yrs) who completed the Belk Materialism Scale and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory for partial course credit. Results of discriminant function analysis supported the hypothesis, indicating that groups High and Low in Materialism had significantly different personality profiles and that the standard discriminant function coefficients were substantial (>.30): for Neuroticism -.59, Agreeableness .53, and Openness .32. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sharpe, S. I. (2000). "A construct validation study of the Belk Materialism Scale and the Material Values Scale." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(8-B): 4287.
The past decade has witnessed a great deal of research interest in the construct of materialism in consumer psychology. Materialism has been defined as the importance people attach to material possessions and the consumption of material goods. Belk (1984) developed the Belk Materialism Scale to assess three salient personality traits of materialists, namely, possessiveness, nongenerosity, and envy. Richins and Dawson (1992) developed the Material Values Scale to assess three important material values, namely, acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness, and possession defined success. There is a paucity of published research comparing these two instruments empirically, and thus, the present study compared the two measures in terms of their relationships with four theoretically important criteria (i.e., possession satisfaction, gift-giving, environmental responsibility, and life satisfaction), the ten universal value types of the Schwartz Value Scale (Schwartz, 1992), and the 'Big Five' factors as assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). A total of 319 psychology undergraduates (187 females, 132 males) completed the above scales for partial course credit. Across both materialism instruments, correlational and regression analyses indicated that materialism was positively related to possession satisfaction and negatively related to satisfaction with life. In terms of Schwartz's values, results based on several different multivariate analyses indicated that materialists valued power, hedonism, and security more and universalism and benevolence less than nonmaterialists. Finally, neuroticism and disagreeableness proved to be the most important personality traits of materialists across all analyses and both materialism instruments. Results provided strong support for the construct validity of both materialism scales and provided some answers to Richins and Dawson's (1992) call for deeper investigations into the antecedents and consequences of materialism. Implications and directions for future research were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Shewchuk, R. M., T. R. Elliott, et al. (1999). "Trait influences on stress appraisal and coping: An evaluation of alternative frameworks." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29(4): 685-704.
According to contemporary trait models, personality variables influence the relation of certain social-cognitive processes to coping and adjustment. Specifically, neuroticism may effect a greater perception of threat in a given stressor and thus effect a greater propensity for emotion-focused coping efforts. Similarly, higher levels of conscientiousness may be related to a greater use of problem-focused coping. This study tested these presumed effects of personality traits on the association between stress appraisals and coping among 141 undergraduates (ages 17-49 yrs). Ss completed measures including the NEO-PI Form S and the Ways of Coping questionnaire. Resulting models indicated that certain personality characteristics are related to appraisal and coping activities, but these relations do not fully explain the association between stress appraisal and coping. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Siegler, I. C. and B. H. Brummett (2000). "Associations among NEO personality assessments and well-being at mid-life: Facet-level analyses." Psychology & Aging 15(4): 710-714.
journal abstract: The association between well-being and personality was examined in 2,379 middle-aged adults. Measures that parallel C. D. Ryff's (1989) psychological model were selected to assess well-being. The 30 facet scales of the NEO-PI-R were used to measure personality. More than 83% of the facet-well-being correlations within the domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness reached statistical significance, whereas, less than half of the correlations within the domains of Agreeableness and Openness were significant. The facets within each domain demonstrated different patterns of associations with the well-being measures, indicating that facet-level assessments yield additional information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Simoneti, S. (1999). "Eastern European transformations: Culture and the politics of groups." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(3-A): 0873.
The outcome of Eastern European transformations, the shape and form of civil society today has come as a surprise to many: ethnic strife, human rights violations, populist radicalism, anti-Semitism, neo-Nazism, unrepresentativeness of former dissidents in current governments, and resurgent appeal of Communism are phenomena which were not anticipated at the time that Eastern European societies started mobilizing toward democracy. Only recently, political theory has begun to formulate hypotheses about inherent contradictions in resultant civil societies, as well as about the many &ldquo;illiberal&rdquo; political components found in them. This dissertation argues that the limitations of civil society today can be identified in the very psycho-cultural dynamics of groups that Eastern European societies accommodate. Historically, antinomical relations between elites, political leadership proper, and ordinary citizens have structured political life as a cyclical ritual of multiple rejections and devaluations and as a complexity of fantasied responses to literal or symbolic death. On a political level, rituals of death have been expressed in the inability of political leaderships proper, as well as the intelligentsia, including contemporary dissidents, to create relationships of meaningfulness, representativeness and legitimacy with ordinary citizens, specifically peasants and the industrial working class, and to include these social groups in political discourse. The intelligentsia have traditionally either been co-opted by official politics or identified projectively in cultural fantasies with leadership proper. Identification with the latter necessitates fantasies of corruption, immorality and death which the intelligentsia have not been able to escape. At historical moments of crisis and/or change, antinomical relations between power-challenging elites, leadership proper and ordinary citizens, have given birth to populist transitional leaders, who have tried to nurture and reassure decompensating groups by resorting to nationalist fantasies, metaphors and myths of survival and empowerment. Without consideration of the internal ambiguities, conflicts, tensions, and psycho-cultural behavioral patterns innate in Central-Eastern European cultures, and with no attention to particular dynamics of groups in crisis, Eastern European transformations have been hailed as automatic hyperlinks to democracy. Given the above serious unresolved issues, however, the political course of Central Eastern Europe and Europe in general needs to remain central to serious and extremely cautious political inquiry. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Simpson, M. A. (1998). "Condom use in college students: The effects of personality and relationship variables on readiness for change." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(5-B): 2436.
This study explores condom use behavior and attitudes, personality variables, and relationship characteristics as they relate to condom use intentions. The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change and the Five Factor Model of personality are used as theoretical frameworks to explore personality influences on condom stage. It was hypothesized that stage of change for condom use would be related to the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness scales of the NEO-PI-R. Consistent with previous research on the stages of change and HIV prevention, condom stage was also predicted to be associated with positive and negative attitudes about condom use and self-efficacy. Finally, condom stage of change was predicted to be related to other HIV risk variables including enjoyment of condom and non-condom use, sexual assertiveness, perceived intimacy, relationship fidelity, and relationship length. A total of 697 university students anonymously completed the questionnaire in exchange for experimental credit in an introductory psychology course. Of these subjects, 336 were found to be in sexually active relationship for less than one year in length and were included in the experimental analyses. The study found that condom use stage of change was unrelated to predicted personality variables measured in this study. Modest correlations were found for Excitement Seeking and Impulsiveness variables. Higher condom use stages of change were predicted by enjoyment of sexual intercourse without using condoms, positive and negative condom attitudes, and shorter relationship length. These results were replicated and cross-validated with a second sample of subjects. Condom stage also varied by self-efficacy, perceived intimacy, emotional satisfaction, and monogamy in the relationship. This study highlights the need for stage-specific interventions in the acquisition of condom use behavior. Specifically, increasing positive attitudes about condoms may move an individual to consider condom use. Furthermore, sexual assertiveness and condom use self-efficacy may be important to move people to action-oriented intentions for condom use. Additional implications for HIV prevention programs are discussed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Simpson, J. A. (1999). Attachment theory in modern evolutionary perspective. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. J. Cassidy, P. R. Shaver and et al. New York, NY, The Guilford Press: 115-140.
preface: The author shows how attachment theory fits with other midrange theories in evolutionary biology and psychology--theories that were not available when J. Bowlby initially formulated his theory. Just as child-parent relations made more sense when placed by Bowlby in an evolutionary, cross-species comparative framework, attachment theory itself makes more sense when placed in the context of other neo-Darwinian evolutionary theories.:
chapter: Topics include: the place of attachment theory in modern evolutionary thinking (the rise of modern evolutionary theories, attachment theory in the hierarchy of evolutionary theories, levels of explanation); the environment of evolutionary adaptedness, major life tasks, and the adapted mind (the social EEA, psychological mechanisms and major life tasks); normative and individual difference components of attachment (normative features of attachment, individual differences in attachment); attachment theory and parent-offspring conflict theory (parent-offspring conflict theory and parental investment, parental investment and attachment); and evolutionary models of social development across the lifespan (the J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper model, the J. S. Chisholm model). ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sisco, H. C. (1999). "Biodata predictors of the five factor model." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(8-B): 4520.
The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of using a biographical inventory as an alternative to a traditional personality inventory in measuring the Five Factor Model of Personality. A combination of empirical and rational strategies were incorporated in the development and scoring of the biodata items. Seven hundred and five subjects were randomly assigned to either an answer honestly or faking condition. In the faking condition, subjects responded as if applying for the position of Librarian. All subjects completed the newly developed biodata inventory and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Confirmatory factory analysis was performed to examine the goodness of fit of the five factor structure from the respondents data. All subjects completed a letter cancellation task and reported grade point averages and SAT scores. Predictive validity was assessed for both instruments across samples. Results indicate that five factor model fit the data from the biodata and personality inventory in the answer honest condition. Comparisons between samples demonstrate that subjects were able to inflate scores on both inventories in socially desirable directions. Biodata score means were less elevated under faking conditions than the personality scores. Criterion related validity for the conscientiousness scale attenuated for both measures under faking conditions. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Smith, E. W. L. (1998). Traditions of touch in psychotherapy. Touch in psychotherapy: Theory, research, and practice. E. W. L. Smith, P. R. Clance and et al. New York, NY, The Guilford Press: 3-15.
chapter: The major thesis of this chapter is that touch has been part of psychotherapy from its inchoate beginnings until the present. Touch in psychotherapy serves as a genuine human expression of person-to-person relating. Many therapies include it as legitimate praxis when used ethically and appropriately, as defined by their theory. Although a traditional part of psychotherapy, touch continues to be a focus of controversy. /// This chapter suggests that the controversy is kept alive through bias against touch born of an implicit Western cultural philosophy and born of historical influences and context. It explores each of these sources of this controversy-producing bias or prejudice in turn. First, it is suggested that the prejudice against touching in psychotherapy is a by-product of the mind-body dichotomy so well entrenched in the philosophical underpinning of Western society. Second, the author believes that the prejudice against touching in psychotherapy is the heritage of historical influences that came in time to be taken as scientifically based truth. The chapter alludes to a number of contingencies in the life and work and Freud. Continuing traditions of touch in therapy settings are discussed, including Reichian and neo-Reichian traditions of touch and humanistic traditions of touch. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Smolucha, L. and F. Smolucha (1998). The social origins of mind: Post-Piagetian perspectives on pretend play. Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education. O. N. Saracho, B. Spodek and et al. Albany, NY, State University of New York Press: 34-58.
chapter: Presents an historical overview of the decline of Piagetian theory as the dominant research paradigm for studies on children's play and recounts the events leading to the simultaneous reemergence of Vygotskian theory during the mid-1980s. A review of the research literature from the 1920s through the early 1990s reveals the principal conceptual and methodological changes associated with this paradigmatic shift. Briefly stated, Piaget regarded early pretend play as a solitary activity which served only to consolidate schema that the child already possessed, while Vygotsky regarded early pretend play as a formative activity directly associated with the development of the child's higher mental functions. /// In Vygotskian theory, play, and consequently the higher mental functions, originate from social interactions between the child and his/her primary caregiver/parent. Devolving from this theoretical premise, neo-Vygotskian research offers important insights and implications for infant and preschool education, especially in regard to the importance of social interactions between infants and their caregivers as a formative influence affecting later cognitive development. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sobin, C. and H. A. Sackeim (1997). "Psychomotor symptoms of depression." American Journal of Psychiatry 154(1): 4-17.
Reviews the contemporary empirical literature regarding the diagnostic, prognostic, and potential pathophysiologic significance of psychomotor symptoms in depression. It has been repeatedly shown that depressed patients differ from normal and psychiatric comparison groups with regard to objectively quantified gross motor activity, body movements, speech, and motor reaction time (RT). Course of illness, diurnal variation, medication status, sex, and age are associated with agitation and retardation. Psychomotor symptoms in depression may have unique significance. They have high discriminative validity, may be the only symptoms of depression that distinguish depression subtypes, and are predictive of good response to tricyclic antidepressants. Results of brain imaging and biochemical studies link depression and motor symptoms to abnormalities in the basal ganglia and basal ganglia/thalamo-cortical circuits. The investigation of psychomotor disturbance in depression is specifically consistent with neo-Kraepelinian standards for the study of psychiatric disorders. Identifying the incidence of abnormal motor behaviors in depressed patients and assessing the component processes that accompany and determine their manifestation may be important advances in this field of study. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Soldz, S. and G. E. Vaillant (1999). "The Big Five personality traits and the life course: A 45-year longitudinal study." Journal of Research in Personality 33(2): 208-232.
163 men who have been followed prospectively for over 45 yrs were rated on a set of 25 personality traits at the end of their college careers and took the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) at approximately ages 67-68 yrs. The college traits were transformed, via a rating procedure, to scales assessing each of the Big Five dimensions and related to the NEO-PI. Three traits--Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness--exhibited significant correlations across the 45-yr interval. Furthermore, the trait profiles remained relatively stable over that interval. Both sets of personality traits were related to a wide variety of life course variables representing the domains of global adult adjustment, career functioning/success, creativity, social relations, mental health, substance abuse, childhood characteristics, familial history of pathology, maturity of defenses, and political attitudes. Conscientiousness in college was the best predictor of what happened to the men in the future, whereas Neuroticism in late midlife was the best correlate of life course functioning across a variety of domains. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sorensen, A. B. (2000). "Toward a sounder basis for class analysis." American Journal of Sociology 105(6): 1523-1558.
Satisfactory class concepts need to identify the mechanisms that produce the consequences of class membership, be they class conflicts or differences in lifestyles. Using a broad conception of property rights, this article proposes to base class concepts on personal wealth, that is, the assets a person controls. Two main class concepts are proposed: class as life conditions, based on a person's total wealth; and class as exploitation, based on a person's control over assets that produce economic rents. The former concept corresponds to empirical and Weberian class concepts, the latter to Marxist and neo-Marxist class concepts. The article shows that the class concept based on rent-producing assets accounts for recent developments in capitalism. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Spenner, K. I., O. O. Suhomlinova, et al. (1998). "Strong legacies and weak markets: Bulgarian state-owned enterprises during early transition." American Sociological Review 63(4): 599-617.
We examine the factors affecting the performance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) during early transition to a market economy. Data come from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of Bulgarian SOEs for the period from 1989 (the last year under communism) to 1993 (three years after major macroeconomic shifts). We investigate how changes in authority structure, work organization, technology, marketing strategy, and organizational boundaries during these years affected organizational performance in 1993. We also assess the degree of path dependence in performance and the role of competitive industry conditions. Numerous organizational changes made by SOEs during early transition had little effect on performance. Yet organizational performance from 1989 to 1993 was highly path-dependent, although this dependence was mediated by the competitive conditions: Stronger markets displayed less path dependence. Overall the results favor the interpretations derived from selected neo-institutional and ecological perspectives of organizational sociology over neoclassical economic interpretations. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Spirrison, C. L. and S. Choi (1998). "Psychometric properties of a Korean version of the revised Neo-Personality Inventory." Psychological Reports 83(1): 263-274.
Native Korean speakers attending English-speaking universities in the US were administered Form S (self-report) or Form R (observer's ratings) of both the English and Korean language versions of the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised. Analyses of internal consistency reliability, Pearson correlation coefficients, and t tests computed across languages and within forms suggested that the Korean translations of Form S and Form R were essentially equivalent to the English originals. Ss' Korean Form S data yielded alpha reliabilities that were consistent with reliabilities reported by L. R. Piedmont and J. H. Chae (see record 1997-08062-001). Using the Korean versions of the Form S and Form R domains, correlations were computed between self-reported personality traits and the traits as rated by each participant's spouse. The resulting correlation matrix supported the convergent and discriminant validity of this Korean translation of the NEO-Personality Inventory--Revised. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stankov, L. and R. D. Roberts (1997). "Mental speed is not the "basic" process of intelligence." Personality & Individual Differences 22(1): 69-84.
Discusses several questionable research practices and/or theoretical shortcomings in the study of the role of mental speed in intelligence. These include: (1) the adoption of a narrow neo-Spearmanian model of intelligence; (b) selective interpretation of the available empirical evidence wherein correlations between mental speed and intelligence measures are actually mediocre and of no greater order of magnitude than many other elementary cognitive processes; (3) a failure to realize that the factorial composition of mental speed may be as complex as that for number correct (i.e., level) measures; (4) the acceptance of 2 main paradigms in the literature--choice reaction time (CRT) and inspection time (IT)--both of which contain a number of unresolved controversies; (5) a tendency to examine in post hoc fashion those parameters of CRT and IT tasks that show correlations with measures of intelligence; and (6) the absence of a satisfactory explanatory model to account for the correlations between mental speed and intelligence. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stanley, L., Ed. (1997). Knowing feminisms: On academic borders, territories and tribes. London, England UK, Sage Publications Inc.
cover: This book looks at feminism as a vital source of new knowledge and new ways of working throughout a range of disciplines. It also scrutinises the sometimes highly problematic forms that its presence within academia can take. The contributors, all well-known feminist academics, discuss the epistemological and ontological 'borderlands' that feminists inhabit, which, although within, still remain 'other' to, the academy. /// This book is valuable for feminist academics and students across the social sciences and humanities. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Starratt, C. and L. Peterson (1997). Personality and normal aging. Handbook of neuropsychology and aging. P. D. Nussbaum. New York, NY, US, Plenum Press: 15-31.
chapter: review the major current models of personality, with a focus on trait theories and biological theories, and review the literature on personality and aging with a focus on issues of stability and change in personality among normal elders across the life span /// trait theories of personality (stability of personality traits among adults) / biological theories of personality (H. J. Eysenck's theory of personality: extraversion and neuroticism, J. A. Gray's theory of personality: anxiety and impulsivity, A. R. Damasios' somatic theory) / evaluation of personality (the NEO personality inventory, the neuropsychology behavior and affect profile, the MMPI and MMPI-2) / emotion and aging (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Steel, G. D., P. Suedfeld, et al. (1997). "People in high latitudes: The "Big Five" personality characteristics of the circumpolar sojourner." Environment & Behavior 29(3): 324-347.
Using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) the authors examined the general personality factors of the polar worker compared with a normative population, and investigated how these factors differ according to the worker's occupational classification (scientists, support staff, or military) and the polar region in which he or she is working. 306 Arctic and Antarctic sojourners participated in the study. Of these 150 were Italian respondents (mean age 39 yrs) whose data were separated from the rest of the multinational data of 156 Ss (mean age 34.2 yrs). It was found that polar workers scored higher than a normative group on all factors except Neuroticism. Comparisons across occupational groups showed that scientists were lower than military personnel on Extraversion and lower than support staff on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The analysis by polar region indicated that Antarctic workers were higher than Arctic personnel on Extraversion Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. A group of Italian Antarctic personnel completing a translated form of the NEO-FFI scored lower than the rest of the polar groups on all factors. Findings are discussed in light of various features of the polar environment and E. K. E. Gunderson's (1973) 3-predictor model of polar adaptability. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stepanikova, I. and P. Macek (1997). "Osobnostni charakteristiky u pacientek s psychogennimi poruchami prijmu potravy ve svetle petifaktoroveho modelu osobnosti. Personality characteristics of patients with eating disorders in the light of the Five-factor personality model." Ceskoslovenska Psychologie 41(6): 513-523.
Studied the relationship between personality and pathological attitudes towards eating in clinical Ss undergoing treatment for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Human Ss: 30 female Czech adolescents and adults (aged 15-26 yrs) (anorexia nervosa or bulimia) (9 inpatients and 21 outpatients). A questionnaire on personal and family history was administered. The average length of treatment was 11.7 wks. Correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were performed. Test used: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, the NEO Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) and the Eating Attitudes Test (D. M. Garner et al, 1982). (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stevens, C. D. (1999). "Selecting employees for the new millennium: The use of personality instruments in the assessment of person-organization fit." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 59(9-A): 3547.
Researchers have proposed selecting individuals based on their fit with the overall organization (person-organization fit). This dissertation investigates whether individual differences in the 'big five' personality dimensions (the person side of fit) are systematically related to preferences for differing management styles and differing compensation system characteristics (the organization side of fit). In the first study of the dissertation relationships between the 'big five' dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), as measured by the NEO PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and individual preferences for management styles are explored. The results indicate that individuals who prefer team-oriented management styles have higher levels of agreeableness and openness to experience than do individuals who prefer non-team-oriented management styles. Individuals with stronger preferences for being any type of manager have higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion. The second study of the dissertation extends the first study by investigating whether the results of the first study can be replicated with a new two country sample (the United States and New Zealand) using a different 'big five' based measure--the Hogan Personality Inventory (Hogan & Hogan, 1992). This study also found that individuals who prefer team-oriented management styles have higher levels of agreeableness and openness to experience than individuals who prefer non-team-oriented management styles. Additionally, individuals with stronger preferences for being any type of manager are shown to have higher levels of extraversion. The results of the second study also indicate that United States participants have a stronger desire to be managers (particularly non-team-managers) than do New Zealand participants. The third study of the dissertation investigates relationships between the 'big five' and individual preferences for different compensation system characteristics. The results of this study indicate that individuals who prefer having a relatively large portion of pay contingent on performance have higher levels of extraversion and openness to experience and lower levels of neuroticism than do individuals who prefer having a relatively small portion of pay contingent on performance. The results also indicate that individuals who prefer team-oriented performance-based pay have higher levels of openness to experience than individuals who prefer individually-oriented performance-based pay. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stewart, S. H. and H. Devine (2000). "Relations between personality and drinking motives in young people." Personality & Individual Differences 29(3): 495-511.
Sought to determine whether certain personality domains and facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) predict Enhancement, Coping, Social, and/or Conformity drinking motives from the Revised Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R). 256 college drinkers (mean age 21.3 yrs) completed the NEO-PI-R and DMQ-R. Results show that the 2 negative reinforcement motives (Coping and Conformity) were positively correlated with Neuroticism and negatively correlated with Extraversion. The 2 positive reinforcement motives (Enhancement and Social) were positively correlated with Extraversion and negatively correlated with Conscientiousness. Results indicate that personality domain scores predicted 2 of the 4 drinking motives, after controlling for the influences of alternative drinking motives. Enhancement Motives were predicted by high Extraversion and low Conscientiousness, and Coping Motives by high Neuroticism. The depression and self-consciousness facets of the Neuroticism domain were positively correlated with residual Coping and Conformity Motives, respectively, and the excitement-seeking and gregariousness facets of the Extraversion domain were positively correlated with residual Enhancement and Social Motives, respectively. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stewart, S. H., H. L. Loughlin, et al. (2001). "Internal drinking motives mediate personality domain--drinking relations in young adults." Personality & Individual Differences 30(2): 271-286.
The present study was conducted in an attempt to replicate previous findings regarding relations between personality domains in the five-factor model of personality and drinking motives, and to examine the potential mediating role of the internal drinking motives in explaining hypothesized relations between personality variables and drinking quantity/drinking problems. A sample of 154 university student drinkers (mean age 21.6 yrs) completed the NEO five factor inventory, the revised drinking motives questionnaire, and measures of drinking quantity and alcohol-related problems. Results found that the two internal drinking motives (coping and enhancement) were predicted by personality domains information, whereas the two external drinking motives (conformity and social) were not. Coping motives were significantly predicted by high neuroticism, whereas enhancement motives were significantly predicted by a combination of low conscientiousness and low neuroticism. It was also found that coping motives partially mediated the relation between high neuroticism and increased drinking problems, whereas enhancement motives mediated the relation between low conscientiousness and increased drinking quantity. Implications for prevention of drinking problems in young adults are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Stich, S. (1998). Reflective equilibrium, analytic epistemology and the problem of cognitive diversity. Rethinking intuition: The psychology of intuition and its role in philosophical inquiry. M. R. DePaul, W. M. Ramsey and et al. Lanham, MD, US, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers: 95-112.
chapter: This reprinted chapter originally appeared in Synthese, 1988, 74, 391-413. /// This chapter is about different ways of thinking--or cognitive diversity--and the problem of choosing among them. The author defends a pair of claims. The first is that one influential proposal for solving the problem of cognitive diversity, a proposal that invokes the notion of reflective equilibrium, will not work. The second is much more radical. What the author proposes to argue is that although some of the objections to the reflective equilibrium solution turn on details of that idea, the most serious objection generalizes into an argument against an entire epistemological tradition--the tradition that he calls "analytic epistemology." /// Topics discussed include: cognition and cognitive diversity; reflective equilibrium as a criterion for assessing cognitive processes; does the reflective equilibrium account capture our notion of justification; a "neo-Goodmanian" project; and some questionable presuppositions of the neo-Goodmanian project. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Strauss, M. E., J. C. Stuckey, et al. (1997). "Accuracy of retrospective descriptions of personality during the course of Alzheimer's disease." Journal of Clinical Geropsychology 3(2): 93-99.
Evaluated the validity of retrospective descriptions of personality characteristics by 21 family members of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Specifically, the extent to which there were systematic shifts in how a dementia patient had been described on the informant report and the informant's recollection of the personality of the AD patient obtained 1 yr later were examined. Personality descriptions were obtained using the informant report form of the NEO-PI (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1989). Significant correlations were found between descriptions of current personality of AD patients and informants' recollections of those characteristics 1 yr later. However, the average retrospective descriptions were significantly more favorable than the initial descriptions, indicating a normalizing bias for informants as a group. This suggests that retrospective descriptions provide reliable information about individual differences in personality earlier in the course of the disease, but cannot be used to assess degree of change over time. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Streyffeler, L. L. and R. J. McNally (1998). "Fundamentalists and liberals: Personality characteristics of Protestant Christians." Personality & Individual Differences 24(4): 579-580.
Studied the personality characteristics of 140 liberal and 109 fundamentalist Protestant Christians. Ss completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Results indicate that the groups scored similarly on the dimensions of neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion. However, fundamentalists scored significantly lower than liberals on the dimension of openness to experience, and did so for each item of this subscale. These data suggest a connection between conservative religious beliefs and a general avoidance of novel ideas and experiences. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Stumpf, H. and W. D. Parker (2000). "A hierarchical structural analysis of perfectionism and its relation to other personality characteristics." Personality & Individual Differences 28(5): 837-852.
Examined components of perfectionism and their relation to other personality constructs, based on data in R. O. Frost et al (1990, 1993). 855 academically talented 6th graders and 224 undergraduates completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Four intercorrelated factors (Concerns and Doubts, Personal Standards, Organization, and Parental Pressure) were found to underlie self description on the MPS. This finding was consistent with previous observations. Two orthogonal higher-order factors were extracted from the intercorrelations of these 4 dimensions. These 2 factors could be clearly interpreted as healthy and unhealthy perfectionism; similar factors had been observed before in analyses of the scale scores on the MPS. The various factors on both levels showed distinct patterns of correlations with a large range of personality characteristics as measured by the other questionnaires mentioned above. In particular, healthy perfectionism was correlated with conscientiousness and unhealthy perfectionism with lack of self-esteem. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Suarez, E. C., M. P. Bates, et al. (1998). "The relation of hostility to lipids and lipoproteins in women: Evidence for the role of antagonistic hostility." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 20(2): 59-63.
Examined the relation of antagonistic, neurotic, and cynical hostility to lipids and lipoproteins in 77 healthy women (aged 18-26 yrs) selected for having high (>17) or low (<12) scores on the Cook-Medley Hostility scale. Fasting lipids were determined during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle for oral contraceptive (OC) non-users (N/&=/&41), and during pills 15-21 for OC users (N/&=/&36). Factor scores for antagonistic and neurotic hostility were derived from a principal component of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Spielberger's Anger Expression, and the NEO-Personality Inventory. High hostility scores were significantly associated with higher cholesterol. Antagonistic hostility significantly predicted cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and the ratio of cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol, with higher antagonistic hostility scores associated with higher levels. Neurotic hostility did not predict lipids. Results suggest a potential pathophysiological mechanism that may contribute to the association between hostility and coronary heart disease. Moreover a measure of antagonistic hostility, relative to cynical and neurotic hostility, was the best predictor of lipid levels. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Suarez, E. C. (1999). "Relations of trait depression and anxiety to low lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in healthy young adult women." Psychosomatic Medicine 61(3): 273-279.
Assessed the relation of naturally occurring low lipid and lipoprotein concentrations to trait measures of depression and anxiety in 121 women (aged 18-27 yrs). Fasting lipid samples were collected at the same time as health history. Trait depression and anxiety were assessed using the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) depression subscale and the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) anxiety subscale. Analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate procedures. NEO depression was inversely associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, and the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Similarly, STPI anxiety was inversely associated with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These associations were significant after adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, oral contraceptive use and hostility. Neither depression nor anxiety was associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Univariate analyses indicated that women with low total cholesterol concentrations, relative to those with moderate to high cholesterol levels, were more likely to have higher scores on the NEO depression subscale and STPI anxiety subscale. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Suizzo, M.-A. (2000). "The social-emotional and cultural contexts of cognitive development: Neo-Piagetian perspectives." Child Development 71(4): 846-849.
Comments on the article by S. Larivee et al (see record 2000-02736-001) which reviews the contributions of French-speaking researchers to the field of differential developmental psychology. The neo-Piagetian research on individual differences in cognitive development reviewed by Larivee et al suggests that Piaget's theory can be used to explain variability in development. Suizzo's commentary explores this question further through a discussion of 2 additional sources of variation in children's cognitive development: social-emotional context and cultural meanings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Suls, J. and L. Wheeler, Eds. (2000). Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research. The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology. New York, NY, US, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
This book provides an overview of social comparison theory, its foundations, related social phenomena, and applications. The emphasis from the 1950s through the mid-1970s on accurate self-evaluation through social comparison and on upward comparison is discussed. In the 1980s research on the swing toward self-enhancement, mainly through downward comparison is also discussed as developing from the work of Leon Festinger and Stan Schacter on social comparison processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Sultan, S. and J.-L. Beaumont (1996). "Analyse psychologique de la sexualite de 123 donneurs de sang: Prise de risque et diversite sexuelle. A psychological analysis of the sexuality of 123 blood donors: Risk assessment and sexual diversity." Bulletin de Psychologie 49(425): 494-498.
Studied high-risk behavior and sexual diversity among blood donors using 2 theoretical personality models: sensation seeking and the 5-factor model. Human Ss: 123 normal male and female French adults (aged 18-57 yrs) (blood donors recruited from 3 schools and 3 businesses). A 40-item scale on sensation seeking, the NEO Personality Inventory, and a Likert-type scale on sexual activities, sexual practices, and attitudes towards sex were used. Multiple regression analysis was performed. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Surbey, M. K. (1998). Developmental psychology and modern Darwinism. Handbook of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications. C. B. Crawford, D. L. Krebs and et al. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: 369-403.
chapter: Supplied selected coverage of the growing interface between developmental and Darwinian psychology, hopefully capturing some of the flavor and richness that results when traditional developmental studies are complemented by an adaptionist approach. Specific issues addressed include: historical alliances between evolutionary theory and developmental psychology; neo-Darwinian perspectives on development; confluence and conflicts of interest in the prenatal mother-offspring relationship in humans and animals; the competent infant; adaptations of childhood existence; adolescence and phylogeny; adulthood and the making of future generations; and senescence and bequeathment. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Sutton, J. (1998). Philosophy and memory traces: Descartes to connectionism. New York, NY, Cambridge University Press.
book: This book defends 2 theories of autobiographical memory. One is a historical view of memories as dynamic patterns in fleeting animal spirits, nervous fluids which rummage through the pores of brain and body. The other is new connectionism, in which memories are 'stored' only superpositionally, and reconstructed rather than reproduced. Both models, argues Sutton, depart from static archival metaphors by employing distrusted representation, which brings interference and confusion between memory traces. Both raise issues about control of the personal past, and about relations between self and body. Sutton demonstrates the role of bizarre body fluids in moral physiology, and philosophers from Descartes to Locke to Coleridge struggled to control their own innards and impose cognitive discipline on the 'phantasmal chaos of association.' Going on to defend connectionism against Fodor and against critics of passive mental representations, Sutton shows how problems of the self are implicated in cognitive science. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Swisher, L. L. (2000). "Measuring moral development in public administration." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(8-A): 3132.
This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between age, race, gender, region, organizational location, job title, and moral development among public administrators as measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT). In the late 1970s James Rest developed the DIT to assess moral development based on Kohlberg's six stages of moral development. Rest and his associates now view their position as 'neo-Kohlbergian' and interpret their results within three 'schemas' of moral thinking (Personal Interest, Maintaining Norms, and Postconventional) rather than six stages. A computer-generated random sample of 1000 of the 9,925 members of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) was mailed a packet containing a demographic questionnaire and the short form of the DIT. Statistical analysis was performed on the resulting P and N2 (postconventional) and stage four percentage (maintaining norms) scores. Scores were compared with norms for age and educational level and with results obtained by Debra W. Stewart and Norman A. Sprinthall in previous studies of public administration. Results of the study indicate that public administrators use postconventional moral reasoning less than expected based on their level of education. Although most of the 344 respondents possessed a graduate degree, the mean P score (postconventional) of 41.45 was equivalent to adults in general. Respondents used stage four (maintaining norms) moral reasoning more frequently than expected (37.13%). This score was significantly higher than senior high students. These findings support Stewart and Sprinthall's findings of decreased P scores and increased stage four scores. However, this sample scored significantly higher on the P (postconventional) score and lower on stage four (maintaining norms) compared with Stewart and Sprinthall's results. In contrast to their findings, this study also found a significant difference between males and females with females scoring significantly higher on postconventional reasoning. Respondents over sixty years of age scored lower on postconventional reasoning. There were no significant differences based on organizational variables. Results of the study indicate that public administrators use postconventional thinking less than others with comparable education. Females scored higher than males on postconventional thinking. Ramifications for public administration and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Szczepaniak, P., J. Strelau, et al. (1996). "Diagnoza stylow radzenia sobie ze stresem za pomoca polskiej wersji kwestionairiusza CISS Endlera i Parkera. Assessment of styles of coping with stress by means of Endler and Parker's CISS: Polish version." Przeglad Psychologiczny 39(1-2): 187-210.
N. S. Endler and J. D. A. Parker's Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), measuring styles of coping with stress, was adopted for the Polish population. CISS consists of 3 scales: Task-Oriented Coping, Emotion-Oriented Coping, and Avoidance-Oriented Coping (composed of 2 subscales: Distraction and Social Diversion). Three samples (N = 1,574) were studied consisting of high school students, college students, and men after heart infarct. Analyses on both the item and scale levels showed a satisfactory reliability and validity (structural, diagnostic, construct) of the Polish CISS. The scales appeared orthogonal and correlated in predicted ways with selected scales of R. S. Lazarus and S. Folkman's WCQ, Eysenck's EPQ-R, P. Costa and R. R. McCrae's NEO-FFI, as well as B. Zawadzki and J. Strelau's FCB-TI. Satisfactory psychometric characteristics of the Polish CISS and its equivalence to the original inventory allows a recommendation to use this instrument for psychological research. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Taffarel, M. (1997). "A subjetividade basica na psicanalise e na "Filosofia das Formas Simbolicas." Basic subjectivity in psychoanalysis and in "Philosophy of symbolic forms."." Revista Brasileira de Psicanalise 31(2): 363-380.
Examines the convergence between the concept of basic "subjectivity," as formulated in ("Philosophy of Symbolic Forms" (1923-31) by German Neo-Kantian philosopher, Ernst Cassirer, and the concept of "subjectivity" as it can be gathered from the work of M. Klein. A critical review of the authors who have discovered a similarity between Freud's and Cassirer's definitions of forms of thinking leads to the present author's assumption that a comparison between Freud and Cassirer is valid only at the descriptive level, but does not survive a deeper examination in metapsychological terms. However, referring to new developments generated by the Kleinian conceptualization of primary levels of mental functioning, a linkage between Cassirer and psychoanalysis appears to be justified. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Taggar, S., R. Hackett, et al. (1999). "Leadership emergence in autonomous work teams: Antecedents and outcomes." Personnel Psychology 52(4): 899-926.
The aim of this study was to investigate (a) personality attributes and cognitive ability (g) as determinants of leadership emergence in teams, and (b) the impact of leadership that can emerge from the team leader (operationalized as the team member with the highest leadership score) and other team members (staff) on team performance. Autonomous work team members who had been working together for 13 wks were studied. Ss were 480 undergraduates (mean age 21 yrs) in 94 initially leaderless teams of 5 or 6. Measures included the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, and a leadership scale. The authors found that leadership emergence was associated most strongly with g, followed by conscientiousness, extraversion, and emotional stability. Teams performed best when both the team leader and staff were high in leadership. Furthermore, an effective team leader does not ameliorate the negative affects of a staff low in leadership. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Talbot, N. L., P. R. Duberstein, et al. (2000). "Personality traits of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse." Comprehensive Psychiatry 41(2): 130-136.
Examined relationships between specific dimensions of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and personality traits in adulthood. Study Ss were 74 hospitalized female psychiatric patients (mean age 36 yrs) with a self-reported history of CSA. Characteristics of CSA were obtained from a structured life-events interview. Personality was measured with the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992), which yields scores on neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The authors hypothesized that parental abuse, intercourse, and the combination of these 2 CSA characteristics would be associated with personality traits. Supporting this hypothesis, women who were abused by a parent had lower scores on openness to experience than women who were abused by someone else. Patients whose abuse history included both parental abuse and intercourse had very low extraversion scores. Findings suggest that there are associations between personality traits and CSA characteristics in psychiatric patients. Specifically, women who experienced intercourse by a parent may be more introverted and less open to experience than women whose sexual abuse history does not include parental incest. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tappan, M. B. (2000). "Autobiography, mediated action, and the development of moral identity." Narrative Inquiry 10(1): 81-109.
Discusses the autobiography Fuehrer-Ex (1996) of I. Hasselbach, founder (1991) of the National Alternative neo-Nazi party, from a mediated action approach to identity formation. Born in 1967, Hasselbach writes about his childhood and youth, how and why he embraced the neo-Nazi perspective with the influence of elderly Nazi prisoners, and how and why he ultimately repudiated the movement that he had helped to create. His story is a series of striking transformations in his own moral identity, in large part influenced by his relationship with the filmmaker Winfried Bonengel. Hasselbach's story points to the importance of broadening the understanding of morality through a sociocultural perspective, so as to appreciate the degree to which moral understanding is shaped by culture and context. Such an approach provides a more complete understanding of moral identity than the traditional cognitive approach, through accepting the multiplicity, availability, and unfinalizability of moral identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Tarulli, D. (2000). "Identity and otherness." Narrative Inquiry 10(1): 111-118.
Comments on the article of M. B. Tappan (see record 2000-16296-005), who discusses the striking moral transformations described in the autobiography of Ingo Hasselbach, founder (1991) of the National Alternative neo-Nazi, from a mediated action approach to identity formation. Tappan is innovative in incorporating ideas of L. Vygotsky and M. M. Bahktin into a discussion of mediated moral identity. Hasselbach was transformed through his relationship with W. Bonengel, suggesting that the encounter with otherness has the capacity to bring into relief or profile otherwise uncontested and accepted understandings of self and the world. Finding one's authentic voice consists of the ongoing effort to engage in the spoken process of affirming, redefining, differing with, and developing the words, voices, and discourses of others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Taylor, C. S. (1998). "Differences in formal reasoning in terms of frontal lobe functioning." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(10-B): 5674.
Modern research in neo-Piagetian theory has provided new interpretations on classical Piagetian concepts and developmental changes. Specifically, full cognitive development in adulthood does not appear to be as universal as may have earlier been believed. Some mature adults do not appear to develop the full range of cognitive complexity seen with formal and post-formal operational thought. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore differences between adults who do and do not show formal operational thought (as measure by the Logical Reasoning Test developed by Burney in 1974). It was originally hypothesized that these groups would show significant differences in terms of frontal lobe performance on neuropsychological assessment tasks, as well as significant differences on a working-memory span task. Data collection and analysis was confirmed some, but not all of the author's hypotheses. Analysis using a series of multiple regression models has yielded valuable information regarding the Logical Reasoning Test, and has suggested future research possibilities. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Taylor, A. and D. A. MacDonald (1999). "Religion and the five factor model of personality: An exploratory investigation using a Canadian university sample." Personality & Individual Differences 27(6): 1243-1259.
Examined the relation of religion, defined in terms of religious affiliation, religious involvement and religious orientation, to the five factor model of personality as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) using a religiously heterogeneous sample of 1,129 Canadian university students. Results indicate that NEO-PI-R Agreeableness and Conscientiousness domains were significantly related to and affected by religion as measured across all three operationalizations of the construct used, though some sex differences were observed. Contrary to expectation, Neuroticism was found to differ as a function of religious affiliation with persons, particularly females, reporting No Religion obtaining significantly higher scores than those persons reporting a formal religious institution for their affiliation. Findings involving Extraversion were also inconsistent with hypotheses; Extraversion did not significantly relate to any form of religion measured. Openness was found to be largely unassociated with religion except for a significant negative correlation with a measure of extrinsic religious orientation. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tench, E. (2000). "The nature of social cognition in high-performance adolescent team athletes. (hockey)." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences 60(7-A): 2376.
Fifty adolescent ice-hockey players, ranging from 13 to 15 years of age, were studied in order to determine whether high performance players differed from non-high performance players on measures of social cognition in the sport context. Two Divisions of Bantam hockey players were studied: (1) Division A or high performance players, and (2) Division B or non-high performance players. Participants were examined for differences on a measure which assessed level of Case's neo-Piagetian Central Social Conceptual Structure (CCS; Case, 1992) and for differences on three measures of elaborations on the basic structure. No differences were found between groups in a Multivariate Analysis of Variance, with participant's weight and Division of play as independent variables, on the four dependent variables. A Hotellings T2 analysis revealed no differences between high and non-high performance players of the chronological age on Case's CCS. Univariate ANOVAs following the in analysis revealed no differences between the two groups of players in Concentration which is the ability to detect advance cues which would predict opponent's actions. High performance players demonstrated higher levels than non-high performance players in Flexibility, which is the ability to provide adequate solutions to social game problems. High performance players also demonstrated a greater orientation toward Intensity which is an orientation toward achieving Mastery goals (Dweck, 1992) than non-high performance players. Seven factors were obtained in an oblique Principal Components analysis of the Concentration scale. An ANOVA of Division of play on the first principal component revealed no significant differences between high and non-high performers. Number of words used in responding to the problem set assessing CCS were correlated with Structural Level (.56, p <.01) and Flexibility (.47, p <.01). The findings have the following implications for theory and practice in the area of high performance: (1) structural level, which is largely maturational, does not account for differences between high and non-high performers, (2) encapsulated abilities, which appear to have a high learning component, explain differences between high and non-high performers, (3) significant increases in performance will most likely occur as a result of efforts to develop the encapsulated component of development rather than the structural component. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Teo, T. (1998). "Prolegomenon to a contemporary psychology of liberation." Theory & Psychology 8(4): 527-547.
Outlines a framework for a contemporary, critical psychological theory of liberation. It is argued that recent developments in metatheory have led to problems in both form and content for theory construction in the domain of liberation. As a viable solution to the formal problem, a non-foundational conceptual network is suggested. As knots in this quasi-systematic network, and thus as a preliminary solution to the problem of content, 3 critical research programs are reconstructed to deal with different, yet complementary, aspects of power, and which are thus relevant for conceptualizing liberation: K. Holzkamp, representing traditional Marxism, and reconstructed in terms of participation in life conditions (labor); J. Habermas, representing neo-Marxism in terms of communication (interaction); and M. Foucault, representing post-Marxism, in terms of self-representation (aesthetics). From these reconstructions the subject's possibilities against power, essential for a psychology of liberation, are derived. Finally, it is argued that a conceptual network that strives to cope with practical problems must entail contextualization. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Thalbourne, M. A. (2000). "Relation between transliminality and openness to experience." Psychological Reports 86(3,Pt1): 909-910.
Testing 40 psychology undergraduates, an attempt was made to assess whether there is a positive correlation between transliminality (psychological material crossing thresholds into and out of consciousness) and openness to experience as measured by Brebner's Quickscales. The correlation was positive and significant but small. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Thatcher-Benza, A. R. (1999). "Cystic fibrosis home treatment regimen: The relationship between parental personality, coping style, and family environment and self-reported adherence to the child's prescribed treatment program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(3-B): 1318.
The present study examined the correspondence of parental personality variables, as measured by the NEO PI-R, with parental self-ratings of adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen of children, aged 5-12, diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis. The study also examined parental self-reports of adherence in relation to family environment variables of active recreation orientation and family expressiveness and parental coping. Significant correlations were found between the maternal composite index of adherence with personality characteristics (conscientiousness and anxiety), family expressiveness, and externalizing behavior of the child. The personality variable of self-discipline, a facet of conscientiousness, was retained in the final regression analysis indicating that self-discipline was the most strongly linked variable to the composite index of adherence. Self-discipline accounted for a significant, but very small proportion of the variance associated with the maternal composite index of adherence. It was concluded that the NEO PI-R probably does not demonstrate clinical utility with regard to predicting adherence to home treatment regimen. The NEO PI-R may be a better predictor of the parental adaptation to their child's chronic illness rather than a predictor of adherence. Significant associations between child externalizing behaviors, maternal personality variables, and adherence were also found. The importance of adapting a transactional model for future research and incorporating problem solving and communication skills training into educational and intervention programs is discussed. Measurement of adherence remains problematic. Results of the present study must be interpreted in light of the limitations related to the adherence measure designed for this study. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Thibault, P. J. (1999). "Communicating and interpreting relevance through discourse negotiation: An alternative to relevance theory--A reply to Franken." Journal of Pragmatics 31(4): 557-594.
Discusses N. Franken's (see record 1997-05708-001) analysis of vagueness and approximation in relevance theory. In so doing, it confronts the theoretical and analytical framework of relevance theory with the systemic-functional and social semiotic one within which the present author works. The latter perspective takes as its point of entry the processes of meaning-making and their negotiation in social context. Rather than looking for the basis of meaning in an ontologically distinct domain of thought, meaning-making is located in the interactions between participants and between these and the world. Functional linguistics provides the means for analytically reconstructing the links between these various levels without recourse to notions such as the "language of thought" and "literal meaning" which characterize the neo-Cartesian framework within which Franken works. Alternative analyses of Franken's examples are proposed on the basis of lexicogrammatical and semantic criteria. An analysis of grammatical metaphor and its role in discourse negotiation is also considered with reference to an instance of discourse. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tijus, C. A., J. F. Richard, et al. (1996). "Une methode de pronostic des erreurs et des incidents pour la conception de dispositifs. A method for predicting errors and incidents in designing interfaces." Travail Humain 59(4): 355-376.
Studied (1) how prior knowledge or conceptions about video-conference devices affected how a new device was used; and (2) how errors occurred and could be avoided when using a new device with prior knowledge of the functioning of an existing device. Human Ss: 35 normal French adults (9 professional operators) (26 novice operators). Ss' errors were observed on 4 separate occasions in video-conference situations and compared to ordinary conference situations to see how mental representations determined actions in conference situation. Changes were suggested for the devices to correspond with such representations. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tokar, D. M. and L. M. Subich (1997). "Relative contributions of congruence and personality dimensions to job satisfaction." Journal of Vocational Behavior 50(3): 482-491.
Surveyed the job satisfaction of 395 diversely employed adults (mean age 36.75 yrs) to determine whether personality dimensions recognized in the 5-factor model of personality contributed to prediction of job satisfaction beyond the contribution of congruence. Personality also was examined as a primary predictor. Several measures were used to assess personality, interest types, job satisfaction, interest-job congruence, and demographic characteristics including the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Form S) and the Hoppock Job Satisfaction Blank. Results show that congruence, as measured by each of 2 indices, did not predict job satisfaction, but the block of Big-Five personality dimensions did contribute significantly to the prediction of job satisfaction. Extraversion and low neuroticism were unique predictors. Findings failed to support the hypothesis that personality moderates the congruence-satisfaction relation. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tokar, D. M., A. R. Fischer, et al. (1999). "Efficient assessment of the five-factor model of personality: Structural validity analyses of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Form S)." Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development 32(1): 14-30.
The purpose of the current study was to extend prior research on the psychometric characteristics and dimensionality of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Form S (NEO-FFI-S), using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Results of confirmatory and exploratory analyses of 485 employed nonstudent adults' responses to the NEO FFI indicated that a 6-factor model best fit the data. The present study improved over previous research in three ways: (a) by using a large and occupationally heterogeneous sample of employed adults; (b) by examining potential differences in the fit to the data of a five-factor structure when tested at the item level, when testlets are developed randomly, and when testlets are developed rationally; and (c) by testing for possible sex differences in NEO-FFI-S structure at both the item and the testlet level. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Topping, G. D. and J. G. O'Gorman (1997). "Effects of faking set on validity of the NEO-FFI." Personality & Individual Differences 23(1): 117-124.
A sample of 121 university students completed the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) either as part of a norming exercise (honest condition) or under explicit instructions to create a favorable impression of themselves (fake good condition), and subsequently had judges who knew them for at least 12 mo rate them using scales based on the NEO-PI-R. Mean scores on 4 of the 5 NEO-PI-R scales (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) differed significantly between the 2 conditions. Correlational analysis indicated that, with the exception of agreeableness, there were statistically significant reductions in the validity of the scales against judges' ratings in the fake good as compared with the honest condition. A series of moderated regression analyses, in which scale score and condition were used jointly to predict judges' ratings, confirmed the inferences from the correlational analysis in all cases except for neuroticism. It was concluded that, consistent with the popular view of self-report tests of personality, deliberate attempts to fake seriously compromise the validity of these tests. Agreeableness, however, appears to be an exception to this generalization. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tull, K. T. (1998). "The effects of faking behavior on the prediction of sales performance using the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the NEO Five Factor Inventory." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(10-B): 5688.
Personality inventories are commonly used in selection, despite the fact that responses on these instruments can be faked. The current study surveyed salespeople to investigate the relationships between personality variables, faking, and sales performance. Results showed that people do fake in different ways; four different falsification scales on the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey had differential relationships with each other and with the various performance measures gathered. More specifically, the Carelessness Deviancy scale was negatively correlated with the Gross Falsification, the Subtle Falsification, and the Question Mark scale while the Gross Falsification scale and the Subtle Falsification scale were positively correlated. Results also revealed that the Gross Falsification scale and the Question Mark Scale were positively correlated, whereas the Subtle Falsification scale and the Question Mark scale were negatively correlated. Faking variables were also found to be predictive of performance in some cases, although results depended on how performance was defined. Carelessness Deviancy was negatively correlated with Compensation earned, while Gross Falsification was positively correlated with the same performance measure. The Question Mark scale was positively correlated with Supervisor Ratings of performance. Although much research has suggested otherwise, Extroversion and Conscientiousness as measured by the NEO-FFI were not significant predictors of performance. Although not specifically hypothesized, a number of personality dimensions from the Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey were significant predictors of performance. Activity was positively correlated with Supervisor Ratings and Rankings and Restraint and Thoughtfulness were negatively correlated with Supervisor Ratings. Emotional Stability and Personal Relations were positively correlated with Compensation earned. It is clear from these results that some personality variables and some faking behaviors did predict success in sales. The variables that emerged as predictive depended on the job and on how sales success was defined and measured. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tupper, D. E. (1999). "Introduction: Neuropsychological assessment apres Luria." Neuropsychology Review 9(2): 57-61.
Neuropsychological assessment since A. R. Luria's death in 1977 has demonstrated increased sophistication and advancement, and a number of models or approaches to neuropsychological assessment are available worldwide today. This article reviews Luria's influence on the further development of neuropsychological assessment approaches and methods. Contemporary approaches are summarized and contrasted, and a discussion of neo-Lurian adaptations and extensions of his neuropsychological model is presented. Findings in the literature help to demonstrate the wide influence sustained by Luria's ideas in various regions of the world. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Turcotte, Y., Y. Lussier, et al. (1997). "Empathie des peres incestueux et des meres non abuseures. The empathy of incestuous fathers and nonabusive mothers." Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie 18(3): 169-187.
Conducted 2 studies on the connections between antecedents of sexual abuse and emotional and cognitive empathy. Human Ss: 30 Canadians (intrafamilial sexual abusers) (Study 1). 20 normal female Canadian adults (mothers of male and female sexual abuse victims) (Study 1). 29 male Canadian adults (mean age 39 yrs) (incestuous) (Study 2). 93 normal female Canadian adults (mothers of male and female sexual abuse victims) (Study 2). In Study 1, the relationships among emotional empathy, personality dimensions, and psychiatric symptoms were analyzed with the French Canadian versions of the NEO Personality Inventory, the Index of Psychological Symptoms (F. W. Ilfeld, 1976), and the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (A. Mehrabian and N. Epstein, 1972). An ANOVA was performed. Study 2 was conducted to determine whether the dimensions of cognitive and emotional empathy, personality, and psychological distress were related to sexual abuse during childhood. Ss were administered the same personality and psychological symptoms tests and also the French Canadian version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (M. H. Davis, 1980). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses and 2 series of ANOVAs were performed. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Twitchell, G. R. (1999). "Serotonergic function, socioenvironmental variables, and behavioral and affective dysregulation in alcoholics and their male and female offspring. (children of alcoholics, behavioral dysregulation)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(6-B): 3008.
Serotonergic (5-HT) dysfunction has been implicated in both behavioral and affective dysregulation in clinically sampled adults. However, studies of these relationships in children/adolescents have produced inconsistent results; the relationship between 5-HT dysfunction and affective dysregulation has been largely unexamined; social and environmental variables have been found to complicate relationships between 5-HT and behavior, and no studies have examined 5-HT's potential role in the development of children of alcoholics who are at increased risk for later problems such as alcoholism and aggressiveness. In part, this study examined relationships among biology [whole blood 5-HT], environment [parental characteristics], and behavior [irritable impulsive aggressiveness and affective dysregulation]. The sample consisted of 50 families with 150 subjects having usable whole blood 5-HT samples, including 88 community-recruited adult alcoholic and control parents and their 45 male and 17 female offspring (M = 10.88 + 2.03 years). The study also examined effects of potential moderating variables (e.g., pubertal status) on relationships between 5-HT dysfunction and behavioral and affective dysregulation in one of the largest samples of children to date. In adults, whole blood 5-HT was positively related to affective dysregulation [current depression] (N = 88, r =.32, p <.01). In children, both maternal violence and maternal alcohol consumption were positively related to child behavioral dysregulation [CBCL Attack scores] (R2 =.46, [F(4,41) = 8.75, p <.001]) and maternal alcohol consumption was positively related to child affective dysregulation [CBCL Anxious/Depressed scores] ( R2 =.53, [F(5,45) = 9.97, p <.001]). Neither relationships between whole blood 5-HT and either alcohol dependence or ASPD diagnosis in adults nor relationships between socioenvironmental characteristics and child whole blood 5-HT were supported. Importantly, however, while few of the formal hypotheses were supported in the fun data sets, the primary hypothesized relationships did emerge within subsets. In low SES ASPD men, whole blood 5-HT was significantly and positively related to affective dysregulation [NEO-FFI Neuroticism scores] ( n = 12, r =.73, p <.01). In children, results indicated that whole blood 5-HT was significantly and negatively related to both behavioral (n = 14, r =.63, p =.02) and affective (n = 14, r = -.57, p =.04) dysregulation in pubescent, but not in prepubescent children (n = 48, r = -.06, p =.69; n = 48, r = -.15, p =.31, respectively). For the relationships between parental characteristics and child behavior, both main and interaction effects were found. For example, maternal characteristics were related to child behavior in prepubescent, but not pubescent children. Some results and interaction effects were discussed within a developmental framework. Clinical and research implications and study limitations were discussed. It was recommended that future research evaluate moderating variables such as pubertal status, gender, social competence, and SES. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Tylka, T. L. and L. M. Subich (1999). "Exploring the construct validity of the eating disorder continuum." Journal of Counseling Psychology 46(2): 268-276.
journal abstract: Although many counseling psychologists conceptualize eating disturbances along a continuum of degree, there appears to be a dearth of research exploring the construct validity of this eating disorder continuum hypothesis (L. B. Mintz et al., 1997). Specific psychological, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics known to be related to clinical eating disorders (C. Fairburn, 1995; D. M. Garner, 1991) were examined in 2 studies undertaken to explore whether these characteristics vary by eating disorder continuum placement. In Study 1, Neuroticism, as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (FFI), was found to vary by continuum placement in a sample of 169 women. In Study 2, 8 out of 9 Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) subscales and dieting locus of control varied significantly by continuum placement for a sample of 135 women. Scores on Neuroticism and many EDI-2 subscales (i.e., on which higher scores are more indicative of disordered eating) increased in a linear fashion, and women adopted a more internal dieting locus of control as the severity of disturbed eating increased, supporting the construct validity of the eating disorder continuum. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Upton, J. M. (1998). "Measures of personality and transpersonality: Correlations between the 'big five' factors of the neo pi-r and five transpersonal inventories." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(5-B): 2474.
This study asks: (1) to what extent are there coherent and independent factors in the transpersonal domain, and (2) how do these relate to the factors and dimensions of personality. The instruments used were: the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO PI-R), and 5 transpersonally-oriented questionnaires: the Boundary Questionnaire (BQ), Self-Expansiveness Level Form (SELF), Ego Grasping Orientation (EGO), Index of Core Spiritual Experiences (INSPIRIT), and Self-Transcendence scale from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The 164 participants, primarily in California, Texas, and the East Coast, included 20 students and 17 practicing therapists from a graduate institute of transpersonal psychology; 39 college undergraduates, and 88 adults from a wide range of occupations. 58.5% were women; ages ranged from 18 to 81, with a mean of 40.1. Analyses of the 5 transpersonal questionnaires and the 5 personality factors of the NEO PI-R showed that BQ correlated negatively with Conscientiousness. EGO (reverse scored) correlated negatively with Neuroticism, INSPIRIT correlated positively with Agreeableness, and all 5 instruments correlated positively with Openness. All of these correlations were at the p < level except for the EGO-Openness correlation at p <. The 177 items from the transpersonal questionnaires were also pooled and factor analyzed. Five factors emerged with eigenvalues ranging from 22.2 to 7.1, cumulatively accounting for 33.3% of the variance. They were labeled: (I) God Centered Spirituality, (II) Permeable States of Consciousness, (III) Tolerance of Ambiguity, (IV) Self-Expansiveness, and V. Inner Peace/Serenity. These transpersonal factors also showed close correlations with Openness (all at p <, except factor IV at p <). In addition, I and V correlated with Agreeableness, II with Neuroticism and Extraversion, II and III negatively with Conscientiousness, and III and V negatively with Neuroticism. Further analyses included: correlations of the NEO PI-R factors with the subscales of the transpersonal questionnaires, and of the 30 NEO PI-R facets with the transpersonal factors and questionnaires. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

van der Zee, K. I. and J. P. van Oudenhoven (1998). "Ontwikkeling en evaluatie van een vragenlijst voor multiculturele effectiviteit. De Multiculturele Persoonlijkheids Vragenlijst. Measuring multicultural effectiveness: The development and evaluation of the Multicultural Personality Inventory." Gedrag en Organisatie 11(5): 232-247.
Studied the psychometric properties of the Multicultural Personality Inventory, a questionnaire with Adventurousness/Curiosity, Orientation to Action, Cultural Empathy, Openmindedness, Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Flexibility scales. Human subjects: 84 normal male and female Dutch adults (aged 17-27 yrs) (university students). 173 normal male and female Dutch adults (aged 17-49 yrs) (university students). Intercorrelations among scales and among test instruments were analyzed. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and stepwise logistical regression analysis were performed. Tests used: The NEO Personality Inventory, the Need for Tension Checklist (P. T. van den Berg and J. A. Feij, 1988) and the Dutch Personality Inventory (F. Luteijn et al, 1985). (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

van Geert, P. (1998). "A dynamic systems model of basic developmental mechanisms: Piaget, Vygotsky, and beyond." Psychological Review 105(4): 634-677.
journal abstract: A dynamic systems model is proposed on the basis of a general developmental mechanism adopted from the theories of J. Piaget and L. S. Vygotsky, more particularly a mechanism based on the concepts assimilation versus accommodation and actual development versus zone of proximal development. In the model, action and experience have a distributed effect on contents (skills, knowledge, rules, action patterns, etc.) ordered along an abstract developmental distance dimension. After a mathematical treatment of the model, an overview is given of empirical evidence on continuous and discontinuous change. The dynamic model is then applied to the classic Piagetian and the neo-Piagetian models, models of continuous and discontinuous domain-specific change, and to models of cognitive strategies, transitions, microdevelopment, and inter- and intraindividual variability. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

van Hiel, A., M. Kossowska, et al. (2000). "The relationship between Openness to Experience and political ideology." Personality & Individual Differences 28(4): 741-751.
The relationship between the Openness to Experience dimension of the Five-Factor Model and political ideology was tested in 100 Ss (mean age 36.3 yrs) in Belgium and 146 Ss (mean age 39.2 yrs) in Poland. A Belgian sample of 105 college students and 80 political party members (mean age 38.25 yrs) was also studied. The Dutch version (H. A. Hoekstra et al., 1996) of the NEO-PI-R Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992) was completed by Flemish Ss. Polish Ss took an experimental version of the NEO-PI-R (B. Zawadzki et al., 1995). Measures of political beliefs and conservatism were completed. Results showed significant negative correlations between Openness and right-wing political ideology in the Belgian adult sample as well as in the student sample. A significant negative relationship was obtained in the Polish sample. Contrary to expectations, the relationship between Openness and ideology was not replicated in the political party sample. Analyses of the Openness facet scores showed significant relationships between the Openness to Fantasy and Actions facets and the ideological variables. Openness to Feelings and Aesthetics were much weaker correlates of political ideology and correlations between Openness to ideas and political ideology were inconsistent. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

van Kampen, D. (1997). "Orderliness as a major dimension of personality: From 3DPT to 4DPT." European Journal of Personality 11(3): 211-242.
Based on previous criticisms of Eysenck's Psychoticism model (D. van Kampen, 1993) a Dutch questionnaire is presented to measure the personality dimensions S (Insensitivity), E (Extraversion), N (Neuroticism), and G (Orderliness). In this questionnaire, the 4DPT or Four-Dimensional Personality Test, the dimensions S and G take the place of Eysenck's unidimensional P concept. Using data from 626 Ss, it could be demonstrated that the 4 factors are highly invariant with respect to several sample parameters, including the measured dimensions themselves. Moreover, the scales for the measurement of these factors are practically uncorrelated and sufficiently reliable. The relationship between the 4DPT dimensions and the Big-Five model is examined, using 148 Ss, to test the idea that the factors S, E, N, and G are at least variants of the Big-Five dimensions Agreeableness, Surgency, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness. The results, obtained by correlating the 4DPT with both the NEO-Personality Inventory and a set of unipolar factor markers confirm expectations. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

van Strien, P. J. (1997). "The American "colonization" of northwest European social psychology after World War II." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 33(4): 349-363.
journal abstract: The term colonization as used in this article does not refer to the suppression of one culture by another, but to a voluntary intellectual submission, eventually resulting in a "neo-colonial" relationship in which, in spite of a "decolonization" movement, much of the dominant culture has been retained. Contrary to the traditional view, Europe had a rich social psychological literature before the Second World War, and much of this early work still is of interest for contemporary social psychology. The Netherlands is used as an example of the "colonization" of Northwest European social psychology after 1945. It is shown that there has been an effort on the part of the older generation to integrate the European heritage and the newer American social psychology. The younger generation, however, according to an analysis of citations, adopted American social psychology, as a guiding model soon after the Second World War. The colonization metaphor draws attention to the power aspects of knowledge transfer. The author concludes that later "de-colonization" does not imply a turning away from everything American, but a cross-fertilization of perspectives, leading to a truly international approach. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

van Whitlock, R., B. Lubin, et al. (2000). "Development of a random response scale for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised." Perceptual & Motor Skills 91(1): 339-342.
A scale was constructed to identify random responses on the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised. Items chosen were the 14 least frequently checked items and 14 most frequently checked items, plus the 7 most frequently checked negative items and the 7 least frequently checked positive items (total 42) The Random Response Scale successfully differentiated random protocols from those produced by 420 college students, and scores on the scale were significantly higher for the college students than for the random sample. In addition, correlations between scores on the Random Response Scale and the Communality Scale (Adjective Check List) and the NEO-FFI Conscientiousness Scale suggest its usefulness as a measure of "conscientiousness" or "dependableness." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Vassend, O. and A. Skrondal (1997). "Validation of the NEO Personality Inventory and the five-factor model. Can findings from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis be reconciled?" European Journal of Personality 11(2): 147-166.
The aims of the study were (i) to analyze a Norwegian version of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); (ii) to compare the results of the 2 factor analytic strategies, both within the present study and across different studies, and (iii) to discuss possible causes of discrepant findings (across factor-analytic methods and across samples). The sample comprised 961 Ss representative of the noninstitutionalized Norwegian adult population. Using an EFA strategy, very high coefficients of factor comparability across sexes were found. None of the 5 main domains turned out to be as homogeneous as suggested by the original 5-factor model, but most of the deviations from the assumed simple structure were comparable to results from recent American studies. However, none of the revised EFA-based models were supported using CFA methods. Moreover, a large number of modifications were necessary to obtain a model with acceptable fit. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Vedfelt, O. and K. Tindall (1999). The dimensions of dreams: The nature, function, and interpretation of dreams. New York, NY, Fromm International Publishing Corporation.
jacket: Ole Vedfelt reviews in depth the large body of research about dreams that has found its way into the literature from the work of Freud and Jung to that of many other important investigators, including A. Adler, E. Fromm, M. Ullman, C. Hall, and M. Boss. /// Vedfelt also discusses dreamwork in gestalt therapy and psychodrama, and describes the results of modern laboratory investigations of sleep and dreaming. How dreams are affected by organic diseases and physical symptoms, the relationship between dreams and psychosis, parapsychological phenomena, esoteric dream understanding, and consciousness-expanding dreams are among the other subjects covered. This book is a handbook for the professional and compelling reading for the general public. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Velting, D. M. and R. M. Liebert (1997). "Predicting three mood phenomena from factors and facets of the NEO-PI." Journal of Personality Assessment 68(1): 165-172.
Examined the relationship between transient mood phenomena and enduring personality characteristics. 81 women (aged 17-23 yrs) completed the NEO Personality Inventory and provided daily unidimensional mood ratings for 20 days. Average mood was negatively related to Neuroticism and positively related to Extraversion (EX). Analyses revealed that Positive Emotions, a facet of EX, was a better predictor of average mood than was the overall EX factor score. The greater a facet's loading on Neuroticism or EX, the better it predicted average mood. Within-day mood variability (mood fluctuation) was positively related to Openness to Experience, particularly to the facet, Fantasy. Across-day variability (mood swing) was positively related to both Extraversion and Openness to Experience. The 3 mood variables were virtually independent of one another, but each showed moderately high temporal stability across the 4-wk period. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Velting, D. M. (1999). "Suicidal ideation and the five-factor model of personality." Personality & Individual Differences 27(5): 943-952.
Trait predictors of suicidal ideation were examined within the taxonomic framework provided by the 5-factor model of personality in a sample of 185 young adults (aged 18-23 yrs). Ss completed the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ), an inclusive measure of suicide-related thinking. ASIQ scores were positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. Factor-level multiple regression analyses revealed significant gender differences; namely, suicidal ideation was positively predicted by neuroticism in females and negatively predicted by conscientiousness in males. More detailed analyses revealed distinctive patterns of association between facets and ASIQ scores within factor domains. Suicidal ideation was positively predicted by the neuroticism facets, angry hostility and depression, and negatively predicted by the conscientiousness facet, self-discipline. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research investigating personality and suicide-related constructs. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Velting, D. M. (1999). "Personality and negative expectations: Trait structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale." Personality & Individual Differences 26(5): 913-921.
The relationship between Hopelessness, as assessed by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and personality variables was studied in 191 undergraduates (aged 18-35 yrs). Ss completed the BHS and the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Results of factor-level multiple regression analyses revealed that Hopelessness was positively predicted by Neuroticism and negatively predicted by Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Neither Openness nor Agreeableness was related to Hopelessness. More fine-grained analyses revealed that Hopelessness was positively predicted by the Neuroticism facets, Depression and Vulnerability, and negatively predicted by Impulsiveness. Among the 6 facets of Extraversion, Hopelessness was negatively predicted by Assertiveness and Positive Emotions. Of the 6 facets of Conscientiousness, only Competence (negatively) predicted Hopelessness to a significant degree. Results support the construct validity of the BHS. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Vinet, E. V., M. Fuentes, et al. (1998). "Necesidades y Rasgos: una Replica transcultural del Estudio de Piedmont, McCrae y Costa (1992). Necessities and traits: A transcultural replication of the McCrae and Costa (1992) study." Revista de Psicologia Social y Personalidad 14(1): 29-40.
Replicated the construct validity study of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule conducted by R. L. Piedmont, R. R. McCrae, and P. T. Costa (see record 199218282-001) that correlated the ipsative vs normative versions of the test with the NEO Personality Inventory (a measure of 5 personality factors). Human Ss: 150 normal male and female Chilean adults (mean age 20.77 yrs) (university students) (ipsative group). 150 normal male and female Chilean adults (mean age 21.21 yrs) (university students) (normative group). Data on sociodemographic variables and personality factors were determined by questionnaire. Ss were presented with an abbreviated version of a 5-factor personality inventory followed by a longer personal preferences instrument, either the ipsative or the normative version. The results were evaluated according to scores on subscales of the instruments. Tests used: The Personal Preference Schedule (R. L. Piedmont et al, 1992), normative form of the Personal Preference Inventory (Saiz et al, 1998), ipsative form of the Personal Preference Inventory (C. Bozzo et al, 1969), and abbreviated form called the NEO Five Factor Inventory (P. T. Costa Jr. and R. R. McCrae, 1992). Construct validity was determined. Correlation analysis and other statistical tests were used. (English abstract) ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Vingerhoets, G. (1998). "Cognitive, emotional and psychosomatic complaints and their relation to emotional status and personality following cardiac surgery." British Journal of Health Psychology 3(Part 2): 159-169.
Investigated the prevalence of cognitive, emotional, and psychosomatic complaints after uncomplicated cardiac surgery. In addition, the relation between noncardiac complaints and emotional status and personality were evaluated. Five to 12 mo after elective bypass grafting 123 patients (mean age 57 yrs) completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and a subjective complaints questionnaire. A correlational design was employed to explore the relationships of these variables. Results reveal 4 cognitive and 4 emotional/psychosomatic dimensions. 73% of the patients reported cognitive complaints, particularly problems with sustained and divided attention. 78% reported emotional or psychosomatic complaints, especially increased anxiety and emotional instability. Post-operative complaints were significantly correlated with anxiety and depression, and with neuroticism. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the occurrence of most subjective complaints was best predicted by self-reported depression and anxiety. Self-reported depression, anxiety and neuroticism contributed differently to different dimensions of subjective complaints. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Vollrath, M. (2000). "Personality and hassles among university students: A three-year longitudinal study." European Journal of Personality 14(3): 199-215.
The present study had 2 goals. The first was to investigate concurrent relations between the five factors of personality and daily hassles experienced by university students. The second was to examine prospective relations between hassles and personality over 3 yrs in a 2-wave panel design. A sample of 119 university students responded to questionnaires about daily hassles and personality (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) in the first semester and seventh semester. Concurrently, Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness correlated with hassles, whereas Openness to Experience correlated little and Agreeableness not at all. Surprisingly, daily hassles were relatively stable over the 3 yrs, but this stability was not mainly due to personality influences. Structural equation models showed that Neuroticism and Conscientiousness predicted 2 of 5 hassle scales prospectively. There was also a prospective effect of daily hassles on later Neuroticism. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wan, W. W. N., C.-L. Luk, et al. (2000). "Personality correlates of loving styles among Chinese students in Hong Kong." Personality & Individual Differences 29(1): 169-175.
Explored how the 6 loving styles of ludus, mania, eros, agape, storge, and pragma were correlated with the Big Five personality traits among Chinese university students. 211 19-38 yr old university students in Hong Kong filled out a Chinese version of a love attitudes questionnaire and the Chinese version of the NEO Personality Inventory--Short Form. Personality correlates of the 6 loving styles were markedly different from those found in the West. These differences are discussed in light of Chinese cultural characteristics. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wearing, B. (1998). Leisure and feminist theory. London, England UK, Sage Publications Ltd.
cover: This book provides a critical introduction to the leading positions of leisure theory, and, from a feminist perspective, guides the reader through their strengths and weaknesses. Wearing draws attention to the various leisure experiences women both encounter and construct in their everyday lives, and the meaning these have for them. The author examines the predominantly male theories of the 1970s, and the 1st wave of feminist reactions to them. The author's perspective takes into account such poststructuralist ideas as multiple subjectivities of women and multiple femininities; the possibility of resistance to male dominance in leisure; the potential through leisure of rewriting masculine and feminine scripts; and leisure as a site of struggle to challenge hegemonic masculinity. This book offers new insights into how leisure theory has handled the question of gender differences and inequality. This book is intended to students of leisure studies, sociology of leisure, and women's studies. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Weinstein, C. S., R. J. Apfel, et al. (1998). "Description of mothers with ADHD with children with ADHD." Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes 61(1): 12-19.
Data demonstrating the personality traits and background variables of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) mothers with children with ADHD are presented. Three S groups are compared: 10 mothers with ADHD, with ADHD children; 10 mothers without ADHD, with ADHD children; and 10 mothers without ADHD, without ADHD children (all mothers aged 30-60 yrs). Significant differences were observed on the Wender Utah Scale for attention deficit disorder. Levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory were significantly higher in mothers with ADHD. In addition, neuropsychiatric disorders, alcoholism in the family of origin, and atypical sexual events were found to be at a significantly higher rate in the mothers with ADHD, with ADHD children. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wertsch, J. V. (1999). Sociocultural research in the copyright age. Lev Vygotsky: Critical assessments: Future directions. P. Lloyd, C. Fernyhough and et al. New York, NY, Routledge. IV: 144-163.
introduction: In this chapter, the author takes as his text the claim by the literary critic, N. Frye, that there is a strong tendency to focus on individual contribution and ignore the role of convention or society. Wertsch argues that 'individual' and 'society' (and also mental functioning and sociocultural setting) should be regarded as hypothetical constructs of conceptual tools which can help in psychological enquiry rather than as objects with an independent existence. Wertsch wants to get away from reductionist approaches and see behaviour within a context of human action where individual and society are understood as interrelated moments. There has been a long debate in the neo-Vygotskian literature about the appropriate unit of analysis to guide theory and empirical research. Wertsch's preferred unit of analysis is mediated action which refers to human action that is carried out by a group or individual and that employs cultural tool/mediational means. His argument is that if we accept the claim that cultural tools play an inherent role in mediated action, then such action can never be attributed solely to individuals. He calls for an end to the emphasis on individuality if we are to understand the role played by sociocultural forces and argues for interdisciplinary dialogue. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

West, K. Y. (1999). "Cognitive and perceptual aberrations and the Five-Factor Model." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(9-B): 5118.
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) has accumulated the most empirical support as being a comprehensive model for understanding personality (Widiger & Costa, 1994). Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of the FFM to explain the DSM personality disorders. However, the FFM has repeatedly failed to incorporate the cognitive and perceptual aberrations characteristic of the schizotypal personality disorder. Previous studies have only used general measures of the schizotypal personality disorder. In the current study, both general measures of schizotypal personality disorder (MMPI-2 Personality Disorder Scales, Morey, Waugh and Blashfield, 1985; Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4, Hyler, 1994; and Personality Disorder Interview-IV, Widiger, Mangine, Corbitt, Ellis, & Thomas, 1994) and specific measures of cognitive and perceptual aberrations (Magical Ideation Scale; Eckblad & Chapman, 1983, and Perceptual Aberration Scale; Chapman, Chapman, & Raulin, 1978) were given to 102 inpatient adults from an assessment/stabilization unit of a Midwestern V.A. medical center. The FFM was measured by the NEO-PIR and Tellegen's Inventory of Personal Characteristics (1990). Overall, the results of this study replicated those of previous research. The primary finding of this study was a significant relationship between measures of cognitive and perceptual aberrations with neuroticism (as measured by the NEO-PIR and IPC). Marginal relationships with other FFM domains and facets also were obtained. No evidence for the relationship between openness to experience and cognitive or perceptual distortions was found. However, this study also provided evidence of the independence of cognitive and perceptual aberrations from the FFM. Implications of this study are discussed, and limitations of the study are addressed. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

White, M. C., D. B. Marin, et al. (1997). "The evolution of organizations: Suggestions from complexity theory about the interplay between natural selection and adaptation." Human Relations 50(11): 1383-1401.
There has been much debate in the management literature between neo-Darwinists (who believe in the natural selection of populations of organizations) and adaptationists (who contend that changes in organization structure and behavior occur in response to the environment). The general thesis of neo-Darwinism is that species are blindly selected for survival by the environment. The latest empirical support for the dominant neo-Darwinism perspective adopted by most biologists is based primarily on the experiments conducted by Salvador Luria who claims to have conclusively demonstrated that genes mutate randomly. Recently, however, biologists have re-examined Luria's research methods and question some aspects of the validity of his results. Moreover, there is new research which provides support for a portion of the adaptationist position. Of particular importance to the present study is the experimental indication that self-organizing systems play a conscious role in their own evolution. The present authors propose that similar mechanisms and processes operate in organizational adaptation, thus pointing toward a theoretical modification of neo-Darwinism that embraces both adaptation and natural selection in a general, unified theory. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Widiger, T. A. and T. J. Trull (1997). "Assessment of the five-factor model of personality." Journal of Personality Assessment 68(2): 228-250.
The five-factor model (FFM) of personality has become so compelling that a variety of instruments have been developed, and many existing instruments have been modified, to assess the FFM. The authors present an overview and critique of 5 alternative instruments: the Goldberg Big Five Markers (L. R. Goldberg; see record 79-25730), the revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1992), the Interpersonal Adjective Scales--Big Five (P. D. Trapnell and J. S. Wiggins; see record 78-03191), the Personality Psychopathology--Five (A. R. Harkness and J. L. McNulty, 1994), and the Hogan Personality Inventory (R. Hogan, 1986). Particular focus is on the validity of these 5 instruments with respect to their representation of the lexical domains of the FFM and to their potential utility within applied settings. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wiebe, J. S. and A. J. Christensen (1997). "Health beliefs, personality, and adherence in hemodialysis patients: An interactional perspective." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 19(1): 30-35.
Hypothesized that health beliefs and personality predict adherence in an interactive manner. Components of the Health Beliefs Model, Conscientiousness (HBM-C) from the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and regimen adherence were assessed in a sample of 70 in-center hemodialysis patients (mean age 56 yrs). Findings from a hierarchical regression analysis show that the interaction of health beliefs and HBM-C fail to explain a significant portion of the variance in interdialysis weight gain, a measure of adherence to fluid restrictions, after controlling for demographic characteristics. The interaction did significantly predict individual differences in serum phosphorus levels, a measure of diet and medication adherence. The effect was primarily attributable to the interaction of HBM-C and perceived severity. However, the combination of high HBM-C and high perceived severity was associated with poorer patient adherence. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wilberg, T., O. Urnes, et al. (1999). "Borderline and avoidant personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality: A comparison between DSM-IV diagnoses and NEO-PI-R." Journal of Personality Disorders 13(3): 226-240.
A self-report measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, NEO-PI-R, was administered to a sample of 29 patients with borderline personality disorder(BPD) and 34 with avoidant PD (AVPD), admitted to a day treatment program, to investigate the NEO-PI-R profiles of the disorders, and the ability of NEO-PI-R to discriminate between the two disorders. AVPD was associated with high levels of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and low levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. BPD was associated with high levels of Neuroticism and low levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. 88% of the AVPD group had high scores on Neuroticism and low scores on Extraversion, whereas 65% of the BPD group were high on Neuroticism and low on Agreeableness. The Extraversion and Agreeableness scales of NEO-PI-R discriminated between patients with BPD and those with AVPD. Patients with BPD scored significantly higher on the Angry Hostility and Impulsiveness subscales of Neuroticism and significantly lower on three Extraversion subscales, three Agreeableness subscales, and one Conscientiousness subscale. The findings suggest that the FFM has good discriminating ability regarding BPD and AVPD. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wilkes, A. A., Jr. (1997). "Gay males' decisions regarding HIV testing: Factors influencing the choice." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 58(4-B): 2145.
The present study was designed to clarify a number of factors associated with the decision to take or not take the HIV antibodies test within a population of gay men. The medical profession currently recommends that individuals at risk for HIV/AIDS undergo early HIV screening. Early intervention (both medical and psychosocial) prior to the onset of AIDS symptoms is thought to lengthen and perhaps improve quality of life. A number of gay men at risk for HIV/AIDS refuse to consent to early testing. The Health Belief Model suggests that potential losses can serve as barriers to performing health procedures and behaviors recommended by the medical profession. The present study was designed to evaluate the roles of sexuality, sexual behavior, and self-identity in relation to the decision to take the HIV antibodies test. Three central questions were addressed: (1) do individuals whose sexuality is more central to their self-identity report less intention to take the HIV antibodies test? (2) do individuals who indicate more frequent sexual activity report less intention to take the HIV antibodies test? (3) do individuals who indicate participation in 'more risky' sexual behavior report less intention to take the HIV antibodies test? A sample of 165 gay males participated in the present study. Of these, 100 individuals reported they had not taken the HIV antibodies test and 65 participants reported they had taken the HIV antibodies test and knew their test results (52 were HIV-d 13 HIV+). The groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics with the one significant exception being age. Those participants who had taken the HIV antibodies test tended to be older (mean age of 40.0 years vs. 35.6 years) than those who had not taken the HIV antibodies test (p< .05). The majority of the participants were white males (85.0% of those not tested vs. 90.8% of those tested). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire packet which consisted of the following measures: a personal information summary, current sexual attitudes and behavior assessment, Impact of Event Scale, centrality of sexuality and sexual behavior survey, RD-16, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Those participants who had not taken the HIV antibodies test were also asked to complete the intention to take the HIV antibodies test survey. The present study found that individuals who reported more frequent sexual behavior, with less safer-sex precaution (e.g. the use of condoms) reported less intention to take the HIV antibodies test. Further, results using a stepwise linear regression found that younger individuals, those who scored lower on the NEO-Five Factor Agreeableness Scale, those who had more overall AIDS worry and thoughts, those who had less frequent sexual activity and practiced safer-sex reported more intention to take the HIV-antibodies test. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wilson, D. R. (1997). Evolutionary epidemiology: Darwinian theory in the service of medicine and psychiatry. The maladapted mind: Classic readings in evolutionary psychopathology. S. Baron-Cohen and et al. Hove, England UK, Psychology Press/Erlbaum (Uk) Taylor & Francis: 39-55.
chapter: Evolutionary epidemiology combines the empirical power of classical methods in genetic epidemiology with the interpretive capacities of neo-darwinian evolutionary genetics. This chapter explores theoretical implications of evolutionary epidemiology and some tentative points of clinical application (particularly to psychiatry). Specific topics discussed include: an overview of the evolutionary agenda; impediments to the study of evolution and human behavior; theoretical evolutionary epidemiology: medical and psychiatric primers; applied evolutionary epidemiology; evolutionary epidemiology: psychopathology reassessed; an outline of the evolutionary roots of psychopathology; and clinical comments. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Windrum, P. (1999). "Simulation models of technological innovation." American Behavioral Scientist 42(10): 1531-1550.
Four main issues are identified in reviewing the key contributions in the literature on simulation modelling techniques in the study of technological innovation. First, a key driver in the construction of computer simulations has been the desire to develop theoretical models capable of dealing with the complex phenomena characteristics of technological innovation. Second, no single model captures all of the dimensions and stylized facts of innovative learning. The article develops a taxonomy that distinguishes between these dimensions and clarifies the different perspectives underpinning the contributions made by mainstream economists and nonmainstream, neo-Schumpeterian economists. Third, the simulation models are heavily influenced by the research questions of these different schools of thought. Finally, attention is drawn to the difference between learning and adaptation within a static environment and within a dynamic environment in which the introduction of new artifacts and patterns of behavior changes the selective pressure faced by agents. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wintre, M. G. and L. A. Sugar (2000). "Relationships with parents, personality, and the university transition." Journal of College Student Development 41(2): 202-214.
Relationships with parents and personality were examined as predictors of university adjustment among 419 1st-year college students. Measures included the Parental Authority Questionnaire, Perception of Parental Reciprocity Scale, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, and GPA. Relationships with parents predicted 8% to 35% of the variance in the dependent measures; personality factors increased the percentage of explained variance to 20% to 56%. Practical applications are discussed. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wise, T. N., L. S. Mann, et al. (2000). "Relationship between alexithymia, dissociation and personality in psychiatric outpatients." Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics 69(3): 123-127.
The relationship between alexithymia and dissociation is not known. Both mechanisms ward off overwhelming affective states; hence, this report examines the relationship between dissociation, alexithymia, depressed mood and the five-factor model of personality in a sample of psychiatric outpatients. 116 outpatients were evaluated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), NEO Five-Factor Inventory and visual analog scales assessing depression and anxiety. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance, logistic regression and linear regression techniques. Depressed mood accounted for the group differences between the global TAS and DES scores. Using DES both dimensionally and categorically with regression models, there was minimal contribution of DES or its subfactors to predict TAS. These data reaffirm previous findings that dissociation fundamentally differs from alexithymia. Dissociation involves a change of one's sense, of self, whereas alexithymia reflects a cognitive state of externally oriented thinking with an inability to identify and report discrete emotions. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wohlfarth, T. (1997). "Socioeconomic inequality and psychopathology: Are socioeconomic status and social class interchangeable?" Social Science & Medicine 45(3): 399-410.
Examined two different ways of conceptualizing and measuring socioeconomic inequality (SEI), the commonly used socioeconomic status (SES) measures and a neo-Marxist measure of social class. The relationship between SEI and psychopathology is also assessed. It is argued that SES and social class stem from two different theoretical orientations towards SEI and that they focus on different aspects of inequality. These differences have implications for the role of SEI in relation to psychopathology. Using data from a large scale epidemiological survey that was conducted in Israel, involving 4,434 persons (aged 24-33 yrs), it is shown that SES and social class measures are empirically distinct and that they explain different parts of the variance of psychopathology. Ss were interviewed with the Psychiatric Epidemiologic Research Interview as previously reported by B. P. Dohrenwend et al (1980) and P. E Shrout et al (1986). It is concluded that since social class is theoretically as well as empirically distinct from SES, it has potential for contributing to the understanding of psychopathological phenomenon. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wolfenstein, E. V. (1996). "Psychoanalytic-Marxism in a time of neo-fascism." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society 1(1): 77-80.
Contends that the postmodern period in the US in marked by capitalism without political opposition. The central concern of this essay is the neo-fascist political tendencies that reflect the increasing insecurity and downward mobility of the middle classes. A psychoanalytic-Marxist interpretation of neo-fascist tendencies is offered. Several propositions concerning contemporary neo-fascism are put forward using the following conceptualization of the paranoid-schizoid position: At 1 extreme there is a stance of guarded, fortified, or encapsulated withdrawal from a threatening externality. At the other there is an eat-or-be-eaten, kill-or-be-killed interaction with the persecutory other. Psychoanalytic-Marxism can help to elucidate some of the problems involved in developing new forms of opposition to the regressive tendencies of contemporary capitalism. At a minimum it requires that the analysis of interests should not be split off from the analysis of desires, or the analysis of individuals from the analysis of collectivities. In meeting this requirement, a simple proposition is of some use: Uncertainty generates anxiety; inability to tolerate anxiety results in psychic defense and consequent distortions of consciousness. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wolfenstein, M. and T. J. Trull (1997). "Depression and openness to experience." Journal of Personality Assessment 69(3): 614-632.
Examined the relation between depression and openness to experience. Self-report measures of personality traits (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory and Inventory to Diagnose Depression) were administered to 143 undergraduates from the following 3 groups: current depression (n = 46), past depression (n = 50), and never-depressed controls (n = 47). Depressed Ss exhibited significantly higher scores than nondepressed controls on 2 facets of openness (aesthetics and feelings). Openness to experience was also found to account for a significant proportion of the variance in depression scores, beyond the variance accounted for by neuroticism and extraversion. The facet of openness to aesthetics appeared to be most strongly related to depression scores, and the facet of openness to fantasy was implicated as a moderator of the relation between extraversion and depression. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wong, P. T. P. (1997). "Meaning-centered counseling: A cognitive-behavioral approach to logotherapy." International Forum for Logotherapy 20(2): 85-94.
This paper is the 1st of a series of papers that extend V. E. Frankl's (e.g., 1959, 1985) pioneer work of bridging between existential traditions and cognitive-behavioral psychology. Meaning-centered counseling may be regarded as neo-logotherapy, because it translates and extends the basic tenets of classic logotherapy into cognitive behavioral processes. Such an effort is intended to facilitate and broaden scientific research on the role of personal meaning and the efficacy of logotherapy. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Wright, T. M. (1999). "Female sexual behavior: Analysis of Big Five trait facets and domains in the prediction of sociosexuality. (women students)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 59(10-B): 5611.
In this research, female sociosexuality is examined as a function of Big Five Personality Trait domains and facets. Sexuality develops in the context of personality characteristics, including temperament, attitudes, abilities, and fears; as well as sociocultural forces like family values and societal norms. The relations among these psychological dispositions and social regulations in the development of sexual behavior and identity are explored. Correlation, multiple regression, and structural equation modeling were used in an effort to distinguish the trait facets and domains that predicted sociosexuality in college women. Findings indicate the NEO-PI-R domains of Extraversion and Agreeableness best predict sexual behavior in this college sample of 206 women. This relationship is expected given the primacy of Extraversion and Agreeableness (agency and communion) in interpersonal theory. The analysis of the big five facets indicated that the facets of anger-hostility, impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, openness to ideas and values, compliance, deliberation, depression and self-consciousness each predict sociosexuality. These facets are a sampling of all five domains, however, they aggregate into two distinct groups in the prediction of sociosexuality. Specifically, the facets of anger-hostility, impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, and deliberate represent cluster of temperamental traits. From this group of facets, sociosexuality appears to be a function of an emotionally labile, adventurous, pleasure-seeking woman. The facets of openness to ideas and values, depression, self-consciousness and compliance together suggest a preference for conventional actions and behaviors and lower acceptance of deviance from established rules. These traits may combine to motivate the restricted woman toward deference, compliance and abasement with a lack of openness toward other values and feelings of dysphoria from a lack of personal autonomy and freedom. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Xu, S., Z. Wu, et al. (1996). "A study of age differences of some personality characteristics in adults." Psychological Science (China) 19(1): 1-5.
Studied age differences of some personality characteristics in adults using a Chinese revised short form of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (in which items were partially adopted from the NEO- Personality Inventory). Human Ss: 593 normal male and female Chinese adults (aged 20-94 yrs). 119 normal male and female Chinese adults (Ss' relatives). Ss were divided into 4 groups--youth group (149 Ss, aged 20-39 yrs), middle age group (162 Ss, aged 40-59 yrs), old age group (173 Ss, aged 60-74 yrs) and very old age group (109 Ss, aged 75 yrs and over). Ss' neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C), and openness (O) were accessed via a self-evaluation version of the Inventory and a relative evaluation version of the Inventory. Reliability and validity of the Inventory were studied in analyses of correlations of the results of the test and test-retest and of the self-evaluation and relative evaluation. Ss' personality characteristics were compared among age groups by gender, and influences of age, gender, occupation, education, health status, and marriage status on each personality characteristic were studied in multi-regression analysis. (English abstract) ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Xu, D., L. Yang, et al. (2000). "A controlled study of personality characteristics of schizophrenics in remission." Chinese Mental Health Journal 14(2): 138-139.
Studied the personality traits of schizophrenics in remission. 70 schizophrenic patients and 68 normals were investigated with the Chinese revised NEO-Personality Inventory (J. Yaong). The Inventory included a model of 5 personality factors and 30 personality traits. Data were studied with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and compared between the schizophrenic patient Ss and the normal Ss. No difference of the personality factors between schizophrenic patient Ss and normal Ss was reported. Schizophrenic Ss' higher scores in personalty traits of aesthetics and ordering and lower scores in personality traits of straightforwardness and deliberation indicated schizophrenic Ss' differences in personality traits from normal Ss. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Xu, S., Z. Wu, et al. (2000). "Restudy on the age differences of personality characteristics in adults." Chinese Mental Health Journal 14(2): 73-76.
Restudied the age differences of personality characteristics and the relationship of personality and mental health in adults with the cross-sectional method. The sample was 762 adults (408 males and 354 females), aged 20-97 yrs, selected from 9 cities in China. Ss were divided by age into youth group (aged 20-39 yrs), middle age group (aged 40-59 yrs), old age group (aged 60-74 yrs), and very old age group (aged 75-97 yrs). Their mental health status and personality characteristics were assessed with self-evaluation and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae) in 1996. Ss' personality characteristics were studied among age groups, between sexes, and with the factors of culture, family relationship, interpersonal relationship, emotion, environment, and mental health in comparisons and with multi-regression analysis. The results were compared with those of the 1993 study. Ss' O (oneness) score decreasing with age, gender differences in N (neuroticism), A (harmonization), E (extroversion) scores, and the relationships of Ss' personality characteristics and the factors of mental health, such as mood and satisfaction with family relationships were discussed. Consistency of the results in the 3-yr cross-sectional study with 2 similar samples confirmed sampling influences. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Yang, J., R. R. McCrae, et al. (1999). "Cross-cultural personality assessment in psychiatric populations: The NEO-PI--R in the People's Republic of China." Psychological Assessment 11(3): 359-368.
journal abstract: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI--R) is a measure of the 5-factor model developed on volunteer samples in the United States. To examine its validity in a non-Western, psychiatric sample, an existing Chinese translation was modified for use in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The instrument was administered to 2,000 psychiatric in- and outpatients at 13 sites throughout the PRC. Internal consistency was low for some facet scales, but retest reliability was adequate and the hypothesized factor structure was clearly recovered. Correlations with age, California Psychological Inventory scales, and spouse ratings supported the validity of NEO-PI--R scales, and diagnostic subgroups showed meaningful personality profiles. The 5-factor model appears to be useful for the assessment of personality among Chinese psychiatric patients. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Yang, J., R. M. Bagby, et al. (2000). "Response style and the revised NEO Personality Inventory: Validity scales and spousal ratings in a Chinese psychiatric sample." Assessment 7(4): 389-402.
The effects of response style bias on profile scores from the family of NEO scales and the resultant influence of response style on the predictive capacity of these scales continues to be debated. In this study, a large sample of Chinese psychiatric patients were categorized into four response style groups based on their scores from recently developed "validity" scales for the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). Mean differences and correlations between self-report and spousal ratings of these patients were examined for the NEO PI-R domain and facet scales. Excessive positive self-presentation bias resulted in mean differences between the self-report and spousal ratings for N and E. Correlations between self-report and spousal ratings were reduced in patients engaging in positive self-presentational bias compared to those who were not so categorized on 3 of the 5 NEO PI-R scales. However, these results were manifest only in a subsample of psychotic patients. Negative self-presentational bias did not affect mean differences or diminish the correlations between the self-report and spousal ratings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Yasgoor, K. S. (1999). "Psychological functioning and significant lifestyle readjustment following the experience of a heart attack in executive midlife professional males: An organizational and psychological study. (stress, rehabilitation)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(6-B): 2969.
This exploratory study compared the psychological functioning and workstyle behavior of executive midlife professional males between the ages of 40-60 who function as leaders, managers, and decision makers in the workplace following the experience of a heart attack (HA) with executive midlife professional males who have not experienced an HA. This study included 60 midlife executive males and examined psychological functioning and workplace behavior from three perspectives: (a) Group A-20 men who have experienced a heart attack (HA); (b) Group B-20 men who have experienced a significant lifestyle readjustment (SLR) other than a heart attack; and (c) Group C-20 men who have experienced neither an HA nor an SLR. All of the participants were quantitatively assessed with the NEO-PI-R Personality Assessment, a psychological personality and motivational styles inventory having useful application for adult functioning in the workplace; and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), a stress inventory which measures self-perceived change in an adult's ongoing life readjustment and is significantly associated with the time of an illness onset. A MANOVA followed by an ANOVA and a test resulted in significant differences between the three groups. Specifically, significant differences were found on 2 out of 5 personality dimensions and 4 out of 30 corresponding facet scales on the NEO-PI-R, and t-test comparisons showed significant difference on the SRRB scale. Differences in psychological functioning were also examined, resulting in an organizational workstyle profile of executive midlife professional men who have experienced a heart attack. Implications of these findings relative to behavioral functioning in the workplace are discussed, along with implications to professionals treating and working with this unique population. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Yik, M. S. M., J. A. Russell, et al. (2000). "Momentary affect in Spanish: Scales, structure, and relationship to personality." European Journal of Psychological Assessment 16(3): 160-176.
Describes the development of a tool to measure momentary affect in a Spanish speaking population, evaluated the generalizability of an integrated structure of momentary affect found with English-speaking Canadians to Spanish-speaking Ss, and conducted a cross-language comparison on the connections between affect and personality. The authors developed questionnaire scales in Spanish in 4 different formats for assessing momentary affect. A sample of 233 Spanish-speaking college students (mean age 19.83 yrs) was administered an affect questionnaire, then a battery of the 4 questionnaire scales, and finally a Spanish translation of the NEO Five Factor Inventory. It was found that the new scales were psychometrically sound and interrelated as found with English-speaking Canadians. Dimensions could be integrated into a 2-dimensional bipolar space. Personality correlated with momentary affect, though not in the same pattern as found in Canada. Results show that basic aspects of the structure of momentary affect are similar in Spanish and Canadian societies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved):

Yik, M. S. M. (2000). "A circumplex model of affect and its relation to personality: A five-language study." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(7-B): 3610.
Are there aspects of affect that can be generalized across different languages? Are there consistent patterns of associations between self-reported affect and personality across groups speaking different languages? In the present dissertation, I explore these two questions in five different language samples. Studies of current self-reported affect in English suggest that Russell's (1980), Thayer's (1989), Larsen and Diener's (1992), and Watson and Tellegen's (1985) models of affect variables can be integrated and summarized by a two-dimensional space defined by Pleasant vs Unpleasant and Activated vs Deactivated axes. To assess the cross-language generalizability of this integrated structure, data on translations of the English affect scales (N for Spanish = 233, N for Chinese = 487, N for Japanese = 450, N for Korean = 365) were compared with the structure in English (N = 535). Systematic and random errors were controlled through multi-format measurements (Green, Goldman, & Salovey, 1993) and structural equation modeling. Individual measurement models as defined in English received support in all five languages, although revisions of these scales in non-English samples provided an even closer approximation to the two-dimensional structure in English. In all five languages, the two dimensions explained most, but not all, of the reliable variance in other affect variables (mean = 88%). The four structural models fit comfortably within the integrated two-dimensional space. In fact, the variables fell at different angles on the integrated space, suggesting a new circumplex structure. In prior studies conducted in English, the personality traits of Neuroticism and Extraversion were most predictive of affect and they aligned with the Pleasant Activated and Unpleasant Activated states. To clarify and extend the previous findings, participants in all five samples also completed NEO FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), a measure for the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM). Again, Neuroticism and Extraversion were most predictive of affect, accounting for, on average, 10% of the variance. The remaining three factors of the FFM contributed, on average, 2%. In all five languages, the FFM dimensions did not align with the two predicted affective dimensions. Rather, they fell all around the upper half of the two-dimensional space. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Young, R. M. (1997). Phantasy and psychotic anxieties. The Klein-Lacan dialogues. B. Burgoyne, M. Sullivan and et al. New York, NY, US, Other Press: 65-81.
chapter: Having completed a reconsideration of the literature on unconscious phantasies and psychotic anxieties, I have 2 tasks. The 1st is to try to describe and give some emotional meaning to the kinds of phantasies against which we--as individuals and in groups and institutions--spend so much of our energy defending ourselves. Second, I want to gather together and draw attention to the implications of Kleinian and neo-Kleinian ideas for how we think of human nature, by which I mean, with respect to individuals and all other levels of culture and civilization. It turns out that defence against psychotic anxieties is offered by Kleinians as deeper explanation than the incest taboo as the basis of that thin and all too easily breached veneer that constitutes civility and stands between what passes for the social order, on the one hand, and chaos (or the fear of it), on the other. This turns out to be a mixed blessing, since our defences against psychotic anxieties act as a powerful break on institutional and social change toward less rigid and more generous relations between individuals and groups. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Zhiyan, T. and J. L. Singer (1997). "Daydreaming styles, emotionality and the Big Five personality dimensions." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 16(4): 399-414.
Examined the relationships between measures of personality (the NEO-FFI), Emotionality (Positive and Negative), and Daydreaming (the Short Imaginal Processes Inventory [SIPI]) to assess hypotheses about private experience, behavioral and affective tendencies. 103 college students (aged 18-38 yrs) completed questionnaires. As predicted, Positive-Constructive Daydreaming was positively correlated with the NEO "Big Five" dimension of Openness, Guilty-Dysphoric Daydreaming loaded with both the NEO Neuroticism scale and the Negative Emotionality measure. Poor Attentional Control of the SIPI was linked negatively with Conscientiousness and Positive Emotionality. Results further suggest that Extraversion may be primarily social as measured in the NEO while a separate Thinking Introversion-Extraversion dimension in the sense used by Jung and Guilford may be reflected by the personality-daydreaming results obtained. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Zinger, I. (1999). "The psychological effects of 60 days in administrative segregation. (solitary confinement, prisoners)." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering 60(6-B): 2932.
Participants in this longitudinal study included 60 inmates from Kingston, Collins Bay and Millhaven Penitentiaries who had either been (a) voluntarily or involuntarily placed in administrative segregation and remained in segregation for 60 days (quasi-experimental group; n = 23), or (b) randomly selected from the, general inmate population and remained in the general inmate population for 60 days (comparison group; n = 37). Participants initially completed written psychological tests and took part in a structured interview that assessed their overall mental health and psychological functioning. The same procedure was undertaken 30 days later, and again 60 days later. Segregated offenders had similar education, offence history and criminogenic needs than non-segregated offenders. However, segregated offenders had distinct personalities (NEO) and were higher risk cases (SIR Scale) than non-segregated offenders. Overall, segregated offenders had poorer mental health and psychological functioning. However, there was no evidence that over a period of 60 days the mental health and psychological functioning of segregated offenders significantly deteriorated. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

Zingrone, N. L., C. S. Alvarado, et al. (1998). "Psi experiences and the "big five": Relating the NEO-PI-R to the experience claims of experimental subjects." European Journal of Parapsychology 14: 31-51.
Examined the relation of the psi experiences to the 5 factors and corresponding facets of the NEO Personality Inventory-R, and to a variety of dream and absorption experiences. Data were obtained from 97 artists and musicians (aged 17-61 yrs). The results indicate a positive correlation between the Psi Index (a combined measure of the incidence of several psi experiences) and openness to experience and Fantasy. The Psi Index was significantly correlated to the question of losing awareness of the sense of time, but not to the questions about losing awareness of surroundings. The Psi Index correlated significantly and negatively with the Order facet of the Conscientiousness factor. There were also significant positive relationships between the Psi Index and being raised in an environment with a tradition of paranormal abilities and having members of the family with psi experiences. An appendix of the participant questionnaire is provided. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved):

 

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